A. North America. Rapid growth soon called for division of the syn. into districts. Great distances, poor traveling facilities, and great expenses of annual conv. trips strained the resources of congs., pastors, and teachers and interfered with full attendance. The problem was noted already by the 1848 conv., but decision was deferred till the convs. of 185254, when the syn. was divided into 4 districts (Western, Central, Northern, and Eastern), these to meet 2 yrs. in succession separately and the 3d yr. in gen. conv. (districts 1855 and 1856, gen. conv. 1857, etc.), and dist. meetings as ne-nessary concurrent with gen. convs.
In course of time the original 4 districts were divided, and the no. of districts in North America grew to 38 (as of 1982), including 3 in Can. (Alberta-British Columbia, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, and Ontario).
1. Western Dist. (Missouri, Illinois, Louisiana). Pres.: G. A. Schieferdecker* 185457, J. M. G. Schaller* 185763, J. F. Bünger* 186375, F. J. Biltz* 187591, C. C. Schmidt* 189198, Paul Theodore Roesener 18981901, John Jacob Bernthal 190119, J. H. C. Fritz* 191920, Ludwig Friedrich Brust (Acting Pres.) 192021, R. T. Kretzschmar* 192139, Paul F. Koenig 193945, Elfred L. Roschke 194551, T. A. Weinhold 195157, George W. Wittmer 195759, W. J. Stelling 195963, Kurt W. Biel 196366.
Out of the W. Dist. were carved the Illinois Dist. (see 5) 1874, the Iowa Dist. (see 8) 1878/79, the Nebraska Dist. (see 13) and the Southern Dist. (see 14) 1881/82, the Kansas Dist. (see 15) and the California and Oregon Dist. (see 16) 1887. The W. Dist. divided 1965/66 to form the Missouri Dist. (see 45) and the Mid-South Dist. (see 46).
2. Central Dist. (Ohio and Indiana). Pres.: W. Sihler* 185460, H. C. Schwan* 186078, W. S. Stubnatzy* 187880, J. H. Niemann* 18801909, John H. Wefel 190915, William E. Moll 191519, J. Adam Schmidt 191920, John Dietrich Matthius 192027, W. F. Lichtsinn 192747, J. H. Meyer 194751, Ottomar Krueger 195163. The dist. divided 1962/63 to form the Indiana Dist. (see 42) and the Ohio Dist. (see 41).
3. Northern Dist. (Michigan and Wisconsin). Pres.: O. Fuerbringer* 185472, J. A. Hügli 187275. The N. Dist. divided 1874/75; part retained the old name (see 6), the other part was called Northwestern Dist. (see 7).
4. Eastern Dist. (New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and D. C.; later Ont.). Pres.: E. G. W. Keyl* 185469, C. Gross* 186975, J. P. Beyer* 187588, P. Brand* 188899, Herman Henry Walker 18991915, Franz (Francis) Carl Verwiebe 191521 and 193138, William Broecker 192128, J. K. E. Horst 192831, Oscar Adelbert Sauer 193839, Paul Fretthold 193945, Charles A. Behnke 194455, Eric Carl Malte 195558, Gustav M. Karkau 195866, Herman R. Frincke 1966. The Eastern Dist. transferred Ont. to the Northern Dist. (see 6) 1874, divided 1906 (part retained the old name, the other part was called Atlantic Dist. [see 20]).
5. The Illinois Dist., carved out of the Western Dist. (see 1) 1874, held its 1st conv. 1875. Pres.: H. Wunder* 187591, ???H. H. Succop* 18911903, Herman Engelbrecht Sr. 190307. The dist. divided 1907/08 to form the N. Illinois Dist. (see 22), Cen. Illinois Dist. (see 23), and S. Illinois Dist. (see 24). See also Illinois, Evangelical Lutheran Synod of, b.
6. The reorganized Northern Dist. (see 3) included Michigan and Ont. (the latter transferred from the Eastern Dist.) and held its 1st conv. 1875. Pres.: O. Fuerbringer* 187582. The Can. Dist. (see 9) was carved out of the Northern Dist. 1878/79. The Northern Dist. changed name to Michigan Dist. (see 10) 1881.
7. Northwestern Dist. (not to be confused with the later Northwest Dist.; see 18), formed when the Northern Dist. divided (see 3), included Wisconsin and Minnesota and held its 1st conv. 1875. Pres.: C. J. A. Strasen* 187582. The Northwestern Dist. divided 1882/82 to form the Wisconsin Dist. (see 11) and the Minn. and Dakota Dist. (see 12).
8. Iowa Dist., carved out of the Western Dist. (see 1) 1878/79, held its 1st conv. 1879. Pres.: J. Lorenz Crämer 187988, Philipp Studt 188891, Ludwig Friedrich Brust 189194, Ernst Zürrer 190909, A. D. Greif 190914, Theodore Wolfram 191427, Herman A. Harms 192736. Then the dist. divided into Iowa East Dist. (see 36) and Iowa West Dist. (see 37).
9. Canada Dist. (name changed to Ontario Dist. 1923), carved out of the Northern Dist. (see 6) 1878/79, held its 1st conv. 1879. Pres.: J. A. Ernst* 187981, C. F. (W.) Hochstetter* 188183, Frederick Dubpernell 188387, G. F. Bente* 188793, Johannes Wilhelm Weinbach 18931906, C. W. G. Eifrig* 190609, William Carl Boese 190918, Paul Karl Graupner 191819, Reinhard Eifert Sr. 191921, Frank Paul Edmund Malinsky 192148, Walter Oscar Rathke 194860, Philip Fiess 196070, Albin Stanfel 1970.
10. The Northern Dist. (see 3 and 6) changed name to Michigan Dist. 1881. Pres.: M. J. Schmidt* 188291, Gustav Ernst Spiegel 18911912, T. E. W. Engelder* 191214, Emanuel August Mayer 191524, John Jacob Frederick Schinnerer 192442, Andrew Zeile 194257, W. Harry Krieger 195765, Edwin C. Weber 196569, Richard L. Schlecht 1969.
11. The Minnesota and Dak. Dist. (see 12) was carved out of the Northwestern Dist. (see 7) 1881/82. The remainder was called Wisconsin Dist. and held its 1st conv. as such 1882. Pres.: C. J. A. Strasen* 188285, Henry F. Sprengeler 188591, J. H. Herzer* 1891, Bernhard Carl Ludwig Sievers 189294, John Conrad Strasen (son of C. J. A. Strasen) 18941900, Claus (Klaus) Seuel 190006, Samuel William Herman Daib 190616. Then the dist. divided to form the N. Wisconsin Dist. (see 28) and S. Wisconsin Dist. (see 27).
12. Minnesota and Dakota Dist., formed 1881/82, when the Northwestern Dist. divided (see 7), held its 1st conv. 1882. Pres.: E. O. Cloter* 188285, Frederick J. Sievers 188591, F. Pfotenhauer* 18911908, Henry Schulz 190812, Franz Robert Koehler 191218, J. H. W. Meyer* 191830, Henry Jansen Bouman 193133, Johann Christoph Ludwig Meyer 193342, Robert Gottfried Heyne 194248, Hugo A. Gamber 194857, Ernst H. Stahlke 195763.
The South Dakota Dist. (see 21) was carved out of the Minnesota and Dak. Dist. 1905/06; the remainder continued using the name Minnesota and Dak. District. The North Dakota and Montana Dist. (see 25) was carved out of the Minnesota and Dak. Dist. 1910. The Minnesota and Dak. Dist. changed name to Minnesota Dist. 1912. The Alta. and B. C. Dist. (see 30) and the Man. and Sask. Dist. (see 31) branched off of the Minnesota Dist. 1920. The Minnesota Dist. divided 1962/63 to form the Minnesota N. Dist. (see 43) and the Minnesota S. Dist. (see 44).
13. Nebraska Dist. (not to be confused with the later Nebraska Dist.; see 47), was carved out of the Western Dist. (see 1) 1881/82, held its 1st conv. 1882. Pres.: J. Hilgendorf* 18821900, Carl Henry Becker 190015, C. F. Brommer* 191522. Then the dist. divided to form the S. Nebraska Dist. (see 32) and the N. Nebraska Dist. (see 33).
14. Southern Dist. (Texas, Louisiana, and adjoining states), carved out of the W. Dist. (see 1) 1881/82, held its 1st conv. 1882. Pres.: Timotheus Stiemke 188288, Gotthilf Heinrich Wilhelm Birkmann 188891, Gottfried Johann Wegener 18911927, Martin W. H. Holls 192754, Paul W. Streufert 195457, Edgar Homrighausen 195769, Lothar Kleinhans 196970, John E. Ellermann 1970.
15. Kansas Dist. (Kansas and Colorado), carved out of the W. Dist. (see 1) 1887/87, held its 1st conv. 1888. Pres.: Friedrich Pennekamp 188894, Carl (Karl: Charles) Hafner 18941906, Friedrich Christoph Droegemueller 190612, Theodore H. Juengel 191219, Carl Frederick Lehenbauer 191932, W. Mahler* 193239, Walter H. Meyer 193960, Arlen J. Bruns 1960.
The Kansas Dist. divided 1920/21. Part retained the name Kansas Dist. and included Kansas, Oklahoma, and N. Mex.. The other part was called Colorado Dist. (see 29). The Oklahoma Dist. (see 34) was carved out of the Kansas Dist. 1923/24.
16. The Pacific Coast had been part of the W. Dist. (see 1) since 1860, when J. M. Bühler* settled in San Francisco, California. The California and Oregon Dist., carved out of the W. Dist. 1887, held its 1st conv. 1887. Pres.: J. M. Bühler* 188799. Then the dist. divided to form the California and Nevada Dist. (see 17) and the Oregon and Washington Dist. (see 18).
17. California and Nevada Dist., formed when the California and Oregon Dist. (see 16) divided 1899, held its 1st conv. 1900. Pres.: J. M. Bühler 18991901, George P. Runkel 190105, George A. Bernthai 190520, J. W. Theiss* 192024, Arthur Clemens Henry Brohm 192445, C. Fickenscher 194554, Arthur C. Nitz 195459, Paul E. Jacobs 1959.
18. Oregon and Washington Dist. (Oregon, Washington, and Idaho), formed when the California and Oregon Dist. (see 16) divided 1899, held its 1st conv. 1899. Pres.: Henry August Carl Paul 18991903, W. Lüssenhop 190306, W. H. Behrens* 190609, Ludwig Frederick Emil Stuebe 190918, Johann Adam Rimbach 191821, Weert J. Janssen 192136, Frederick Max Leopold Nitz 193648, Carl H. Bensene 194870, Emil G. Jaech 1970.
19. Texas Dist., carved out of the S. Dist. (see 14) 1905/06, held its 1st conv. 1906. See also 29. Pres.: Adolf W. Kramer 190609, Charles A. Waech 190912, Gotthilf Heinrich Wilhelm Birkmann 191220, Henry Peter Studtmann 192026, J. W. Behnken* 192629, Constantin Martin Beyer 192942, Edwin A. Heckmann 194248, Oliver R. Harms 194850, Roland P. Wiederaenders 195059, Albert F. Jesse 195963, Carl A. Heckmann 1963.
20. Atlantic Dist., formed when the E. Dist. (see 4) divided 1906, included the territory of the New York and New Eng. Conf., with the boundary line in New York passing bet. Utica and Rome; 1st conv. 1907. Pres.: E. C. L. Schulze* 190618, H. P. L. Birkner* 191830, A. J. Brunn* 193041, George Charles Koenig 194142, Herman John Rippe 194260, Karl Frank Graesser 196067, Rudolph P. F. Ressmeyer 1967. The Atlantic Dist. divided 1971/72; part retained the old name, part was called New Eng. Dist. (see 50), part was called New Jersey Dist. (see 51).
21. South Dakota Dist., carved out of the Minnesota and Dak. Dist. (see 12) 1905/06, held its 1st conv. 1906. Pres.: August Frederick Breihan 190612, Johann Dietrich Ehlen 191218, Ernst Gottlieb Jehn 191821, Friedrich W. Leyhe 192136, Walter Nitschke 193651, Philip H. Mueller 195160, Elmer O. Luessenhop 196068, Leonard Eberhard 196870, Arthur J. Crosmer 1970.
22. Northern Illinois Dist., formed when the Illinois Dist. (see 5) divided 1907/08, held its 1st conv. 1909. Pres.: Hermann Engelbrecht Sr. 190709, W. C. Kohn* 190913, Friedrich Heinrich Brunn 191327, Alex Ullrich 192736, Ernest Theodore Lares 193645, Arthur Henry Werfelmann 194560, Erwin L. Paul 196366, Edmund H. Happel 1966.
23. Central Illinois Dist., formed when the Illinois Dist. (see 5) divided 1907/08, held its 1st conv. 1909. Pres.: F. Brand* 190717, Fred William Brockmann 191718, August Friedrich Wilhelm Heyne 191827, P. Schulz 192732, Philip Wilhelm 193233, Walter Ernest Hohenstein 193335, John Carl Schuelke 193542, Albert Otto Carl Bernthal 194248, Emil Frederick Tonn 194854, Alvin W. Mueller 195463, Lewis C. Niemoeller 196370, Rudolph A. Haak 197074, Arthur Kuehnert 1974.
24. Southern Illinois Dist., formed when the Illinois Dist. (see 5) divided 1907/08, held its 1st conv. 1909. Pres.: Fred William Brockmann 190709, Ulfert Iben 190912, Johannes Gottlieb Frederick Kleinhans 191233, C. Thomas Spitz Sr. 193345, Erhard H. Bohrer 194546, Paul Juergensen 194647, Harry C. Welp 194757, Walter William Adolf Raedeke 195758, W. Theophil Janzow 195859, Alfred Buls 195967, Herman Neunaber 1967.
25. North Dakota and Montana Dist., carved out of the Minnesota and Dak. Dist. (see 12) 1910, held its 1st conv. 1910. Pres.: Tietje Hinck 191024, Joseph Paul Klausler 192441, Albert Jordan 194142, Arnold Henry Grumm 194245.
The North Dakota and Montana Dist. divided 1944/45 to form the Montana Dist. (see 39) and the North Dakota Dist. Pres. of the latter: Arnold Henry Grumm 194550, Walter Henry Theodore Cordts 195054, Bernhard G. Mueller 195457, Lothar Karl Meyer 195761, Harold V. Huber 196165, John D. Fritz 196567, Alwin M. Reimnitz 1967.
26. English Dist. (see also Missouri and Other States, The English Evangelical Lutheran Synod of) held its 1st conv. 1912. Pres.: Henry Philip Eckhardt* 191112, M. S. Sommer* 191215, John Adam Detzer 191518, O. C. Kreinheder* 191827, Guido R. Schuessler 192736, Paul Lindemann 193638, M. F. Walker* 193845, Herman William Bartels 194551, Hugo G. Kleiner 195163, Bertwin L. Frey 196370, John H. Baumgaertner 197074, Harold L. Hecht 1974.
27. South Wisconsin Dist., formed when the Wisconsin Dist. (see 11) divided 1916, held its 1st conv. (25th in the Wisconsin Dist. series) 1918. Pres.: Edward Albrecht 191621, Henry John Andrew Grueber 192132, John Frederick Boerger 193236, Fred A. Schwertfeger 193648, Arthur H. Oswald 194853, Herbert W. Baxmann 195370, Karl L. Barth 1970.
28. North Wisconsin Dist., formed when the Wisconsin Dist. (see 11) divided 1916, held its 1st conv. 1918. Pres.: Johann Gotthilf Schliepsiek 191618, Samuel William Herman Daib 191836, William Louis Kohn 193654, Lloyd H. Goetz 195474, Henry E. Simon 1974.
29. Colorado Dist., formed 1920/21 when the Kansas Dist. (see 15) divided, included Colorado and Utah and held its 1st conv. 1921. In course of time the dist. came to include congs. in Page, Arizona; Venango, Nebraska; El Paso, Texas. N. Mex. (see 15) and the Texas Dist. congs. in southern N. Mex. became part of the Colorado Dist. 1941/42. Pres.: Otto Luessenhop 192130, Otto K. Hensel 193034, Frederick William Obermeier 193442, E. Julius Friedrich 194250, Henry G. Hartner 195054, Herbert H. Hellbusch 195460, Walter A. Enge 196066, Waldemar E. Meyer 1966.
30. Alberta and British Columbia Dist. branched off of the Minnesota Dist. (see 12) 1920 and held its 1st conv. 1921. Pres.: August J. Mueller 192130, William C. Eifert 193051, Carl F. Baase 195160, Alfred F. Miller 196066, George Rode 1966.
31. Manitoba and Saskatchewan Dist. branched off of the Minnesota Dist. (see 12) 1920 and held its 1st conv. 1922. Pres.: Paul E. Wiegner 192227, Christian T. Wetzstein 192730, John H. Lucht 193051, Leonard W. Koehler 195170, Philip Fry 1970.
32. Southern Nebraska Dist., formed when the Nebraska Dist. (see 13) divided 1922, held its 1st conv. 1924. Pres.: C. F. Brommer* 192224, Wilhelm Heinrich Ferdinand Cholcher 192430, Herman Ernst Meyer 193036, A. J. C. Moeller* 193638, Iddo Charles Heinicke 193849, Arthur Frederick Wegener 194956, Henry F. Krohn 195660, Henry W. Niermann Sr. 196070. The S. Nebraska Dist. and the N. Nebraska Dist. (see 33) combined 1969/70 to form the new Nebraska Dist. (see 47).
33. Northern Nebraska Dist., formed when the Nebraska Dist. (see 13) divided 1922, included stations in Wyoming and held its 1st conv. 1924. Pres.: John Frederick William Harms 192233, Martin Eugene Mayer 193339, Walter E. Homann 193957, Frederick A. Niedner 195770. The N. Nebraska Dist. and the S. Nebraska Dist. (see 32) combined 1970 to form the new Nebraska Dist. (see 47).
34. Oklahoma Dist., carved out of the Kansas Dist.. (see 15) 1923/24, held its 1st conv. 1924. Pres.: Henry Mueller 192439, Carl R. Matthies 193940, Edward C. Hauer 194042, Paul J. Hartenberger 194243, Otto Henry Hoyer 194354, Alfred E. Behrend 195470, Harold Brockhoff 1970.
35. Southern California Dist., carved out of the California and Nevada Dist. (see 17) 1929/30, held its 1st conv. 1930. Pres.: Gotthold Herman Friedrich Smukal 193042, Walter F. Troeger 194248, Armand Elmer T. Mueller 194855, Victor Louis Behnken 195569, Arnold G. Kuntz 1969.
36. Iowa East Dist., formed when the Iowa Dist. (see 8) divided 1936, held its 1st conv. 1937. Pres.: Herman A. Harms 193638, Carl John Henry Hesse 193849, Walter D. Oetting 194963, Fred H. Ilten 196370, John C. Zimmermann 1970.
37. Iowa West Dist., formed when the Iowa Dist. (see 8) divided 1936, held its 1st conv. 1937. Pres.: Adolph Schwidder 193645, Herbert W. Berner 194546, John Theodore Martin Hoemann 194648, Gustav W. Lobeck 194866, Ellis Nieting 1966.
38. Southeastern Dist., formed 1938/39 in an area involving esp. the Eastern Dist. (see 4) and the Eng. Dist. (see 26) and including in gen. South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, D. C., and part of Georgia, held its 1st conv. 1939. Pres.: J. George Spilman 193945, Oscar Adelbert Saner 194548, Rudolph Stang Ressmeyer 194854, William H. Kohn 195459, Leslie F. Frerking 195963, William H. Kohn 196367, Martin C. Poch 196770, Charles S. Mueller 1970.
39. Montana Dist., formed when the North Dakota and Montana Dist. (see 25) divided 1944/45, held its 1st conv. 1946. Pres.: Paul M. Freiburger 194566, August F. Droegemueller 196669, George F. Wollenburg 1969.
40. Florida-Georgia Dist., carved out of the Southern Dist. (see 14) 1947/48, held its 1st conv. 1948. Pres.: Conrad F. Kellermann 194857, Frederick W. Lorberg 195763, August Bernthal 196374, L. Lloyd Behnken, 1974.
41. Ohio Dist., formed when the Cen. Dist. (see 2) divided 1962/63, included part of Kentucky and W. Virginia and held its 1st conv. 1964. Pres.: Ottomar Krueger 196366, Paul G. Single 196669, Edgar M. Luecke 196970, Arthur H. Ziegler 1970.
47. The new Nebraska Dist. (not to be confused with the earlier Nebraska Dist. [see 13]), formed 1969/70 by combination of the S. Nebraska Dist. (see 32) and the N. Nebraska Dist. (see 33), includes all Nebraska except the panhandle (the line of division approximately follows the 102d meridian); 1st conv. 1970. Pres.: Frederick A. Niedner 1970.
B. South America.
1. Brazil. On invitation of a German Luth. missionary, the Mo. Syn. sent a miss., C. J. Broders,* to Brazil 1900; under his dir. a cong. was organized at Sâo Pedro, Rio Grande do Sul. W. Mahler* was sent 1901 as his successor and miss. dir. The Brazil Dist. held its 1st conv. 1904. Work expanded 1921 to the states of Santa Catarina and Paranà. Work was begun in the city of Rio de Janeiro 1929 and in the state of Espírito Santo 1931. Before WW II most work was done in Ger. War hysteria caused persecution in some areas. Port. replaced Ger. as the common language for ch. work.
Broders and others promoted parochial schools successfully. An institute for training pastors and teachers was est. 1903 at Bom Jesus, Sâo Lourenço, Rio Grande do Sul; it was closed 1905, reopened 1907 in Pôrto Alegre, where it was relocated 1921; now called Seminario Concordia. A teacher training school opened in S. Joâo Grande ca. 1947, moved to Baixo Guandu ca. 1951, closed ca. 1957. Instituto Conc. was est. for pretheological training at Rio de Janeiro 1957, moved to Sâo Paulo 1962; closed 1973.
Periodicals pub. by the Brazil Dist. included Evangelisch-Lutherisches Kirchenblatt für Süd-Amerika (since 1903); Mensageiro Luterano (Lutheran Messenger); Igreja Luterana; Em Marcha; O Jovem Luterano; O Pequeno Luterano. Pub. house: Casa Publicadora Concordia, Pôrto Alegre.
The Brazil Dist. divided 1926/27; part kept the name Brazil Dist., the other part was called Argentine Dist. (see 2). January 1, 1980, the Brazil Dist. became a partner ch. of the LCMS called Igreja Evangelica Luterana do Brasil (Ev. Luth. Ch. of Brazil), acronym IELB.
See also South America, 4.
2. Argentina. On invitation of a Ger. miss. who claimed to be Luth. and planned to return to Ger., W. Mahler* 1905 visited the area of Urdinarrain, a town with neighboring villages, in the province of Entre Rìos, ca. 250 mi. N of Buenos Aires. The Brazil Dist. served Luths. in Argentina from 1905 till the 1920s. The Argentine Dist., formed when the Brazil Dist. (see 1) divided 1926/27, held its 1st conv. 1928.
A few parochial schools were est. but were closed because of adverse school legislation. Various other agencies for religious educ of the young have been more successful. Colegio Conc., a pre theol. school, was est. 1926 at Crespo, Entre Rìos. Theo. training was given at Pôrto Alegre, Brazil, till 1942. when a seminary (now called Seminario Concordia) was established in rented quarters (moved 1948 to its own quarters) in Villa Ballester (Josè Leòn Snàrez since 1970), ca. 12 mi. NW of Buenos Aires. Colegio Conc., Crespo, was closed 1950 and its work amalgamated with the sem. in Villa Ballester. The facilities at Crespo were used 195063 for primary instruction, something on the order of a parochial school; then it closed. A preparatory school (called Colegio Conc. since ca. the early 1960s) was est. 1956 at Obera, Misiones.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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