Religio-pol. Eur. war 161848; main campaigns in Ger. Some provisions of the Peace of Augsburg* 1555 helped bring it on. Ferdinand* II introd. oppressive measures against Prots. in Boh. 1617. Prots. retaliated with force and uprising 1618 but were defeated 1620 by J. T. Tilly,* with more than 30,000 families driven out of the country. Prots. rallied under Dan. leadership but were defeated again by Tilly 1626. Den. was eliminated from the war 1629 by making separate peace with the emp. in the treaty of Lübeck. Gustavus* II (Adolphus) of Swed. took up the Prot. cause in Ger. but fell 1632 in the battle of Lützen, where the imperial army, now under A. E. W. v. Wallenstein,* was defeated. The Swed. Prot. army was defeated September 1634 at Nödlingen, Bav., Ger. The elector of Saxony made peace with the emp. and turned against the Swedes 1635 in the treaty of Prague. Brandenburg and most of the other Prot. states accepted the peace. But conflict continued when Fr. joined Swed. in war against Austria and its allies. Gen. exhaustion led to the peace of Westphalia* 1648. See also Christian IV.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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