(ca. 101585). The Resourceful. Norman adventurer and conqueror in It.; became vassal of the pope and duke of Calabria and Apulia 1059; excommunicated 1074 for attacking a papal fief; reinvested 1080; captured Rome 1084 and delivered Gregory VII (see Popes, 7) from Henry* IV of Ger.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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