Christian Cyclopedia

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(from It. for “to touch or strike”). Kind of brilliant freestyle keyboard composition, usually with many rapid equal-time notes; a small toccata is a toccatina. Composers of this kind of music include J. S. Bach,* D. Buxtehude,* G. Frescobaldi,* A. Gabrieli,* J. Pachelbel,* H. Scheidemann,* S. Scheidt,* J. P. Sweelinck.*

Toellner, Johann Gottlieb

(1724–74). Ev. theol.; b. Charlottenburg (now part of West Berlin), Ger.; prof. Frankfurt an der Oder; accepted Bible and Confessions but regarded natural revelation as sufficient for salvation. Works include Beweis, dass Gott die Menschen bereits durch seine Offenbarung in der Natur zur Seligkeit führt; Der thätige Gehorsam Jesu Christi untersucht. See also Lutheran Theology After 1580, 8.

Tokai Evangelical Lutheran Church.

The Evangelical* Luth. Ch. began work 1949 in the Tokai area of Jap. bet. Tokyo and Nagoya. This work was continued by The American* Luth. Ch. and led to formation of the Tokai Ev. Luth. Ch. 1960. Merged 1963 with the Japan* Ev. Luth. Ch. to form the new Japan Ev. Luth. Ch. See also Japan.

Toland, John

(originally Junius Janus; 1670–1722). Deist; b. near Londonderry, Ireland, of RC parentage; changed name and became Prot. ca. 1686; educ. Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Leiden; controversialist. Works include Christianity Not Mysterious; Amyntor; Tetradymus; Pantheisticon (parodied the Angl. liturgy). See also Deism, III 4; Pantheism, 2.

Toledo, Councils of.

Prominent among many councils held at Toledo, Sp., was that of 447 (which condemned Priscillianists*) and that of 589 (which condemned Arianism*). See also Christian Church, History of the, II 1; Spain, 1.

Toledo, Francisco de

(Franciscus Toletus; 1532–96). B. Cordoba, Sp.; educ. Salamanca; Jesuit 1558; taught philos. at Salamanca 1555–59, then philos, till 1563 and then theol. at Rome; knows esp. for work in moral theol. and casuistry. Became the 1st Jesuit cardinal 1593. Active in the Inquisition. Works include Introductic in dialecticam Aristotelis; Instructio sacerdotum de septem peccatis mortalibus (alternate title: Summa casuum conscientiae); In summan theologiae S. Thomas Aquinatis enarratio. Helped revise the Vulgate.

Toledo Theses

(1867). In 1856 the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Iowa* and Other States adopted 7 theses binding its pastors to the Book* of Concord but distinguishing bet. essentials (theses and antithesis) and nonessentials (proof, elucidation, etc., called “Accidens”), and holding that the Confessions must be interpreted only historically, not dogmatically without regard to their hist. origin. This view was attacked by the Buffalo Syn. et al. Controversy regarding millennialism involved also the Mo. Syn. The Iowa Syn. suffered from resultant doubt. C. S. Fritschel (see Fritschel, 1) went to Ger. 1866 for opinions of recognized Luth. faculties and theologians on basis of Iowa Syn. publications. Opinions rendered included those of the faculty at Dorpat (Tartu) and of C. E. Luthardt,* G. C. A. v. Harless,* K. K. Munkel,* and H. E. F. Guericke.* The Dorpat faculty and Münkel recognized the need for distinguishing bet. essentials and nonessentials in the Confessions but criticized the way in which an 1858 Iowa Syn. essay spelled out the distinction. In 1867. at Toledo, Ohio, the Iowa Syn. adopted 9 theses in answer to the question, “What Is Necessary for Church Unity?” Summary of theses: The unity of the visible ch. consists in concordant preaching of the Gospel and administration of the sacraments. By the preaching of the Gospel is meant not only preaching from the pulpit but the pub. confession of the ch. This confession must hold all arts. of faith without error. The doctrine of the Gospel is the doctrine of justification by faith. Accordingly, ch. unity is fundamental but never absolute. Essential, or fundamental, doctrines are all those which the ch. has fixed in its Confessions. Doctrinal agreement does not apply to all unessential and incidental teachings in the Confessions, but only to all arts. of faith est. by the ch..

Kirchenblatt der evangelisch-lutherischen Synode von Iowa, I, No. 1 (January 1858), [pp. 1–2]; J. A. Deindörfer, Geschichte der Evangel.-Luth. Synode von Iowa und anderen Staaten (Chicago, 1897); Quellen und Dokumente zur Geshichte und Lehrstellung der ev.-luth. Synode von Iowa u. a. Staaten, comp. G. J. Fritschel (Chicago, n. d.)

Toledo Theses

(1907). Revision of Michigan* City Theses; drawn up 1907 Toledo, Ohio, by representatives of the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Iowa* and Other States and the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States: adopted by Iowa 1907, formally by Ohio 1914; basis of 1919 discussions bet. the Iowa and Buffalo syns. that led to fellowship bet. them 1920.

“Thesis I. The Church. The Church, in the proper sense of the term, is the communion of true believers which is established and built up through the means of grace. … According to its real essence the church is and remains invisible on earth. Fellowship of the means of grace is the necessary form of the church's appearance and the infallible mark of its existence; and in so far the church is visible.

”Thesis II. The Office of the Ministry. … The office of the ministry rests on a special command of the Lord, valid throughout all time, and consists in the right and power conferred by special call to administer the means of grace publicly and by commission of the congregation. The call (to the pastorate) is a right of the congregation within whose bounds the minister is to discharge his office. …

“Thesis III. Attitude to the Confessions. A binding subscription to the Confessions pertains only to the doctrines of faith therein set forth, and to all these without exception. Since the doctrine of Sunday taught in the Confessions is a doctrine revealed in God's Word, it is not to be excluded from the body of obligatory dogmas.

”Thesis IV. Open Questions. All doctrines revealed clearly and plainly in God's Word are, by virtue of the absolute authority of the divine Word, dogmatically fixed and binding on conscience, whether they have been symbolically defined or not. In God's church there is no justification for departing from clearly revealed Scripture truths, be their content fundamental or nonfundamental, important or apparently unimportant. Full agreement in all articles of faith constitutes the indispensable condition of church-fellowship. Persistent error in an article of faith always causes division. Full agreement in all nonfundamental doctrines is not attainable on earth, but should nevertheless be sought as goal. Those who knowingly, obstinately, and stubbornly contradict God's Word, even if only in subordinate points, thereby overthrow the organic foundation (of the faith) and must be excluded from church-fellowship.

“Thesis V. Chiliasm. Any chiliasm that regards the kingdom of Christ as an external, earthly, and worldly kingdom of glory and teaches a resurrection of all believers before the last day is to be rejected as a doctrine in direct conflict with the analogy of faith. The belief … that the reign of Christ and His saints referred to in Rev. 20 is an event belonging to the future and that the resurrection spoken of there is to be understood as a bodily resurrection of some [Ger. einzelner] believers unto life everlasting does indeed not contradict the analogy of faith but can no more be strictly proved from Scripture than can the spiritual interpretation.

”Thesis VI. Predestination and Conversion. We find that the church-dividing error in the Missouri doctrine of predestination is the severance of the universal gracious will of God and the special decree of election into two contradictory wills (contradictoriae voluntates) formed one after the other and apart from and beside each other. … Concerning conversion … we confess that, viewed as the placing or planting of a new spiritual life, conversion does not consist of or depend to any extent whatsoever on any cooperation … but that it is wholely and solely the work of the Holy Spirit. … We deny that the Holy Spirit works conversion according to the mere pleasure of His elective will and accomplishes it in the elect despite the most willful resistance … but we hold that by such stubborn resistance both conversion in time and election in eternity are hindered.“ EL

Iowa Syn. Synodal-bericht 1907, p. 109; Ohio Syn. Verhandlungen 1908, pp. 8–10; Ohio Syn. Proceedings 1908, pp. 8–11; Ohio Syn.. Minutes 1914, p. 125; Quellen und Dokumente zur Geschichte und Lehrstellung der ev.-luth. Synode von Iowa u. a. Staaten, comp. G. J. Fritschel (Chicago, n. d.); [G.] F. B[ente], ”Die Toledoer Unionsthesen,“ L. u. W. LIII (1907), 278–284; F. W. Stellhorn, “Das Kolloquium zu Toledo, Ohio,” Theologische Zeitschrift, XXVI (1907), 166–168; F. W. Meuser, The Formation of the American Lutheran Church (Columbus, Ohio, 1958); Documents of Lutheran Unity in America. ed. E. C. Wolf (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1966); Doctrinal Declarations (St. Louis, 1957).

Tolstoi, Lev Nikolaevich

(Tolstoy; Lyev; Leo; Nikolayerich; other spellings; 1828–1910). B. Yasnaya Polyana, Tula Province, Russ.; army officer; fought in Crimean War (1854–56); then lived on family estate Yasnaya Polyana; renounced use of his wealth and lived as a peasant; excommunicated by Holy* Syn. 1901.

Began an intensive study of Christianity in the 1870s; rejected immortality, Christ's deity, and other Christian doctrines as well as organized religion; developed Tolstoyism, a kind of Christian naturalism, based on the Sermon on the Mount, emphasizing nonresistance to evil.

Works include The Christian Teaching; Meine Beichte; My Religion; What I Believe; The Kingdom of God Is Within You; What Is Religion?

Tomlinson, Ambrose Jessup

(1865–1943). Father of H. A. Tomlinson*; b. near Westfield, Indiana, of Quaker parents; ABS colporter in North Carolina in the 1890s; joined holiness movement (see Holiness Churches, 1) 1896. See also Church of God, 2; Church of God of Prophecy, The.

Tomlinson, Homer Aubrey

(1892–1968). Son of A. J. Tomlinson*; b. Westfield, Indiana; organized The Church* of God (Queens Village, New York).

Tonga, Kingdom of.

(Tonga Islands; Friendly Islands). Ca. 150 small islands ESE of Fiji, SSW of Samoa. Area: ca. 270 sq. mi. Brit. protectorate 1900; indep. 1970. LMS attempted miss. work unsuccessfully 1797; Meths. est. successful work in the 1820s. Taufaahau (also Siosi; King George I; ca. 1798–1893), ruler of Haabi Is, was bap. 1830. Meths. predominate; others include RCs, Angls., Seventh-day Advs., Latter Day Saints.

Tongues, Gift of

(glossolalia, from Gk. glossa, “tongue,” and lalia, “speaking”). Ecstatic religious speech usually unintelligible to hearers. The speaking in tongues of Acts 2:4–13 and 10:46 was understood; that in 1 Co 14 required interpretation (cf. verse 13). Scripture connects speaking in tongues with the Holy Spirit; but it does not say that all similar manifestations are evidences of His presence. See also Gifts of the Spirit, 8–10.


(from Lat. tondere, “to shear”). Clipping or shaving part or all of the top of the head as a sacred rite. In RCm it is part of the ceremony admitting a layman to the clerical state. The shaven crown or patch is also called tonsure. Custom circumstances, and other factors determine size and other details.

Toplady, Augustus Montague

(1740–78). Hymnist; b. Farnham, Surrey, Eng.; educ. Dublin, Ireland; ordained Angl. 1762; vicar Broadhembury (or Broad Hembury), Devonshire, Eng.; minister of the Chapel of the Fr. Calvinists in Leicester Fields ca. 1776. Hymns include “Rock of Ages.”


Heb. term for divine law esp. as contained in the Pentateuch. See also Judaism, 2, 3.

Torgau, League of.

Organized 1526 by Luth. princes in Ger. in reaction against the League of Dessau.* See also Speyer, Diets of, 1.

Torkillus, Reorus

(1599–September 7, 1643). First Luth. pastor of a parish in the US; b. Fässberg, Östergötland, Swed.; to New Swed. on the Delaware with the 2d expedition from Swed. ca. 1639/40; served Fort Christina colonists, Wilmington, Delaware; replaced by J. Campanius.* See also United States, Religious History of the, 6.

Török, Pál

(1808–83). B. Alsóvárad (Also-Varad, or Lower Varad, or Wardein), Hung.; educ. Debrecen and Vienna; est. the Prot. Budapest Theol. Academy 1855 and was its 1st rector; est. Ref. Gymnasium at Budapest 1857; bp. Danube Dist. 1860.

Torquemada, Juan de

(Johannes de Turrecremata; 1388–1468). B. Valladolid, Sp.; studied at Paris, Fr.; prior of Valladolid and Toledo, Sp.; named Defensor fidel and made cardinal 1439; attended councils at Constance,* Basel,* Ferrara, and Florence*; regarded pope as supreme also over council; opposed doctrine of Immaculate* Conception. Works include treatise on Eucharist against Hussites; commentary on decrees of Gratian*; Summa de ecclesia. See also Annunciation, Orders of the, 4.

Torquemada, Tomás de

(Thomas; ca. 1420–98). B. Valladolid, Sp.; Dominican prior at Segovia; grand inquisitor (or inquisitor gen.) of the Span. Inquisition* 1483.

Torrey, Charles Cutler

(1863–1956). B. East Hardwick, Vermont; educ. Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; instructor in Semitic languages Andover 1892–1900; dir. (in Jerusalem) Am. School(s) of Oriental Research; prof. Semitics Yale U., New Haven, Connecticut, till 1932. Works include The Composition and Date of Acts; Ezra Studies; Documents of the Primitive Church; The Jewish Foundation of Islam; Pseudo-Ezekiel and the Original Prophecy; The Second Isaiah.

Torrey, Joseph

(1797–1867). Cong. theol.; b. Rowley, Massachusetts; educ. Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; miss.; pastor Royalton, Vermont, 1819–27; prof. Gk. and Lat. 1827–42. intellectual and moral philos. 1842–67 U. of Vermont, Burlington; pres. there 1862–66. Tr. J. A. W. Neander* General History of the Christian Religion and Church; other works include A Theory of Fine Art.

Torrey, Reuben Archer

(1856–1928). Cong. evangelist; b. Hoboken, New Jersey; educ. Yale Coll., New Haven, Connecticut, and at Leipzig and Erlangen, Ger.; pastor Garretsville, Ohio, 1878–82; active in Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1883–89; supt. Moody Bible Institute 1889–1908 (and pastor Chicago 1894–1905); dean Bible Institute, Los Angeles, California, 1912–24. Works include The Fundamental Doctrines of the Christian Faith. See also Revivals, 2.

Torrison, Isaac Bertinus

(November 17, 1859–November 17, 1929). B. Manitowoc, Wisconsin; educ. Johns Hopkins U., Baltimore, Maryland, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; ordained 1885 Norw. Synod. Pastor Waco, Texas, 1885–89; Chicago, Illinois, 1889–98; Decorah, Iowa, 1901–29. See also Madison Settlement.


(from an Ojibwa word indicating relationship). Belief in which an animal, plant, or other object serves as emblem (totem) of family or clan. Adherents hold that a mystic relationship exists bet. the totem and the family or clan and that characteristics (e.g., power) transfer from totem to people; a tribe is divided into totemic groups imposing restrictions (e.g., marriage forbidden within totemic group). See also Darkheim, Émile; Primitive Religion.


Ger. name of festival in commemoration of the dead. See also Departed, Commemoration of.

Toulouse, Synods of.

Held 1056, 1119, 1161, 1229, and 1590 at Toulouse (ancient Tolosa), Haute-Garonne dept., S Fr. The syn of 1161 recognized Alexander III (see Popes, 9) to the exclusion of Victor IV. The syn. of 1229 adopted 45 canons for extinction of heresy and reest. of peace (see also Inquisition, 3).

Toussain, Daniel

(Tossanus; 1541–1602). Son of Peter Toussain*; father of Paul Toussain*; b. Montbéliard, Fr. Educ. Basel, Switz.; Tübingen, Ger.; Paris, Fr. Pastor Orléans, Fr., 1562; forced to flee 1568, he found protection with Renata* of Ferrara in Montargis; returned to Montbéliard 1570; fled after Bartholomew's* Day Massacre to Basel; court preacher Heidelberg 1573; prof. Neustadt ca. 1576/77; pastor and prof. Heidelberg 1583.

Toussain, Paul

(Tossanus; 1572–1634). Son of Daniel Toussain*; b. Montargis, Fr.; educ. Heidelberg, Altdorf, Geneva, and Leiden; rector Deventer and Amsterdam; pastor Frankenthal 1600, Heidelberg 1608; present 1618 at Syn. of Dordrecht.*

Toussain, Peter

(Pierre; Tossanus; 1499–1573). Father of Daniel Toussain*; b. St. Laurent, near Marville (145 mi. ENE of Paris), Lorraine; educ. Metz, Basel, Cologne, Paris, Rome; canon Metz 1515, where he learned M. Luther's doctrine; fled to Basel; to Paris 1525; returned to Metz; imprisoned; escaped; deviously to Wittenberg; engaged to continue the reformation of Montbéliard; gave the ch. neither a strictly Ref. nor Luth. character; deposed after the 1559 Luth. ch. order for Württemberg was adopted.

Towianski, Andreas

(1799–1878). Polish mystic; b. Antoszwince, Latvia; studied law in Wilna (Vilnius); lawyer; claimed to have visions: held that there is a secret connection bet. the visible world and the world of spirits.

Townsend, Henry

(1815–86). B. Exeter, Eng.; CMS catechist to Sierra Leone 1836; to Abeokuta 1842; ordained London 1844; excluded from Abeokuta by local politics 1867–75; returned to Eng. 1876.

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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