Christian Cyclopedia

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Via antiqua.

Term for schools of Scotists (see Duns Scotus, John) and Thomists (see Thomas Aquinas). See also Via moderna.

Via moderna.

Term for school formed by followers of W. of Ockham* in opposition to via* antiqua. See also Trutvetter, Jodocus.


Originally a broad term for various ministrations of the ch. for a Christian at the time of his death. Now, in RCm, the Lord's Supper given to one in danger of death as food for his journey to the world beyond death. Not to be confused with unction.*


One who substitutes for or represents another. Anciently, a secular cleric who officiated in a ch. owned by a religious order. In the Angl. Ch., the priest of a parish of which the tithes are owned by another. In the Prot. Episc. Ch., a deputy cleric in charge of a dependent chapel. In the Luth. Ch., an unordained student of theol. who serves as asst. in ch. or school.


Prelate appointed by a bp. to assist him in administration of the diocese by exercising ordinary jurisdiction in his name.

Vicar Apostolic.

Titular* bp. with ordinary jurisdiction over a miss. area; may also administer a vacant diocese or one whose bp. cannot function.

Vicar of Christ.

Term current as exclusive title of pope since Innocent III (see Popes, 10); its claim that the pope is the vicar,* or representative, of Christ, is based on Jn 21:16–17. See also Pope, 2.

Vico, Giovanni Battista

(Giambattista; 1668–1744). Philos., hist., jurisprudent; b. Naples, It.; prof. Naples 1699. Tried to put rationalism into its proper place and perspective; prepared the way for historicism*; held that the God-concept is the speculative means for regarding things not only acc. to their facticity and appearance but also acc. to their ground and meaning. Works include Principi di una Scienza nouva d'intorno alla commune natura delle nazione. See also Philosophy.

Victor, János

(1888–1954). Hung. Ref. theol.; prof. and pastor Budapest. Works include Die Sänden der Kirche; sermons.

Victor I.

Bp. Rome (pope) ca. 198/199; involved in Easter* controversy.

Victoria, Tomás Luis de

(Tommaso Lodovico da Vittoria; ca. 1535/48–1611). Composer; b. Ávila Sp.; studied at Collegium Germanicum, Rome; organist Rome 1569; priest 1575. Works include many masses, motets, magnificats, hymns, psalm settings.


Mems. of the Order of St. Victor, founded Paris, Fr., ca. 1108/10 by William* of Champeaux; extinct since the Fr. Revolution; identity of the saint to whom the abbey at Paris was dedicated seems uncertain. See also Adam of St. Victor; Commentaries, Biblical; Free Spirit, Brothers and Sisters of the; Hugh of St. Victor; Richard of St. Victor; Walter of St. Victor.

Victorious Life.

Term assoc. with the concept of perfectionism.*

Vidalin, Jon Thorkelsson

(1666–1720). Luth. cleric; b. Gardar, near Álftanes, near Reykjavik. Iceland; educ. Skalholt and Copenhagen; soldier 2 yrs.; teacher and pastor Skalholt 1691; pastor Gardar 1696; coadiutor of bp.; bp. 1697. Works include Húss-Postilla (sermons for the Christian home).

Vienne, Council of.

Convoked by Clement* V; met 1311–12 at Vienne (ancient Vienna), Isere dept., SE Fr.; regarded by RCs as 15th ecumenical council (see Councils and Synods, 4); suppressed Knights Templars (see Military Religious Orders, b); issued reform decrees.

Viénot, John Emmanuel

(1859–1933). Ch. hist.; b. Asnières, near Bourges, Fr.; pastor Montbéliard 1883; prof. Paris 1900, also pastor 1907. Works include Histoire de la Réforme dans le pays Montbéliard; Calvin et la conscience moderne; Luther et l'Allemagne.

Vietnam, Socialist Republic of.

For current information see CIA World Factbook. On the E coast of the Indochinese Peninsula in SE Asia. Area: ca. 127,200 sq. mi. For earlier hist. see French Indochina. War beginning 1940 with occupation by Jap. led to partition 1954 along the 17th parallel into North Vietnam (Dem. Rep. of Vietnam) and South Vietnam (Rep. of Vietnam). The country was officially reunited 1976. Official language: Vietnamese; others: Fr. and Eng. Predominant religions: Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist; others: RC, Prot., Muslim, animist.

Vig, Peter Sorenson

(November 7, 1854–March 21, 1929). B. Egtved, near Kolding, Den.; private tutor in Den.; to US 1879; worked and studied in Chicago, Illinois; returned to Den. 1882; educ. Missionary Institute, Copenhagen; returned to US 1884; instructor Dan. high school Elk Horn, Iowa, 1884–85; pastor Jacksonville, Iowa, 1885–88; prof. theol. sem., West Denmark, Wisconsin, 1888–93; pastor Luck, Wisconsin, 1888–93, 1905–09; prof. theol. sem. Elk Horn, Iowa, 1894–96; pres. Trin. Sem., Blair, Nebraska, 1896–99, 1902–05, 1909–; pastor Elk Horn, Iowa, 1899–1902. Works include Danske i Amerika; Elk Horn i Iowa; Nordboerne finder vet til Amerika; Trinitatis Seminarium; Den forenede danske Ev. Luth. Kirke i Amerika; Den Danske Udvandring til Amerika; Dens Aarsager og Veie; Danske i Kamp i og for Amerika.


(from Lat. vigilia, “wakefulness”). Nocturnal or evening prayers or devotions. See also Hours, Canonical.

Vigness, Lauritz Andreas

(January 14, 1864–September 21, 1947). B. Fillmore Co., Minnesota; educ. Augustana* Sem., Beloit, Iowa. Prof. Augustana Coll., Canton, South Dakota, 1886–90: Highland Park Coll., Des Moines, Iowa, 1890–94. Ordained 1894. Pastor Des Moines, Iowa, 1894–95; Ottawa, Illinois, 1901–14. Prof. Jewell (Iowa) Luth. Coll., 1894–95. Pres. Pleasant View Luth. Coll., Ottawa, Illinois, 1895–1914; St. Olaf Coll., Northfield. Minnesota, 1914–18. Ed. Lutheraneren.

Vignola, Giacomo da

(Giacomo Barocchio, or Barozzi, or Barozzio; 1507–73). Architect; b. Vignola, near Modena, It.; active in Fr. 1541–43, Bologna 1543–46, Rome from 1546; papal architect from 1551; succeeded Michelangelo* as chief architect of St. Peter's 1564. Works include writings on architectural theory.

Vilmar, August Friedrich Christian

(1800–68). Brother of J. W. G. Vilmar*; theol., literary hist. b. Solz, near Rotenburg, Electoral Hesse, Ger.; educ. Marburg; active as educator in Rotenburg 1823–27, Hersfeld from 1827; won for Lutheranism; dir. Gymnasium at Marburg 1833–50; consistorial councilor 1850; supt. Kassel 1851; prof. theol. Marburg 1855. Works include Collegium biblicum.

Vilmar, Jacob Wilhelm Georg

(1804–84). Brother of A. F. C. Vilmar*; ev. theol.; b. Solz, near Rotenburg, Electoral Hesse, Ger.; pastor Rotenburg 1830–51; pastor and metropolitan Melsungen 1851–66. Leader in Luth. confessional movement to keep Hessian ch. free of Prussian domination. Works include Der gegenwärtige Kampf der Hessischen Kirche um ihre Selbständigkeit; Protestantismus und Christenthum.

Vincent, John Heyl

(1832–1920). M. E. cleric; b. Tuscaloosa, Alabama; pastor New Jersey and Illinois; leader in organization of S. S. Institute held at Chautauqua Lake, New York 1874; chancellor Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle 1878; bp. 1888–94.

Vincent, Marvin Richardson

(1834–1922). B. Poughkeepsie, New York; educ. Columbia U., NYC; prof. Meth. U., Troy, New York, 1858–60; M. E. minister 1859; changed to Presb. Ch. 1863; pastor Troy 1863–73, NYC 1873–88; prof. Union Theol. Sem., NYC, 1888. Tr. J. A. Bengel,* Gnomon Novi Testamenti; other works include Word Studies in the New Testament.

Vincent de Paul

(b. perhaps ca. 1580/81–1660). RC priest; b. Pouy (now Saint-Vincent de Paul), Landes, Fr.; ordained 1600; some say he was a slave of Muslim of Barbary ca. 1605–07; founded Lazarists*; with Louise de Marillac (Ludovica; Madame Le Gras; 1591–1660; b. probably Ferrières-en-Brie, near Meaux, Fr.) founded Sisters* of Charity (popular name for Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul; devoted to care of poor and other needy) 1633 in Fr.

Vincent Ferrer

(Vicente; 1350–1419). B. Valencia, Sp.; Dominican 1367; prof. Lérida and Valencia; confessor of Benedict XIII (see Benedict XIII, 1) 1395–98; tried to heal papal schism that began 1378 (see Schism, 8); famous preacher; concerned esp. about conversion of Moors and Jews. Works include Tractatus de vita spirituali, which influenced I. (of) Loyola.*

Vincent of Beauvais

(Vincentius; ca. 1190–ca. 1264). Dominican encyclopedist; b. Beauvais, Oise, Fr. Works include Speculum maius. See also Encyclopedias and Dictionaries, 1.

Vincent of Lérins

(Vincentius Lerinensis [or Lirinensis]; d. 450 AD or sooner). B. probably Gaul; semi-Pelagian; monk in monastery on Saint-Honorat is., in lies de Lérins, in Mediterranean, off SE Fr.; held that the Cath. faith is what has been believed everywhere, always, by all.

Vincent of Saragossa

(d. ca. 304 AD). Sp. martyr; most details of his life are lost in the mists of mystery, legend, and tradition.

Vinet, Alexandre Rodolphe

(Rudolf; 1797–1847). Ref.; b. Ouchy, near Lausanne, Switz.; taught Fr. language and literature at Basel from 1817; influenced by W. M. L. De Wette*; prof. practical theol. Lausanne 1837; led free ch. movement in Vaud canton 1845–47. Works include Homiletics, tr. and ed. T. H. Skinner; Der Sozialismus in seinem Prinzip betrachtet, tr. D. Hofmeister; Über die Darlegung der religiösen Überzeugungen und über die Trennung der Kirche und des Staates als die nothwendige Folge sowie Garantie derselben, tr. F. H. Spengler; Über die Freiheit des religiösen Cultus, tr. J. U. D. Volkmann; Pastoral Theology, tr. T. H. Skinner.

Viret, Pierre

(1511–71). Reformer of W Switz.; b. Orbe, Vaud canton, Switz.; studied theol. in Paris, Fr.; co-worker of G. Farel* 1530; pastor and prof. Lausanne; active in Geneva, Switz., and S Fr. Works include Disputations chrestiennes; Instruction chrestienne.

Virginia Synod, Central.

Luth. syn. 1847–ca. 1851; fate unknown.

Virginius, Adrian

(1663–1706). Luth. pastor; b. Estonia; educ. Kiel. Tr. NT into South-Estonian; helped tr. OT into North-Estonian.

Vischer, Christoph

(Fischer; 1520–ca. 1597/1600). B. Joachimsthal, Bohemia (now Jáchymov, NW Czechoslovakia); educ. Wittenberg, Ger.; pastor Jüterbog 1544; cathedral preacher and supt. Schmalkalden 1552; pastor and gen. supt. Meiningen 1571; court preacher and asst. supt. Celle 1574; pastor Halberstadt 1577; gen. supt. Lüneburg (at Celle) 1583; hymnist. Hymns include “Wir danken dir, Herr Jesu Christ, dass du für uns gestorben bist.”

Vischer, Peter

(ca. 1460–1529). “The Elder”; sculptor; b. Nürnberg, Ger.; son of a worker in brass. He and his sons created the shrine of St. Sebald, Nürnberg (includes 12 Apostles, 12 Prophets, 72 lesser figures), whose conception is Gothic, but many of whose details are Renaissance.


Appearances, or revelations, of God or a representative of God. See also Psychical Research; Revelation, 3, 4; Theophany.

Visitation Nuns.

Founded 1610 at Annecy, Fr., by J. F. F. de Chantal* under guidance of Francis* of Sales for visiting the sick poor in their homes; educ. work was added later.

Visitations, Church.

Surveys made under authorization of Luth. princes in Ger. in the 1520s to organize the chs. and est. schools; inaugurated by John* the Constant in Ernestine Saxony because ch. life needed reform, clergy needed orientation, the Peasants* War and Zwickau* Prophets had caused confusion, and related matters needed attention; visitations began 1526 (WA 26, 178) and continued several yrs.; M. Luther,* P. Melanchthon,* and others prepared Articles* of Visitation by June 1527 (WA 26, 176 and 180). Needs were analyzed and recommendations for structures and procedures made. On later visits, progress was checked and further recommendations made. Result: organization of the Landeskirche (regional ch.) and est. of schools. The pattern was followed by other princes in other regions of Ger.

Vitoria, Francisco de

(ca. 1480/86–1546). B. Vitoria, Old Castile, Sp.; Dominican; laid foundation for internat. law which he regarded as binding every state of the international community and the individuals who composed those states.

Vitringa, Campegius

(1659–1722). Dutch Ref. OT scholar; b. Leeuwarden, Neth.; educ. Franeker and Leiden; prof. Oriental languages Franeker 1680/81; pioneered in using historicocritical* method. Works include a commentary on Is..


(Narendranath Datta [or Dutt]). Hindu philos.; 1862–1902; b. Calcutta, India; tried to combine W materialism and Indian spirituality; known as Swami* Vivekananda. See also Hinduism, 7; Vedanta Society.

Vives, Juan Luis

(1492–1540). Humanist and philos.; b. Valencia, Sp.; educ. Paris, Fr.; prof. Louvain, Belg., 1519; lectured at Oxford, Eng.; friend of D. Erasmus.* Works include a commentary on Augustine* of Hippo's De civitate Dei.

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

Internet Version Produced by
The Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod

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Content Reproduced with Permission

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