(Chinese Meng-tse or Me�ng-tzu; ca. 372ca. 289 BC). philos.; b. state of Lu (now Shantung province), China; studied under grandson of Confucius*; professional teacher; served briefly as govt. official; traveled ca. 40 yrs. from state to state advocating reform and expounding Confucianism.* Taught original goodness of human nature endowed with feeling of love, righteousness, propriety, and wisdom. Filial piety is basis of virtue. Govt. (which comes from God) should serve the people (most important element in nation). Works include Meng Tsu Shu (Book of Mencius), one of the Four Books of Chinese classics. See also Chinese Philosophy, 3.
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