Term of unknown origin; applied ca. 1560 to Fr. adherents of the Reformation. Fr. Prots. had received support of Margaret* of Navarre, a lukewarm RC G. Roussel* and J. Lefevre* d'Étaples were leaders in reform movement. Circulation of Lefevre's Bible tr. throughout Fr. helped gain followers. Efforts of J. Calvin* furthered the success of Fr. Prots. Soon persecution began (see France, 8). Huguenots, reckoned by some as one-third of the pop., resisted under leadership of Anthony of Bourbon (Antoine de Bourbon; 151862; b. Picardy; king of Navarre 155562; vacillating in religion; finally joined RC Ch.), Louis I de Bourbon (Prince de Condé*), and G. (II) de Coligny.* Exile, imprisonment, execution, prohibition of worship, and other forms of persecution caused many Huguenots to emigrate to Holland, Eng., Ireland, Am., Switz., Ger., and other countries. Wars and unrest continued till 1789. See also France, 911; United States, Religious History of the.
The Huguenot Wars, comp. and ed. J. Coudy, tr. J. Kernan (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1969); A. J. Grant, The Huguenots (Toronto, 1934); G. E. Reaman, The Train of the Huguenots in Europe, the United States, South Africa, and Canada (Toronto, 1963); S. Smiles, The Huguenots: Their Settlements, Churches, and Industries in England and Ireland (New York, 1874); H. M. Baird, History of the Rise of the Huguenots of France, 2 vols. (New York, 1879), The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre, 2 vols. (New York, 1886), and The Huguenots and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 2 vols. (New York, 1895).
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