1. The Luth. Reformation* reached Norw. through Denmark. Anton(ius), a Ger. monk, is said to have preached ev. doctrines in Bergen in the late 1520s. Two others followed, but without great success. Frederick* I is said to have counseled tolerance for both Luths. and RCs.
2. Christian* III attended the Diet of Worms*; enforced the Reformation in Norw. beginning 1537, against considerable opposition. For a long time there was no Norw. but only a Dan. Bible, hymnal, and liturgy; the 1st Norw. Bible to achieve common use appeared ca. 1819. Torbjörn Olafssön Bratt (d. 1548), 1st Luth. bp. Trondheim (Drontheim) 1542, studied 2 yrs. in Wittenberg and lived in M. Luther's* house for a time. J. Erikssön gave great impetus to the Reformation. See also Pederssön, Gjeble; Nilssön, Jens. By 1600 Lutheranism was est. and organized in Norw.
3. More and more Norw. pastors studied in Ger. The 1607 Ordinance, or Directory of Worship, required theol. candidates to spend some time at a for. university. A 1629 ordinance required theol. examination of every Norw. candidate at the U. of Copenhagen.
6. In the 17th c. proper orthodoxy fell victim to cold insistence on doctrinal correctness, without Gospel warmth and spiritual fervor in Christian life and love.
8. Ger. Pietism came into Norw. from Halle (see Francke, August Hermann). But it began in Norw. as a fanatical and separatistic sectarianism hostile to ch. and ministry, spiteful toward the sacraments, and extremely legalistic. Proper orthodoxy was rescued by such healthy elements as the Syvstjernen, a pleiad of 7 pastors under leadership of T. v. Westen* in Romsdals Amt, near Molde and Kristiansund (Christiansund), W Norw. Confirmation was instituted 1736. See also Pontoppidan, Erik. By ca. 1750 Pietism had run its course and dissipated into subjectivism and recurrence of its early fanaticism.
9. Next came rationalism* tinged with the spirit of J. J. Rousseau* and Voltaire* and strongly impregnated with elements of the Enlightenment.* Revelation gave way to reason. God, virtue, immortality were the passwords. Science, culture, and art became the main concern.
10. Johan Norda(h) 1 Brun (17451816; bp. Bergen 1804; poet) opposed the theol. of the Enlightenment. H. N. Hauge* played a significant role in directing the ch. back to proper orthodoxy, but with possible overemphasis on sanctification, with resultant legalism.
11. Prominent theologians at the U. of Christiania (Oslo) include C. P. Caspari,* S. B. Hersleb,* G. C. Johnson,* S. J. Stenersen.* With resurgent orthodoxy arose an interest in missions (see Missionary Institutes; Norwegian Foreign Missions), but with a division of interest as bet. ch.-related socs. and schismatic groups. See also Laestadius, Lars Levi.
12. Modernism* and higher* criticism also came to Norw. from Ger. In response, a free faculty, organized 1908, est. an indep. theol. sem. 1925/26 Oslo. Conservative profs. include Leiv Aalen (b. 1906 Rennesöy, Norw.), Sverre Aalen (b. 1909 Rennesöy, Norw.; educ. Tübingen, Halle, Marburg, Leipzig, Copenhagen, Lund), O. K. Hallesby,* Olaf Eedvard Moe (18761963; b. Modum, Norw.), Olay Guttorm Myklebust (b. 1905 Bergen, Norw.), John Nome (b. 1904 Öyslebö, Norw.), Sigurd Vilhelm Odland (18571937; b. Bergen, Norw.; cofounder free faculty; resigned 1916), Andreas Seierstad (b. 1890), Ivar P. Seierstad (b. 1901 Hedrum, Norw.).
See also Anglican Scandinavian Conferences.
A. C. Bang, Den norske kirkes historie (Christiania, Norw., 1912); P. G. Lindhardt, Den nordiske kirkes historie (Copenhagen, Den., 1945); H. C. Christie, Den norske kirke i kamp, 2d ed. (Oslo, Norw., 1945); R. T. Nissen, De nordiske kirkers historie (Christiania [Oslo], Norw. 1884).
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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