(Casper; 15481617). B. Lippstadt, Ger.; educ. Lippstadt, Soest, Braunschweig, Vittenberg; taught in Lunden 157071; adherent of M. Flacius* Illyricus; RC 1572; prof. Cologne 1575; pastor Kaiserswerth 1576; active in Cologne 15831617. Works include rev. of Dietenberger's Ger. Bible, See also Bible Versions, M.
(Ulfila; Wulfila; various other spellings; the name means Little Wolf; ca. 310/313381/383). Birthplace unknown (some think N of the Danube; others Cappadocia); his mother is said to have been a Cappadocian Christian; said to have become bp. at 30; miss. to Goths; said to have been an adherent of the Nicene Creed and to have turned Arian only at a syn. in Constantinople 360. Tr. Bible into Gothic (for which he is said to have devised an alphabet based on Gk. uncials supplemented from Gothic runes). See also Bible Versions, I; Goths.
(Carl; 17961865). B. Epfenbach, near Heidelberg, in the Palatinate, Ger.; educ. Heidelberg and Tübingen; prof. Heidelberg and Halle; prelate of the Ev. Ch. in Karlsruhe 1853; pres. supreme ecclesiastical council 185661; favored union of Luths. and Ref. in Baden; opposed rationalism. Ed. Theologische Studien und Kritiken. See also Mediating Theology.
(18371930). B. Göteborg, Swed.; taught at Uppsala and Göteborg; bp. Strängnäs 18891927; liturgical scholar. Works include Om den kyrkliga psalmboken med särskild hänsyn till den svenska kyrkans psalmbok af aar 1819; Evangelisk-luthersk liturgik.
(17931871). Leader of Luths. in Russ.; educ. Dorpat (Tartu), Jena, Göttingen; pastor Kremon, Livonia, 181735; prof. Dorpat 183542; deposed; gen. supt. and vice-pres. of gen. consistory, St. Petersburg (now Leningrad), 1856; bp. 1858; founded a treasury to aid Luth. congs. in Russ. 1859. Founded (1838) and ed. a periodical supplying information and news for the ev. ch. in Russ.
(18771946). B. Munich, Ger.; educ. Munich, Erlangen, Leipzig; parish pastor; dean Dinkelsbühl 1920; prof. Erlangen 1924; retired under Nazis 1937; reinstated 1946; in 1928 he became leader of what came to be called Martin-Luther-Bund 1932 (see Gotteskasten); helped resettle Ger.-Russ. refugees from Manchuria in Brazil. Ed. Lutherische Kirche.
(180684). Theistic philos.; b. Pförten, Lower Lusatia, Ger.; privatdocent Berlin; prof. Halle; opposed G. W. F. Hegel.* Works include Über Princip und Methode der Hegelschen Philosophie; Glauben and Wissen, Speculation und exacte Wissenschaft; Strauss as a Philosophical Thinker, tr. C. P. Krauth.
(from Lat. ultra montes, beyond the mountains, i. e., from the viewpoint of the N [e.g., Eng., Fr., Ger.]). 1. Policy of supporting papal authority and power over against Febronianism,* Gallicanism,* Jansenism,* Josephinism,* and later, secularism.* The term, originated in the 11th c., found its modern application to religious tensions beginning in the 17th c.
2. Basis for ultramontanism was laid in the Donation* of Constantine.
3. Est. of the Holy* Roman Empire led to complications and conflicts bet. emp. and pope Gregory VII (see Popes, 7), Innocent III (see Popes, 10), Boniface VIII (see Popes, 12) and other popes were virtual world rulers. But their claims continued to be challenged. Rise of modern states and the spirit of nationalism curtailed the pope's temporal power. RC claims to spiritual power led to the dogma of papal infallibility,* also under challenge.
See also Christian Church, History of the, III 12.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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