(ca. 1505 [or ca. 1514]1572). Reformer; b. in or near Haddington (perhaps Giffordgate), E. Lothian, Scot.; perhaps educ. U. of Glasgow and/or St. Andrews; priest by 1540; tutor; assoc. with G. Wishart*; Prot. preacher St. Andrews 1547; captured when French, summoned by the Scot. queen regent, took St. Andrews castle 1547; galley prisoner 19 mo.; released 1549; preacher in Eng.; chaplain to Edward VI (see England, B 4); to Fr. 1554; to Switz. 1554, where he met J. Calvin*; pastor of Eng. refugee cong. Frankfurt, Ger., and Geneva, Switz.; to Scot. 1559, where he vigorously opposed RCm and promoted the establishment of Protestantism in Presb. form as the nat. religion; pastor Edinburgh. Politics and religion intertwined in his work. Helped revise Book* of Common Prayer 1552 and was apparently chiefly responsible for Black* Rubric; other works include The Appellation of John Knox from the Cruell Sentence Pronounced Against Him by the False Bishoppes and Clergy of Scotland; The Book of Common Order; The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women; The First Book of Discipline; The First Booke of the History of the Reformation of Religioun Within the Realme of Scotland. See also Calvinism; Scotland, Reformation in, 1; Sunday School, 2.
T. M'Crie, Life of John Knox. 5th ed., 1st complete Am. ed. (Philadelphia, [1831?]); The Works of John Knox, ed. D. Laing (Edinburgh, 184648); A. Lang, John Knox and the Reformation (London, 1905); F. A. MacCunn, John Knox, 2d and rev. ed. (London, 1908); J. G. Ridley, John Knox (New York, 1968).
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