(June 24, 1683February 23, 1719). Ger. Luth. miss. to India; b. Pulsnitz, Saxony; educ. by A. H. Francke* at Halle. Ziegenbalg and H. Plütschau* were sent by Frederick IV of Denmark as missionaries to India, arriving at Tranquebar July 1706, Surmounting much opposition from both the Dan. governor and the Hindus, he learned the vernacular in a yr., did effective miss. work, founded a school for native helpers, built a ch., still in use today, engaged in much literary work, and translated the SC, NT, and OT as far as the Book of Ruth into Tamil.
In 1715 Ziegenbalg returned to Eur., calling forth much enthusiasm by his addresses and reports. In Halle he had his Tamil grammar printed. There he married Maria Dorothea Salzmann, a relative of P. J. Spener.* Ziegenbalg and his wife went to Eng., where he was presented to King George I, who later wrote him expressing satisfaction not only because the work undertaken by you of converting the heathen to the Christian faith doth, by the grace of God, prosper, but also because that in this our kingdom such a laudable zeal for promotion of the Gospel prevails.
In 1716 Ziegenbalg, with his wife, returned to Tranquebar, where he continued his work. However, the dir. of the miss. in Den. criticized him severely for getting married, allegedly spending too much money, and staying too much in one placea criticism that may well have contributed to his early death.
(ca. 14701549). B. Landau on the Isar, Ger.; educ. Ingolstadt, Vienna; traveled in Moravia and opposed Moravian Brethren; to Hungary, Rome; abuses in ch. and desire for inwardness caused him to seek contact with Reformers; to Strasbourg 1531; returned to RC Ch.; prof. Vienna.
(18461918). Ger. philos.; prof. Strasbourg; wrote on educ. and ethics; sought to separate ethics from the supranatural. Works include Geschichte der Pädagogik mit besonderer Rücksicht auf das höhere Unterrichtswesen; Philipp Melanchthon, der humanistische Genosse Luthers.
(18241901). Noted preacher; b. Senftenberg, Ger.; educ. Halle; mem. of Prussian* Union; Pastor Berlin 186195; very popular. Works include Das Leben Jesu für das deutsche Volk; Matthias Claudius, der Wandsbecker Bote; Die Wahrheit und Herrlichkeit des Christentums.
(181782). B. Wasungen, Ger.; educ. Meiningen, Leipzig; lectured at Leipzig; opened pedagogical sem. 1864; founded Association for Scientific Pedagogy 1869. Ziller developed and applied to public schools J. F. Herbart's* ideas, emphasized the moral end of educ., demanded that the different parts of study be graded, associated, and unified, history and religion forming the core around which all other subjects are grouped; theory of concentration. All instruction to contribute to the training of a strong moral character. Works include Grundlegung zur Lehre vom erziehenden Unterricht; Vorlesungen über allgemeine Pädagogik.
Emigration of ca. 400 persons who, to escape persecution following their secession from RC Ch., left their native valley (Zillerthal) in Tyrol and found domicile in Silesia 1837; the exiles united with the Prot. Ch. of Prussia.
(March 18, 1856September 17, 1941). Prominent Luth. layman in General* Syn.; b. Mahoning Co., Ohio; grad. Wittenberg Coll. 1878; author of merger resolution that led to forming of The United* Luth. Ch. in Am. 1918; lived in Springfield, Ohio.
(17861832). Ger. rationalistic theol.; b. Darmstadt; educ. Giessen; active exponent of ch. union in Baden (see Germany, C 2); published sermons; founded Allgemeine Kirchenzeitung (Darmstadt) and Allgemeine Schulzeitung.
(16951756). Ref. theol.; prof. Zürich; influenced by Arminians; exponent of a Biblical simplicity without dogmatic subtleties and disputes. Works include Opuscula theologici, historici et philosophici argumenti.
(17521837). B. Naples, It.; studied at Loreto; music dir. Milan cathedral 1792, Loreto 1794, St. Peter, Rome 180411, dir. Reale Collegio di Musica, Naples 1813, music dir. Naples cathedral 1816. Works include operas, masses, oratorios, requiems, motets, and hymns. See also Mercadante, Giuseppe Saverio Raffaele.
(170060). Founder of reorganized Moravian Ch. or Unity of Brethren; b. Dresden, Ger.; grew up in Pietistic surroundings; to school in Halle; stud. law at Wittenberg; made friends with Cath. and Ref. notables on his travels; purchased Berthelsdorf, where he wished to build up a community of heart-and-soul Christians; settled body of Moravians on part of his estate (beginning 1722), colony being called Herrnhut (the Lord's Watch); expelled from Saxony; made Moravian bishop in Berlin 1737; traveled extensively in Eur. and Am., establishing Moravian colonies (e.g., Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1741); lived in London 175155, where he influenced Methodism; passed his latter days in somewhat depressing circumstances at Herrnhut. Wrote strongly subjective hymns, e.g., Jesus, Thy Blood and Righteousness (see Wesley, John). See also David, Christian; Moravian Church, 3, 4.
A modern Jewish movement whose objects are to create an asylum for oppressed and persecuted Jews and to preserve Judaism from becoming submerged in the culture of other peoples. Throughout the centuries Jews have yearned for a Jewish homeland, and this yearning always became intense during persecutions. The anti-Semitism* in Eur. in the 2d half of the 19th c. resulted in attempts to settle Jews in Palestine; but no organization was effected until Theodor Herzl, a Viennese lawyer and journalist (18601904), wrote Der Judenstaat 1896, which resulted in the First Zionist Congress at Basel 1897, where the Zionist organization was formed and the program formulated to establish for the Jewish people a publicly recognized, legally secured home in Palestine. Numerous congresses were held in the following yrs.
By WW I ca. 115,000 Jews had settled in Palestine. On November 2, 1917, the Brit. govt. issued the Balfour Declaration (see Balfour, Arthur J.; Middle East, F), stating that His Majesty's Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people. Proposals intended to ultimately render possible the creation of an autonomous commonwealth for the Jews were adopted at the San Remo peace conference 1920, which later became part of the Palestine Mandate given the Brit. govt. by the League of Nations.
After WW I Jewish immigration increased, ca. 150,000 additional settlers coming by 1936, after which violent Arab opposition and Brit. restrictions held the number down until the end of WW II. Agricultural settlements were formed; the Heb. University was est. on Mt. Scopus; the all-Jewish city of Tel-Aviv grew rapidly; commerce and manufacture were promoted.
After WW II a flood of refugees from Hitler's concentration camps poured in despite all opposition. On November 29, 1947, the UN decided to partition Palestine. On May 14, 1948, a momentous date in Jewish history, the indep. state of Israel was est.; the Zionist dream had come true. On February 14, 1949, a const. setting up a republican form of govt. was adopted.
Since the est. of Israel, immigration has continued, with particular strength in the early yrs.. In 1948 the Jewish pop. was ca. 750,000; in 1952 ca. 1,440,000; in 1966 ca. 2,300,000; in 1973 ca. 2,870,000. After 4 wars with the Arabs (194849, 1956, 1967, 1973) Zionism still faces the problem of reconciliation of the Arab world to the existence of this new Jewish state.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission
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