Christian Cyclopedia

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1. The office of Christian teacher is a gift of Christ to the ch. and part of the church's ministry (Eph 4:11–12).

2. Most LCMS teachers either are graduates of a syn. teachers coll. or became teachers by colloquy; they are certified by syn., classified as ministers of religion, eligible for call by an authorized calling group and for installation, membership in syn., and for various parish services.

3. Mo. Syn. founders included teacher training in the coll. est. 1843 Perry Co., Missouri; the school est. 1846 Fort Wayne, Indiana (see Löhe, Johann Konrad Wilhelm) included teacher training; both schools were acquired by the Mo. Syn. 1847. For Conc. Teachers Coll., River Forest, Illinois, see Concordia University System; Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, The, V 6; includes a graduate program.

4. For the beginning of Conc. Teachers Coll., Seward, Nebraska, see Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, The, VI 6. This school became a full teachers sem. 1905; graduated its first teachers 1907; includes a graduate program. See also Concordia University System.

5. Conc. Coll., St. Paul, Minnesota, prepared students for the teachers school at Addison, Illinois (see Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, The, V 6) 1893–1908, then discontinued such training; included preparation of men and women for teacher training 1947; coll. women teacher trainees were enrolled beginning 1950; a 4-yr. coll. teacher educ. program for women was authorized 1959; male teacher training at the sr. coll. level was authorized 1965.

Teacher training at Conc. Coll., Ann Arbor, Michigan was certified effective 1982. See also Concordia University System.

6. Colloquy requirements include 4 yrs. coll., attendance of at least I quarter at a syn. teachers coll., specified courses in educ. and religion, and 1 yr. successful teaching.

7. A call issued to a syn. certified teacher (see 3) conveys rights and obligations not conveyed by a call issued to other teachers.

8. LCMS resolved 1953 to “recognize those called by our congregations for the various activities included in the ministry of the Word as 'ministers of the Word,'' whose specific area of responsibility is determined by the congregation which issues the call” (Proceedings, p. 327). He is not a pastor but may be called on for some pastoral work. The male teacher's ministerial status is recognized by the US govt.

9. The role of women teachers in the ch. has been influenced by interpretations, e.g., of 1 Co 14:34–35; 1 Ti 2:11–15.

10. LCMS resolved 1973 “that all teachers, male or female, who have met all requirements for inclusion in the official roster of the Synod be considered eligible for membership under the terms of Articles V and VI of the Constitution” (Proceedings, p. 190).

11. Graduates of LCMS teachers colleges receive their 1st placement in syn. through the syn. Bd. of Assignments.

12. In LCMS, after 1st placement and assumption of teaching duties, a teacher comes under supervision of officers of the Dist. in which he teaches (see also 17). Synod's Personnel Dir. and the Secy. of Elementary and Secondary Schools keep personnel records and provide lists of candidates and biographical and professional information on teachers.

13. In LCMS, a teacher is under direct supervision of the cong. he serves.

14. Many Luth. professional teachers on the lower levels and most on the higher school levels continue their educ. in various formal ways.

15. Many continue their educ. in less formal ways (e.g., through conferences of the Assoc. of Luth. Secondary Schools, an LCMS organization).

16. Teachers on all levels are mems. of various professional organizations (e.g., LEA; Nat. Education Assoc.).

17. A journal for Luth. teachers has been pub. in the US since 1865; title: Evangelisch-Lutherisches Schulblatt (1865–1920), Lutheran School Journal (1921–47), Lutheran Education (1947– ); it is the oldest educ. journal in continuous pub. in the US Other publications have included News Service (from the early 1920s to 1947).

18. Authorized calling groups may secure a list of candidates drawn from names of teachers in service by application to the Dist. pres.; candidates for staff positions at colleges and sems. may be nominated by congs.

19. The decision to accept or not to accept a call is ideally based on consideration of opportunities for most effective use of talents.

20. LCMS congs., maintain the largest Prot. elementary and secondary school system in N. Am.

21. WELS maintains an extensive school system, many of whose teachers are graduates of Dr. Martin Luther Coll., New Ulm, Minnesota; for Milwaukee Lutheran Teachers Coll. see Ministry, Education of, VIII C 1. WELS Bd. for Parish Educ. pub. The Lutheran Educator.

22. Seventh-day Adventists maintain an extensive school system with many teachers graduates of such Seventh-day Adv. schools as Andrews U., Berrien Springs, Michigan; Atlantic Union Coll., South Lancaster, Massachusetts; Pacific Union Coll., Angwin, California; Union Coll., Lincoln, Nebraska; Walla Walla Coll., College Place, Washington Periodical: Journal of Adventist Education.

23. The Nat. Union of Christian Schools, founded 1920, composed of Calvinistic school socs., maintains an extensive school system with many teachers provided by Calvin Coll., Grand Rapids, Michigan, an institution of the Christian Ref. Ch. Periodical: Christian Home and School.

24. The Prot. Episc. Ch. maintains many schools, many of which belong to the Nat. Assoc. of Episc. Schools, founded 1954.

25. The Nat. Assoc. of Christian Schools, founded 1947, affiliate of Nat. Assoc. of Evangelicals, serves many schools in N. Am. and several miss. fields. Periodical: Christian Teacher.

26. Mennonite and Amish bodies maintain many schools with many teachers provided by Eastern Mennonite Coll., Harrisonburg, Virginia, and Goshen Coll., Goshen, Indiana

27. Other ch. bodies that have maintained schools include Soc. of Friends, Los Angeles Bap. City Miss. Soc., Assemblies of God, Southern Bap. Conv. ACS, WAK, FN

See also Roman Catholic Church, The, E 4, 8, 14; Schools, Church-Related.

W. H. Beck, Lutheran Elementary Schools in the United States, 2d ed. (St. Louis, 1965); G. W. Brockopp, The Parish Role of the Lutheran Teacher, 18th LEA Yearbook (River Forest, Illinois, 1961); A. J. Freitag, College with a Cause: A History of Concordia Teachers College (River Forest, Illinois, 1964); M. A. Haendschke, The Sunday School Story: The History of the Sunday school in The Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, 20th LEA Yearbook (River Forest, Illinois, 1963); W. A. Kramer, Lutheran Schools, Information Bulletin on Christian Education No. 301 (St. Louis, 1961); V. C. Krause, Lutheran Elementary Schools in Action (St. Louis, 1963); A. L. Miller, Educational Administration and Supervision of the Lutheran Schools of the Missouri Synod, 1914–50, 8th LEA Yearbook (River Forest, Illinois, 1951); R. S. Moore, “Protestant Full-Time Weekday Schools,” Religious Education: A Comprehensive Survey, ed. M. J. Taylor (New York, 1960), pp. 236–246; A. C. Mueller, The Ministry of the Lutheran Teacher (St. Louis, 1964); A. C. Stellhorn, Schools of The Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod (St. Louis, 1963).

Te Deum.

Opening Lat. words of a canticle (see Canticles) in matins; composed in Lat. ca. the beginning of the 5th c.; origin of text uncertain; various musical settings have been written, including one by M. Luther* (WA 35, 521–524). Te Deum laudamus is Lat. for “We praise Thee, O God.” See also Worship, Parts of, 15.

Teellinck, Johannes

(January; d. 1674). Son of W. Teellinck*; brother of M. Teellinck*; b. Middelburg, Zeeland province, SW Neth. Pastor Maidstone, Eng.; Wemeldinge, Zeeland, 1641; Eng. ch. Middelburg 1646; Dutch ch. Vlissingen 1649, Utrecht 1654. Held that ch. wealth should remain in the hands of the ch. and not come into the hands of prominent families by inheritance. Forced to leave Utrecht, he was pastor Arnemuiden 1660, Kampen 1661, Leeuwarden 1674. Pietist. Works include Den vruchtbaermakenden [or vrugtbaermakenden] wijnstok [or Wynstok] Christus.

Teellinck, Maximiliaan

(ca. 1606–53). Son of W. Teellinck*; brother of J. Teellinck*; b. Angers, Fr. Pastor Eng. ch. Vlissingen 1627; Ref. ch. Zierikzee 1628; Middelburg 1540. Pietist. Works include Vredepredicaatsie.

Teellinck, Willem

(1579–1629). Father of J. Teellinck* and M. Teellinck*; b. Zierikzee, Zeeland prov. Neth.; studied law; lived in Eng. and was persuaded by Puritans to study theol.; studied in Leiden. Pastor Haamstede and Burcht 1606, Middelburg 1613. Works include De volstandige Christen in dry tractaten; Huysboek over de kleine Catechismus.

Tegetmeyer, Sylvester

(d. 1552). B. Hamburg, Ger.; influenced by Luth. Reformation* while chaplain Rostock; ev. preacher Riga 1522; called to Dorpat (Tartu) 1525 to restore order out of confusion wrought by M. Hofmann*; organized the ch. in Riga, Reval (Revel; Tallinn), Dorpat; chief pastor St. Peter, Dorpat. See also Estonia, 2; Latvia.

Tegnér, Esaias

(1782–1846). Poet; b. Kyrkerud, near Saffle, Värmland Co., SW Swed.; prof. Gk. at Lurid 1812; bp. Växjö, Kronoberg Co., S Swed., 1824. Tried to combine Christianity with humanism. Works include Svea; Tal vid jubelfesten 1817; Frithiofs [or Frithjofs] Saga. See also Sweden, Lutheranism in, 4.

Teichmüller, Gustav

(1832–88). B. Brunswick, Ger.; prof. Dorpat (Tartu); opposed positivism and developmental theories of religion; tried to form a new metaphysic based on the ego and consciousness of the divine; rejected the idea of a new life in Christ. Works include Religionsphilosophie.

Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre

(1881–1955). Paleontologist and explorer; b. Sarcenat, near Clermont, Fr.; educ. Paris; Jesuit 1899; took part in geological expedition to Ordos, along Great Wall of China, 1923, and in later field studies of China and other parts of Asia; noted for work on Cenozoic geology; interested in the theory of evolution. Works include Le phénomène humain; L'apparition de l'homme; La vision du passé; Le milieu divin; L'avenir de l'homme.

Teilhard de Chardin, ed. N. Baybrooke (Greenwich, Connecticut, 1964).

Telemann, Georg Philipp

(1681–1767). Luth. composer, organist, cantor; b. Magdeburg, Ger.; educ. Magdeburg, Zellerfeld, Hildesheim, and Leipzig; largely self-taught in music; active esp. in Hamburg. Works include oratorios Der Tag des Gerichts; Der Tod Jesu; Die Auferstehung Christi. Other works include cantatas, psalms, overtures, sonatas. See also Passion, The.

R. Hass, Die Musik des Barocks (Potsdam, 1927).


(from Gk. for “doctrine, theory, or science of the end”). Branch of philos. that studies evidences of design or goal-directed activity, including purposive activity, systems of purposive activity, special concepts used to distinguish purposive from nonpurposive activity, identification of functions, systems of functional activity, and special concepts used to analyze activity. See also Apologetics, II A, B 3; Finalism; God, Arguments for the Existence of; Immortality, Arguments for.

Tell el-Amarna

(Tell al-Amarna). Site in Egypt, haliway bet. Memphis and Thebes, of the Luth.-c. BC royal city and of the 1##7 discovery of ancient clay tablets and letters in cuneiform that shed light on relations bet. Egypt and Canaan c. 1375–1360 BC.

Teller, Romanus

(1703–50). Father of W. A. Teller*; ev. theol.; b. Leipzig, Ger.; pastor and prof. Leipzig. Works include Die Heilige Schrift des Alten und Neuen Testaments, nebst einer vollständigen Erklärung derselben, welche aus den auserlesensten Anmerkungen verschiedener Engländischen Schriftsteller zusammengetragen, und zuerst in der französischen Sprache an das Licht gestellet, nunmehr aber in dieser deutschen Uebersetzung auf das neue durchgesehen, und mit vielen Anmerkungen und einer Vorrede begleitet.

Teller, Wilhelm Abraham

(1734–1804). Son of R. Teller*; b. Leipzig, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; prof. Helmstedt 1761; mem. of high consistory Berlin and provost Kölln (13th-c. Wendish village near Berlin; now part of Berlin) 1767; tried to surmount orthodoxy and pietism by use of rationalism. Works include Lehrbuch des christlichen Glaubens; Wörterbuch des Neuen Testaments.

Temperance Movements and the Lutheran Church.

Temperance movements, advocating abstinence from use of intoxicants, try to deal with an old problem (cf. Gn 9:21). Unsuccessful attempts to cope with the problem in the US by state and local laws in the 19th and 20th c. led to the 18th Amendment to the Const. of the US, which went into effect early 1920 and prohibited “the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes.” The Volstead Act (named after its author, congressman Andrew John Volstead; 1860–1947; b. Goodhue Co., Minnesota; mem. US House of Representatives 1902–22), passed October 1919, designed for enforcement of the 18th Amendment, defined intoxicants as beverages with “one-half of one per centum or more of alcohol by volume.” The 21st Amendment, passed and ratified 1933, repealed the 18th or Prohibition Amendment.

Maine enacted a law 1846 prohibiting the sale of liquor by any except those designated by selectmen.

The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA resolved 1853 that “this General Synod views with pleasure the success thus far attending the efforts for the removal of Intemperance by the introduction of the Maine Liquor Law, and would be glad to see our ministers and people co-operating with others in extending its principles throughout our land” (Proceedings, p. 47); 1889: “The General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States, in Allegheny assembled, in accord with previous deliverances of the Synod, bids the Prohibitory Constitutional Amendment in Pennsylvania Godspeed, and hopes her members, in the exercise of their Christian liberty as citizens, will all vote for it” (Proceedings, p. 8); but Pennsylvania rejected the proposed amendment. In 1918 the Gen. Syn. adopted the report of its Committee on Temperance, which stated: “For this [widespread state ratification of the 18th Amendment] and all the great victories over the organized and nefarious liquor traffic we give devout thanks to the great Head of the Church, Who has beyond question providentially led and helped us in the great contest. Our Church of the General Synod has ever been found on the right side, and by her ministers and laymen has actively and practically assisted in achieving this most significant victory of moral reform of all time” (Proceedings, p. 111).

The Ev. Luth. Syn. of N. Illinois* resolved 1853 that “we, as a Synod, and as individuals, will give our influence to the introduction and establishment of a 'liquor law,' that shall be similar in its provisions to the 'Maine Law,' for the total suppression of this evil” (Minutes, p. 17).

In 1890 The United* Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am. resolved “that it is the duty of every church member and of every citizen to take active part by word and example in wiping out this impious and ruinous traffic” (Proceedings, p. 122),

The Scand. Ev. Luth. Augustana Syn. (see Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church) resolved 1889 “I. That we regard it as the duty of the Christian Church earnestly to require of its members to lead a strictly temperate life.

“II. That it is the duty of every church-member to use all his or her influence and such lawful christian means as are at his or her disposal in the furtherance of true temperance in society and the state at large.

“III. That it is the special duty of parents and guardians to youth thoroughly to instruct them in the principle of true temperance, properly to present to them the evils of intemperance according to the teachings of God's Word, science and every-day experience” (Proceedings, p. 81).

1890 Augustana Syn. Proceedings, pp. 81–82: “Resolved by the Scand. Ev. Luth. Augustana Synod … That it heartily endorses the action of the Nebraska Conference in making preparations for a vigorous campaign, and that it recommends to the voters of that state the adoption of the Prohibition Amendment to the State Constitution at the next November election;

“Furthermore that as material aid is in great need in this campaign, we as a Synod also recommend to our people to give liberal donations to the Nebraska Prohibitory Campaign fund.”

In 1930 the Augustana Syn. resolved to “reaffirm our steadfast purpose to oppose any and all measures looking to the repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment” (Proceedings, p. 45).

Other syns. took similar stands and action.

LCMS passed no resolutions on manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors (cf. Ro 14:3, 15–21) but holds that excessive drinking is sinful and that reform can be achieved only through the Gospel of Christ. ARS

See also Alcoholism.

Temple, William

(1881–1944). Angl. theol.; b. Exeter, Eng.; educ. Rugby and Oxford; headmaster Repton 1910–14; chaplain to king 1915–21; canon Westminster 1919–21; bp. Manchester 1921–29; abp. York 1929–42, Canterbury 1942–44. At first somewhat liberal, later more orthodox; active in educ. and soc. work and ecumenical* movement; mem. Labor Party. Works include Christus Veritas (Eng. title Christ the Truth); Christian Faith and Life; Nature, Man and God; Christianity and Social Order; Fellowship with God. See also Dialectical Realism.


The act of putting a quality of man to the test, specifically his life with and toward God. Purposes, acc. to the Bible: 1. God aims to make man's need of God clear and drive man to God as source of spiritual life (1 Co 10:13); 2. Devil, world, and flesh aim to loosen man's grasp on God and plunge man into thoughts and acts contrary to his life in and for God (Ja 1:13–15; 4:1–5), but God can use also these tests for His purpose (Jb 1–42). The alert Christian will in soberness and patience recognize the struggle in his life bet. the forces of God and those of sin and will value every reminder to strengthen his spiritual life and grow in grace (Ph 2–3; 1 Th 5; 1 Ptr 5). RRC

R. R. Caemmerer, “Temptation,” The Abiding Word, II, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1947), 171–199.

Tempus clausum

(Lat. “closed season”). Season in which festivities and merrymaking (e.g., weddings) were forbidden by the ch.. The prohibition applied to Lent (or Quadragesima*) is in the 52d canon of the Syn. of Laodicea.* The 1091 Syn. of Benevento, It., extended the prohibition to Advent, the 1284 Syn. of Nimes (Nismes), Fr., to the period from the 1st of the Rogation* Days to the 1st Sunday after Pent. The Council of Trent,* Sess. XXIV, Chap 10 on the Reform of Matrimony, commands “that from the Advent of our Lord Jesus Christ till the day of the Epiphany, and from Ash Wednesday till the octave of Easter inclusive, the old prohibitions of solemn nuptials be carefully observed by all.” CIC, Canon 1108, allows marriage to be contracted at any time of the yr.; only the solemn blessing of marriage is forbidden from the 1st Sunday of Advent to Christmas inclusively and from Ash Wednesday to Easter inclusively. The Luth. Ch. gen. recommended observance of tempus clausum, esp. Lent.

Tena, Ludovicus de

(Ludewig Tena; d. 1622). B. Finiana, Granada, Andalusia, S. Sp., prof. theol. Alcala, Sp.; priest Toledo; almoner of queen consort Anne of Fr.; bp. Tortosa. Works include Isagoge in totam scripturam; Comment. in Epistolam D. Pauli ad Hebraeos; In Jonam & Habacuc Prophetas; Cuodlibeticas cuaestiones varias; El sermon en la beetification de Santa Teresa.

Ten Articles on the Church's Freedom and Service.

Adopted 1963 by ch. leaders in East Ger. to guide Christians living under atheistic govt.. The arts. treat 1. The Church's Mission; 2. Faith and Obedience; 3. Science and Faith; 4. Justification and Justice; 5. Reconciliation and Peace; 6. Work; 7. Government; 8. The Church's Life and Service; 9. The Church's Polity; 10. The Church's Hope.


(Lat. “darkness”). In the W Ch., the service of matins* and lauds on the last 3 days of Holy Week. Acc. to ancient custom the lights in the ch. are extinguished one by one as the service proceeds. Lessons in the 1st nocturn are customarily from Lm.

Tengström, Jakob

(Jaakko Tengstrom; 1755–1832). Luth. churchman, poet, and hist.; b. Kokkola, Fin.; educ. Turku (Aabo); prof. Turku 1790–1803; bp. Turku 1803; abp. Fin. 1817; interested in humanities. Works include Handlingar till upplysning i Finlands kyrkohistoria.

Ten Lost Tribes.

Tribes of Israel carried into captivity (see Babylonian Captivity, 1) whose descendants did not return; various theories have tried to identify later descendants. See also Anglo-Israelism; Boudinot, Elias.

Tennent, Gilbert

(1703–64). Son of W. Tennent*; b. Armagh Co., Ireland; to US with his father ca. 1717/18; educ. in his father's “log coll.”; licensed to preach 1725; tutor in “log coll.”; Presb. pastor New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1726; joined G. Whitefield* 1740; Presb. pastor Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1743–4. See also Presbyterian Churches, 4 a.

Tennent, William

(1673–1746). Father of G. Tennent*; b. Ireland; educ. probably Dublin; Episc. priest 1706; to US ca. 1717/18; Presb. pastor New York and Pennsylvania See also Presbyterian Churches, 4 a.

Tennessee, Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Middle

(Syn. of Middle Tennessee; Middle Tennessee Syn.). Formed 1878 by mems. of the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Southern Illinois*; joined The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA 1879; united with Olive Branch Syn. (see Indiana Synod, Northern; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 8) 1894.

Tennyson, Alfred

(1809–92). Poet; b. Somersby, Lincolnshire, Eng.; educ. Cambridge. Works include Timbuctoo; The Palace of Art; Oenone; The Lady of Shalott; Locksley Hall; The Princess; Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington; The Charge of the Light Brigade; Maud; The Idylls of the King; Enoch Arden; Crossing the Bar; In Memoriam (tribute to Arthur Henry Hallam; offers a solution for conflicts bet. science and religion). See also Metaphysical Society, The.


(Theresa; T[h]eresa de Jesus; 1515–82). B. Ávila, Sp.; mystic; visionary reformer; Carmelite. Works include autobiography and El camino de la perfección (“The Way of Perfection”).


1. View that has fixed a certain term of grace accorded man as an individual. The Terministic Controversy raged in Germany ca. 1699–1704. Attempts were made to defend terminism on basis, e.g., of Mt 3:10; 7:21; 20:1–16; Heb 6:4–12; 2 Ptr 2:20–22. Opposition to terminism was based, e.g., on Is 65:2; Lk 23:34–43; Ro 5:20 and held that God desires the salvation of everyone during his whole life and that an abbreviated day of grace is due to self-hardening of the heart against the means of grace.*

2. Nominalism.* See also Ockham, William of.

Territorial System

(Territorialism). Theory that temporal rulers have, by virtue of their office, the right to govern the ch. and determine its doctrines; distinguished from collegialism.* See also Augsburg, Peace of; Polity, Ecclesiastical, 4; Thomasius, Christian.

Terry, Milton Spenser

(1840–1914). M. E. cleric; b. Coeymans, Albany Co., New York; educ. New York Conf. sem. Charlotteville, New York, and Yale Divinity School, New Haven, Connecticut; pastor near NYC; prof. Heb., OT exegesis, and theol. Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston, Illinois Works include Biblical Apocalyptics; Biblical Dogmatics; Biblical Hermeneutics.

Tersteegen, Gerhard

(Terstegen; TerSteegen; ter Steegen; Gerrit; 1697–1769). Prot. poet, devotional writer; b. Mörs (Moers), near Duisburg, Ger.; apprenticed 1713 to his brother-in-law, a merchant at Mülheim an der Ruhr; became an indep., merchant 1717, ribbon weaver 1719; turned to asceticism and seclusion; returned to society and began religious work ca. 1724, preaching, teaching, and helping the poor. Hymns, which include “Gott ist gegenwärtig,” pub. under title Geistliches Blumengärtlein. see also Hasenkamp, Johann Gerhard.


(Third Orders Secular). Several RC orders, besides having rules for monks and nuns, have a so-called Third Rule (hence the term tertiaries), under which laymen (men and women) can join these orders; mems. are called Tertiaries, Lay Franciscans, etc.. See also Sisterhoods.


(Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus; ca. 155/160–ca. 220/230). B. probably Carthage, son of a pagan centurion; schooled in rhetoric and jurisprudence; Christian perhaps ca. 190/195; catechist (or presbyter) Carthage. Held that the end, preceded by troubles and apostasy, was near, and that only the empire held off impending doom. Espoused Montanism* in later life. Wrote Gk. and Lat., esp. the latter. Known for epigrams, e.g., “The blood of Christians is seed” (Apol., chap. 50). Works include Apologeticus (defense of Christianity); De baptismo; Adversus Marcionem. See also Apologists, 10; Bible Versions, J 1; Fathers of the Church; Gnosticism, 9; Philosophy; Schools, Early Christian; Tradition. RPB

R. E. Roberts, The Theology of Tertullian (London, 1924); J. Morgan, The Importance of Tertullian in the Development of Christian Dogma (London, 1928 ); B. Nisters, Tertullian: Seine Persönlichkeit und sein Schicksal (Münster, 1950).

Test Act.

Passed 1673 in Eng.; required one to renounce the doctrine of transubstantiation and to take the oaths of supremacy and allegiance to the king in order to be eligible for pub. office; practically nullified after 1689; repealed 1828. The Corporation* Act of 1661 was also a test act.

Tetelbach, Johann(es)

(1517–after 1580 [perhaps ca. 1598]). B. Dinkelsbühl, W Bav., Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; pastor Dinkelsbühl; expelled 1549 for refusing to submit to Augsburg Interim*; pastor and conrector Holy Cross Ch., Dresden; pastor Meissen; supt. Chemnitz; expelled 1568 on suspicion of being a follower of M. Flacius* Illyricus; pastor Schwandorf, in the Upper Palatinate; supt. Burglengenfeld, Upper Palatinate, 1580. Works include Gülden Kleinrod Lutheri in Frag' und Antwort, an explanation of M. Luther's catechism.

Tetzel, Johann

(Diez; Tietze; Tezel[ius]; ca. 1465–1519). B. Pirna, near Meissen, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; Dominican ca. 1487/90; indulgence salesman. See also Indulgences; Luther, Martin, 8; Reformation, Lutheran, 8.

Teutsch, Friedrich

(1852–1933). Son of G. D. Teutsch*; b. Schässburg (Sighisoara; Segesvár), Sibiu province, cen. Romania, in Transylvania*; educ. Heidelberg, Leipzig, Berlin; held various positions; bp. of ev.. Saxons in Transylvania 1906; bp. of ev. ch. in Romania 1927. Works include Geschichte der ev. Kirche in Siebenbürgen.

Teutsch, Georg Daniel

(1817–93). Father of F. Teutsch*; b. Schässburg (Sighisoara; Segesvár), Sibiu province, cen. Romania, in Transylvania*; educ. Schässburg; teacher 1842, rector 1850 Gymnasium at Schässburg; pastor Agnetheln 1863; bp. of ev. Saxons in Transylvania 1867. Worked for ch. renewal and indep. of ch. from state.

Textual Criticism.

1. The branch of study that traces the hist. of the transmission of ancient texts with a view esp. to determine the most ancient form of a given text, thereby laying the basis for interpretation. Also called lower criticism because of its basic or primary character; cf. Higher Criticism.

2. There are perhaps ca. 200,000 variant readings in NT MSS (see Manuscripts of the Bible, 3 b); some arose inadvertently, others by design. Origen* tried to cope with some variants. A “Textus* receptus” gradually became standard; later studies hold some other readings in higher regard.

3. The importance of ancient versions and ch. fathers for NT textual criticism was recognized by J. Mills.* J. A. Bengel* noted “families” of MSS and formulated basic principles of textual criticism that emphasized preference for the more difficult readings. J. J. Wettstein* introd. a system of numbering MSS. See also Griesbach, Johann Jakob; Hort, Fenton John Anthony; Lachmann, Karl Konrad Friedrich Wilhelm; Lake, Kirsopp; Soden, Hans Karl Hermann von; Tischendorf, Lobegott Friedrich Constantin von; Westcott, Brooke Foss. FWD

See also Theology.

The New Testament in the Original Greek, ed. and rev. B. F. Westcott and F. J. A. Hort, 2 vols. (New York, 1882–89); A. Souter, The Text and Canon of the New Testament, rev. C. S. C. Williams, 2d ed. (London, 1954); W. Arndt, “The Chief Principles of New Testament Textual Criticism,” CTM, V (1934), 577–584; F. G. Kenyon, Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts, rev. A. W. Adams (London, 1958); E. E. Flack, “The Sacred Text: The Lutheran Evaluation of Biblical Criticism,” What Lutherans Are Thinking, ed. E. C. Fendt (Columbus, Ohio, 1947), pp. 48–71; I. M. Price, The Ancestry of Our English Bible, 3d rev. ed. W. A. Irwin and A. P. Wikgren (New York, 1956); B. M. Metzger, Annotated Bibliography of the Textual Criticism of the New Testament 1914–39; K. Aland, Kurzgefasste Liste der Griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testaments, I (Berlin, 1963) and Studien zur Überlieferung des Neuen Testaments und seines Textes (Berlin, 1967); Materialien zur neutestamentlichen Handschriftenkunde, I, ed. K. Aland (Berlin, 1969); Die alten Übersetzungen des Neuen Testaments, die Kirchenvüterzitate und Lektionare, ed. K. Aland (Berlin, 1972).

Textus receptus

(Lat. “received text”). Gen. accepted text of a literary work. The Gk. NT textus receptus is said to be traceable to ca. 300 or earlier; its form spread widely and came to be known as the Byzantine text and is in substance the text of the Complutensian Polyglot (see Lexicons, B; Polyglot Bibles), of D. Erasmus,* R. Estienne* I, and T. Beza.* The Lat. name reflects a phrase in the preface of the 2d ed. pub. by the Dutch Elzevir (Elzevier; Elsevier) family of publishers. The text underlies the KJV (see Bible Versions, L 8, 10–12). See also Lucian of Antioch; Textual Criticism, 2.

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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