(Barbarossa; Redbeard; ca. 112290). Holy Roman emp. 115290, crowned 1155. Son of Duke Frederick II of Swabia; as Frederick III, duke of Swabia; king of Ger. 115290, It. 115590; one of the leaders of the 3d crusade (see Crusades, 4); led repeated campaigns against It. cities; engaged in struggles with Adrian IV (see Popes, 8), Alexander III (see Popes, 9), Lucius III (ca. 10971185; pope 118185), Urban III (pope 1185October 1187), and Clement III (pope December 118791); by Peace of Constance 1183 granted indep. to Lombard cities. See also Church and State, 6.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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