(Occam; ca. 1280? [some say ca. 1300]ca. 1349). Doctor invincibilis; Princeps nominalium; singular## ## venerabilis inceptor; scholestic philos.; b. probably Ockham, Surrey, near London, Eng.; Franciscan; educ. Oxford; pupil, later rival, of J. Duns* Scotus; defended evangelical poverty against John XXII (see Popes, 13); imprisoned at Avignon, Fr.; escaped; excommunicated 1328; probably spent remainder of life at Munich, Ger. Advocated independence of civil rule. Nominalist; held that the real is always individual, universals are abstractions (a view also called terminism or Ockhamism). Works include Quaestiones et decisiones in quattuor libros sententiarum; Desacramento altaris et de corpore Christi. See also Christian Faith and the Intellectual, 3; Franciscans; Nominalism; Philosophy; Via moderna.
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