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Frederick I

(Barbarossa; “Redbeard”; ca. 1122–90). Holy Roman emp. 1152–90, crowned 1155. Son of Duke Frederick II of Swabia; as Frederick III, duke of Swabia; king of Ger. 1152–90, It. 1155–90; one of the leaders of the 3d crusade (see Crusades, 4); led repeated campaigns against It. cities; engaged in struggles with Adrian IV (see Popes, 8), Alexander III (see Popes, 9), Lucius III (ca. 1097–1185; pope 1181–85), Urban III (pope 1185–October 1187), and Clement III (pope December 1187–91); by Peace of Constance 1183 granted indep. to Lombard cities. See also Church and State, 6.

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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