(Vos; d. 1523). Augustinian monk at Antwerp, Belg.; imprisoned for ev. faith; tried by Inquisition*; burned at stake in Brussels with J. Esch.*
(Gysbertus Voetius; 15881676). Dutch Calvinist theol.; b. Heusden, near Utrecht, Neth.; educ. Leiden; preacher Vlijmen (or Vlymen) 1611, Heusden 1617; delegate to 161819 Syn. of Dordrecht*; prof. Utrecht 1634; opposed Arminianism,* Cocceianism (see Cocceius, Johannes), and Cartesianism*; followers called Voetians. Works include Selectae disputationes theologicae.
(Carl; 181795). Naturalist; b. Giessen, Ger.; prof. Giessen 1847; dismissed; prof. geol. 1852, later also of zoology, at Geneva, Switz.; championed materialism* and Darwinism (see Darwin, Charles Robert) and their logical consequences. Works include Köhlerglaube und Wissenschaft; über den Menschen, seine Stellung in der Schöpfung und in der Geschichte der Erde.
(January 22, 1859January 2, 1933). B. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Educ. U. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Lutheran Theol. Sem., Philadelphia; Erlangen, Ger. Pastor in New Jersey 188385; Wilmington, North Carolina, 18981903. Prof. Newberry (South Carolina) Coll. 188589, 189198. Prof. Thiel Coll., Greenville, Pennsylvania, 188991 (acting pres. 189091); Lutheran Theol. Southern Sem. (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 27) 189298. Dean Lutheran Theol. Southern Sem. 190333. Pres. The United* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the South 190610. Works include Biblical Dogmatics (2d ed. titled Between God and Man); commentary on Ephesians in The Lutheran Commentary, IX, ed. H. E. Jacobs, pp. 1117.
(17681840). Luth. ch. leader in Russia. Pastor Mogilev (or Mohilev) 1797, New-Saratovka (near St. Petersburg, which is called Leningrad since 1924); court preacher at Tver (called Kalinin since 1932) ca. 1810; pastor St. Petersburg 181339; gen. supt. 1832.
(16781756). Luth. composer; b. Reichenstein, Silesia; pupil of J. P. Krieger; studied at U. of Königsberg (now Kaliningrad); organist Geibsdorf, near Lauban; cantor and dir. of music Hirschberg ca. 1709/1056. Works include much vocal and instrumental ch. music.
(181287). B. Hersfeld, Ger.; music teacher at Homberg Sem. 1835; organist; composer. Works include Orgelschule.
(18701942). B. near Newton, Indiana; studied at Hiram (Ohio). Coll. and Union Christian Coll., Merom, Sullivan Co., Indiana; pastor Christian Ch. (Disciples* of Christ); joined Christian* Cath. Ch. 1899; overseer of that ch. in Australia 190106; asst. to J. A. Dowie* 1906; gen. overseer of the ch. 1907.
(Volkelius; d. 1618). B. Frimma, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; Socinian 1585; rector Wengrow; preacher Philippow, Latvia, and later in Szmigel (Smigal). Works include De vera religione.
(17961877). B. Hille, near Minden, Westphalia, Ger.; educ. Jena; asst. pastor Minden; pastor Schnathorst (near Lübbecke) 1822, Gütersloh 1827, Jöllenbeck (near Bielefeld) 1838. Leader in awakening and influenced this movement also outside Westphalia; opposed conventicles; tried to keep the awakened in congs. Works include Kleine Missionsharfe.
(Carl; 18861937). Ev. theol.; b. Lemberg; pupil of G. K. D. Loesche* and K. G. A. v. Harnack*; prof. Vienna. Works include Die Entwicklung des Protestantismus in Österreich.
(real name François Marie Arouet; 16941778). Hist., philos.; b. Paris, Fr.; educ. by Jesuits; wrote provocative satire; imprisoned 171718, 1726; 172629 in Eng.; influenced by deism* and Enlightenment*; 175053 at court of Frederick II (171286; the Great; b. Berlin, Ger.; king of Prussia 174086); at Ferney, near Geneva, Switz., 175878; d. Paris.
Voltaire was a strong promotor of deism. Antagonized by RCm, he adopted the motto Écrasez l'infame! (Crush the infamous one!) and bitterly opposed every form of Christianity. His opposition against all absolutism helped bring on the Fr. Revolution (see Church and State, 15; France, 5). Works include tragedies; novels; poems; Dictionnaire philosophique; Essay sur l'Histoire génerale et sur les moeurs et l'esprit des nations, depuis Charlemagne jusqu'à nos jours.
See also Encyclopedists.
J. Morley, Voltaire (London, 1872); N. L. Torrey, Voltaire and the English Deists (New Haven, Connecticut, 1930) and The Spirit of Voltaire (New York, 1938).
Theory based on voluntary action. In application it may lead, e.g., to voluntary support of a religious system as opposed to state support, or to a system of philos., ethics, theol., or metaphysics in which the will, rather than intellect or reason, is the dominant factor in experience or in the constitution of the universe.
Organization, an American secession from the Salvation* Army, formed 1896 by Ballington Booth (18591940; son of W. Booth, who founded Salv. Army b. Brighouse, Eng.). Ev. in doctrine, democratic in govt.; concerned with soc. welfare; also offers spiritual aid.
(15871679). Poet, dramatist; b. Cologne, Ger., son of Mennonite immigrants from Antwerp, Belg., who settled in Amsterdam 1596/97; sided with Remonstrants.* Lack of Prot. unity and longing for pristine Christian unity led him into RCm 1639/41. Works include Joseph in Dothan; Jeptha; Bespiegelingen van Godt en Godtsdienst.
(from Vodun, god, spirit, in the Fon language of Dahomey). Religion brought from Afr. to Haiti; practiced also elsewhere in the West Indies and in parts of the US; based on mythology and superstition; includes, e.g., spells, snake dances, and alleged communication with the supernatural world.
(16451715). B. Herwigsdorf, near Zittau, Ger.; cantor Nikolaikirche, Leipzig, 16771715. Ed. Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch 1682.
(Conradus Vorstius; 15691622). Arminian theol.; b. Cologne, Ger., of RC Dutch parents, who later became Ref.; studied RC theol. at Cologne but differed with Council of Trent* and became a merchant; later continued studies at Herborn and elsewhere; prof. Leiden 1610. Works include Tractatus theologicus de Deo, sire de natura & attributis Dei.
(18621949). B. Heerenveen, Neth. Educ. at Amsterdam, Neth.; Christian Ref. sem., Grand Rapids, Michigan; Princeton (New Jersey) Theol. Sem. Prof. Grand Rapids 1888, Princeton 1893. Ordained Presb. 1894. Works include The Mosaic Origin of the Pentateuchal Codes; The Teaching of Jesus Concerning the Kingdom of God and the Church; The Pauline Eschatology; Old and New Testament Biblical Theology; The Self-Disclosure of Jesus.
(18361912). Ref. theol.: b. Harderwijk, Neth.; pastor Amsterdam 1872; opposed modernism. Works include Geschiedenis der Vaderlandsche Kerk van 16301842.
(Carl John; September 18, 1859September 20, 1937). B. Antwerp, Belg. Educ. Duisburg, Berlin U. and sem. of Berlin Miss. Soc.; miss. to China 1884; active in Canton (S China), later in Shantung (N China); work was transferred to ULC 1925. Works include Aus dem belagerten Tsingtau; Unter dem Banner des Drachen und im Zeichen des Kreuzes.
(Voss; originally Gerrit Jansz. Vos; 15771649). Ref. theol.; b. near Heidelberg, Ger., of Dutch parents; held Remonstrant views; prof. Amsterdam, Neth.. Works include Historiae de controversiis, quas Pelagius eiusque reliquiae moverunt; Dissertationes de tribus symbolis, apostolico, athanasiano, et constantinopolitano.
RC mass (1) in honor of the Trin., Christ, Mary, or saints; (2) for peace, the sick, in time of disaster, etc.; or (3) nuptial mass or mass for the dead. Not liturgically prescribed.
Imprecise term denoting objects dedicated to deities, persons, institutions. Occur in ethnic cultures as well as OT (It 12:6, 11; Ps 22:25; 50:14; 56:12). In RCm objects (e.g., candles) used to express such personal feelings as gratitude, affection, dedication.
Vows of voluntary poverty, celibacy, and obedience made by those entering various RC orders. Vows may be solemn or simple. Solemn vows are for life; simple vows are either for a limited time or for life; further differentiation is difficult. Solemn vows are preceded by simple vows. The RC Ch. claims authority to release from vows, tries to compel observance if dispensation is withheld. M. Luther condemned RC practice of continued celibacy under vow if the gift of continence is found to be lacking (WA 10 II, 151).
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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