Christian Cyclopedia

About the Cyclopedia


(from Lat. tabernaculum, “tent”). Secure, safe-like receptacle (e.g., cupboard or closet), often richly ornamented, used in RCm for vessels containing host* reserved for Communion outside mass and for adoration; usually attached to an altar.


(tabu; Tongan tabu). Set apart as venerable or as having dangerous supernatural power; forbidden to profane contact. Taboos have been used for various religious and soc. purposes. The term has also been used to designate warning signs used by primitive people. See also Ambivalence.


Radical group of Hussites*; named after Tabor, town S of Prague in the former kingdom of Boh. (later a province of W. Czechoslovakia) founded 1420 as a stronghold by J. Ziska (or Zizka) for his followers. See also Communistic Societies, 2.

Tabula rasa

(Lat. “blank tablet”). Term attached to a theory popularized esp. by J. Locke,* who held that man's mind begins as a blank slate, which receives impressions by sense perception (see Sensationalism) and later reflection. The term tabula rasa can be traced back at least as far as Aristotle,* Book 3, De anima, ch. 4. See also Psychology, G 1.

Tacitus, Cornelius

(ca. 55-after 117). Roman politician, orator, hist.; quaestor 79, praetor 88, consul 97. Works (titles occur in various forms) include Historiae; Germaniae; Annales.

Taffin, Jean

(probably ca. 1528/30–1602). B. Tournai; (Tournay; Flemish Doornik), Hainaut province, SW Belg.; perhaps educ. Geneva, Switz., under T. Beza* and J. Calvin*; preacher Metz, Antwerp, and Heidelberg; court preacher of William* I (William the Silent; prince of Orange); pastor Haarlem and Amsterdam. Works include Traicté de l'amendement de vie (tr. The Amendment of Life).


(Formosa). Is. ca. 90/110 mi. off the coast of Fukien province (SE mainland China). Taiwan (ca. 240 mi. long N to S, 85 mi. at its greatest width) is the seat of the Rep. of China (also known as Nationalist China), whose govt. uses the name Taiwan to include 13 or 14 other nearby islands and 64 more comprising the Penghu (Pescadores) group. Quemoy and Matsu, near the mainland, are also under control of the Rep. of China. Taiwan was ceded by China to Japan 1895, returned to China as a province 1945. “Taiwan” is a Chinese name meaning “Terraced Bay.” “Formosa” is shortened from “Ilha Formosa” (“Beautiful Isle”), 16th-c. Port. name.

Religions include Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Christianity. Christianity was brought to Taiwan by Dutch, who controlled the island from the 1620s to the 1660s. Eng. Presbs. began work 1865, Can. Presbs. 1872. RCs claim 2–3% of the pop. The Mustard Seed, Inc., HQ Glendale, California, was organized in the 1950s to support certain interdenom. work. LCMS work began 1951 (see Gruen, Olive Dorothy); a sem. was est. at Taipeh 1952, moved to Chia Yi 1954, combined with efforts of the Taiwan* Luth. Ch. (related to The ALC) in formation of a Federated Luth. Sem. at Taichung in the early 1970s. The 1st gen. conf. of The China Ev. Luth. Ch. (related to LCMS) was held September 1966; a const. was adopted 1968. Conc. Middle School was est. by LCMS at Chia Yi in the late 1960s. HRR

See also China, 9.

Li-wu Hang (Hah Lih-wu), Taiwan Today, rev. ed. (Taipei, Taiwan, 1952); (The) Taiwan Christian Yearbook (Taipei, 1960, 1964, 1968); H. K. Tong, Christianity in Taiwan: A History (Taipei, 1961); K. L. Wilson, Angel at Her Shoulder: Lillian Dickson and Her Taiwan Mission (New York, 1964).

Taiwan Lutheran Church.

Autonomous Luth. body organized 1954; a sem. was est. at Taipei 1957, later moved to Taichung (see also Taiwan).

Taizé, Community of

(Communauté de Taizé). Interdenom. and ecumenical Prot. monastic order founded 1940 at Taizé, near Cluny, Saône-et-Loire dept., E cen. Fr..


(from Gk. for “to complete; to initiate into mysteries”). Object engraved or cut with a character or sign and regarded as a good luck charm. See also Amulets.

Talley-Rand-Périgord, Charles Maurice de

(1754–1838). Statesman; b. Paris, Fr.; priest 1779; bp. Autun 1788; mem. States-Gen. 1789; proposed secularization of ch. property and termination of clergy privileges; excommunicated by pope 1791; minister of for. affairs 1797; helped frame 1801 Concordat (see Concordat, 5) and restore Bourbons at fall of Napoleon* I.

Talleyrand-Périgord, Alexandre Angélique de

(1736–1821). B. Paris, Fr.; abp. Reims 1777; abp. Paris and cardinal 1817; exponent of ecclesiastical rights.

Tallis, Thomas

(Tallys; Talys; probably ca. 1505/20–85). Eng. composer, organist; master of counterpoint. Hymn tunes include “Tallis' Canon,” in which the tenor begins the melody when the soprano is on the 5th melody note, and sings the last 4 melody notes while the soprano sings the first 4 (a kind of perpetual fugue.* Other works include the motet Spem in allure non habui for eight 5-voice choirs.

Talmage, Thomas de Witt

(1832–1902). Pulpit orator; b. near Bound Brook, New Jersey; studied law NYC, theol. at Dutch Ref. sem., New Brunswick, New Jersey Was pastor of Ref. chs. in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania 1856–69. Presb. pastor Brooklyn, New York, 1869–94; Washington, D. C., 1894–99. Works include The Abominations of Modern Society; Around the Teatable; The Bright and Morning Star; From Manger to Throne; Every-Day Religion.


(Heb. “teaching”). Name of 2 compilations (Babylonian and Palestinian) comprising Mishna(h) and Gemara.

Jewish law rests on the Pentateuch.* But changing conditions, esp. after the exile (see Babylonian Captivity, 1) required new decisions and laws long transmitted orally as a rabbinical supplement to the Pentateuch. This material, called Mishna (from Heb. for “repeat”), complete ca. 200 AD, was reduced to writing 200–500, with some material added later.

The Mishna became the text of a still more extended commentary called Gemara (Aramaic “completion”), which is, in effect, an encyclopedia of the knowledge of its times.

The Talmud is a legal source book in the sense that it contains matter connected with Jewish law; that which deals exclusively with the Law is called halakah (halacha[h]; Heb. “way”), the rest (illustrative, ethical, hist., biographical, legendary) is called Haggada(h) (from Heb. for “to tell”).

See also Akiba ben Joseph; Judaism, 2; Midrash; Tradition.


1. A Dravidian* language of Madras (in S India) and N and E Ceylon; closely related to Malayalam.* 2. Mem. of Tamil-speaking group. 3. Script used in writing Tamil.


(Tanchelijn; Tanchelinus; Tanquelm[us]; Tanquelin; Tandemus; d. perhaps ca. 1115 [or 1124/25?]). Flemish layman; itinerant preacher Sjaelland (Zealand), Antwerp, and Brugge (Bruges); denounced sacraments of the ch.; opposed lazy and immoral priests; persuaded many that they would be conformed to Christ by asceticism; followers called Tanchelmians.

Tanner, Adam

(Tannerus; 1572–1632). B. Innsoruck, Tirol, W Austria; d. Unken, near Salzburg; Jesuit 1519; prof. Ingolstadt, Ger., 1596, then Munich; active with J. Gretser* at the 1601 Regensburg* conf.; taught theol. at Vienna; chancellor U. of Prague; again prof. Ingolstadt. Works include Universa theologia scholastica, speculativa, practica.

Tanner, Jacob

(October 15, 1865–January 25, 1964). B. Molde, Norw.; educ. Christiania (Oslo); ordained in Norw. 1893; to US 1893; pastor Iowa, New York, and other states. Taught at Conc. Coll., Moorhead, Minnesota, 1916–24; Luther Sem., St. Paul, Minnesota, 1924–38. After retirement taught at Waldorf* Coll..


1. One of the 3 main religions of China (the others: Buddhism* and Confucianism*); traditionally founded by Lao-tzu.*

2. Taoism was first only philos.; it became an organized religion in the 5th c. AD and was made a state cult 440. Embodies elements of quietism.* Named after tao (a key term in all ancient Chinese philos, schools; hard to translate; has been rendered, e.g., “way; truth; doctrine; path; road; course; reason; principle; logos [Gk. 'word'; cf. Jn 1:1]”); has been regarded as the eternal and ubiquitous, or universal, impersonal principle, or Spirit, by which the universe was produced and is supported and governed (see also Chinese Philosophy, 2), a kind of primary or first cause (see Causa secunda); other concepts include nature, providence, order of the universe, rotation of the seasons, time, absolute. Hence, acc. to Taoism, all true virtue and the highest goal of human development consists in being one with tao. He who in self-effacement, suppression of desire, and in meditation tries to understand tao will not perish in death but be saved. Lao-tzu emphasized welfare of the individual, advocating gentleness, moderation, modesty, and love for one's fellowmen.

3. Taoism began to degenerate after Chuang-tzu. It became intertwined with Buddhism, which was introd. into China during the Han dynasty (202 BC–220 AD).

4. Modern Taoism (regarded as founded by Chang Tao-ling [fl. 1st c. AD]) is characterized by superstitious magic, occultism, and a quest for the elixir of immortality. Its pantheon, which to some extent reflects docetic Buddhism, includes San-Ch'ing (“Three Pure Ones,” of which Lao-tzu is the 3d). Yü Hwang Shang-ti (Yü-huang shang-ti) is the supreme Taoist god. There are gods for almost everything (e.g., stars, ancestors, parts of the body, ideals, famous hist. beings), temples, a priesthood, and a monastic system with a kind of “pope” (who, however, is not recognized as head by all the Taoist priesthood). Confucianism gained ascendancy over Taoism, but the latter's spirit of harmony, naturalism, peace, and simplicity continues to mark and mold Chinese life.

See also Chinese Philosophy, 5; Chinese Term Question.

See bibliography of Religion, Comparative.

Tappan, William Bingham

(1794–1849). B. Beverly. Massachusetts; apprenticed to clockmaker Boston 1810; employed by American* S. S. Union 1822; licensed as Cong. minister 1840; poet. Hymns include “There Is an Hour of Peaceful Rest.”

Tappert, Theodore Gerhardt

(May 5, 1904–December 25, 1973). B. Meriden, Connecticut; educ. Wagner Coll., Staten Is., New York, and Lutheran Theol. Sem., Mount Airy, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Ordained ULC 1930. Prof. Lutheran Theol. Sem., Mount Airy. Tr. and ed. in collaboration with others, The Book of Concord. Coed. and cotr. The Journals of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg. Tr. and ed. M. Luther's Letters of Spiritual Counsel. Jt. tr. A. H. Böhmer's Der junge Luther (Eng. title Road to Reformation). Ed. The Lutheran Quarterly; Lutheran World Review; Lutheran Confessional Theology in America 1840–1880; Selected Writings of Martin Luther. Tr. Here We Stand (from the Ger. of H. Sasse). Other works include The Church Through the Ages; “Christology and Lord's Supper in the Perspective of History,” A Reexamination of Lutheran and Reformed Traditions, II: Christology, The Lord's Supper and Its Observance in the Church, pp. 21–35; The Church in the Changing World; The Lord's Supper: Past and Present Practices.

Taranger, Absalon

(1858–1930). Norw. Luth. jurist; studied theol. and jurisprudence; prof. hist. of law Christiania (Oslo) 1898–1928; also taught ch. law in practical sem. Christiania; advocated separation of ch. and state. Works include textbook on Norw. ch. law.

Tarnow, Johann

(Johannes Tarnov; Joannes Tarnovius; 1586–1629). Nephew of P. Tarnow*; Luth. theol.; b. Grevesmühlen, Mecklenburg, N Ger.; educ. Rostock, Strasbourg, Basel, Giessen; prof. Rostock 1614; used grammaticohistorical* method. Works include Exercitationes biblicae.

Tarnow, Paul

(Tarnov; 1562–1633). Uncle of J. Tarnow*; b. Grevesmühlen, Mecklenburg, N Ger.; educ. Rostock; prof. Rostock 1607. Works include a commentary on John's Gospel; writings on ministry and Trin.

Tast, Hermann

(1490–1551). B. Husum, Schleswig-Holstein, NW Ger.; vicar St. Mary, Husum, 1514; began preaching Luth. doctrine 1522; reformer of Husum and W coast of Sehleswig.


(Tatianus; perhaps ca. 110/120—perhaps ca. 172/180). Apologist; b. perhaps E Syria, perhaps of Gk. parents; studied philos.; to Rome perhaps ca. 150/152; pupil of Justin* Martyr; denounced Gk. mythology and philos.; after Justin Martyr's death Tatian engaged in Gnostic speculation (see Gnosticism); Encratite. Works include Oratio ad Graecos; Diatessaron (gen. dated shortly after the middle of the 2d c.).

See also Apologists, 8; Encratism.

Tauler, Johann(es)

(Taler; Taweler; Tauweler; ca. 1300–61). “Doctor illuminatus”; Ger. mystic; b. Strasbourg; Dominican ca. 1315/18; studied at Cologne; active in Strasbourg, from which he and other Dominicans were driven 1339 by interdict of John XXII (see Popes, 13) in conflict with Louis* IV; settled in Basel, Switz.; assoc. with Friends* of God; returned to Strasbourg. Noted preacher. Works include sermons; Medulla animae. See also Mysticism.

Taurellus, Nikolaus

(1547–1606). B. Montbéliard, Fr.; educ. Tübingen, Ger.; prof. medicine and physics Altdorf, near Nürnberg; exponent of Luth. orthodoxy combined with Aristotelian humanism; held that the human spirit was not essentially changed by the fall; combined natural and revealed knowledge and made philos. basic to theol..

Tausen, Hans

(1494–1561). Reformer; b. on Fyn. Den.; entered a monastery; studied at Rostock 1516–19; taught Copenhagen; studied under M. Luther 1523; preached Reformation doctrines Viborg and Copenhagen, also taught Copenhagen; bp. Ribe 1542. Helped est. schools. Tr. Pentateuch into Dan.; helped provide a Dan. agenda. See also Denmark, Lutheranism in, 2.

Tavaszy, Sándor

(1888–1951). Hung. ref. theol.; educ. Klausenburg (Cluj, in Transylvania*), Jena, Berlin; prof. Klausenburg. Works include Weltmission des Calvinismus.

Taverner, Richard

(1505?–75). B. Brisley, Norfolk, Eng.; educ. Cambridge and Oxford; clerk of privy seal 1536; licensed to preach 1552; removed from office of accession of Mary* I; sheriff of Oxford under Elizabeth* I. Works include The confessyon of the fayth of the Germaynes; The Epistles and Gospelles with a brief Postyl upon the same. See also Bible Versions, L 6.

Taylor, James Hudson

(1832–1905). B. Barnsley, Yorkshire, Eng.; studied medicine; left for China 1853 (arrived 1854) as 1st agent of short-lived Chinese Evangelization Soc., from which he resigned after ca. 3 yrs.; worked as indep. miss.; returned to Eng. 1860; founded China* Inland Mission 1865 and served it till he died. Works include China: Its Spiritual Need and Claims.

Taylor, Jeremy

(1613–67). “The Chrysostom of Eng.”; Angl. prelate; b. Cambridge, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; lectured at St. Paul's, London; renowned preacher; chaplain to W. Laud* and Charles* I (see Presbyterian Confessions, 1); after fall of Royalists, taught school in Wales; bp. Down and Connor 1661. Works include A Discourse of the Liberty of Prophesying; The Rule and Exercises of Holy Living; The Rule and Exercises of Holy Dying; A Course of Sermons for All the Sundays of the Year; The Golden Grove (devotions). See also Arminianism.

Taylor, John

(1808–87). B. Milnthorpe, Westmoreland Co., Eng., of nominally Angl. parents; apprenticed to learn the trades of cooper and turner; Meth. preacher ca. 1825; to Toronto, Can., 1832; briefly assoc. with Irvingites (see Irving, Edward); bapt. Mormon 1836; with Mormons to Missouri 1838; Mormon apostle 1838. Ed. Times and Seasons (official Mormon periodical) and owned and pub. Nauvoo Neighbor (newspaper) at Nauvoo, Illinois; to Utah with B. Young*; mem. territorial legislature 1857–76; probate judge Utah Co. 1868–70; territorial supt. of schools 1877; acting pres. of the Utah branch of the Mormon Ch. 1877, pres. 1880. Mississippi (from 1840) to Eng., Ireland, Scot., Isle of Man., Fr., Ger. Est. The Mormon (newspaper) New York 1854. Practices plural marriage; went into voluntary exile to escape arrest 1884. Works include An Examination into and an Elucidation of the Great Principle of the Mediation and Atonement of Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. See also Latter Day Saints, b.

Taylor, Nathaniel William

(1786–1858). Cong. theol.; b. New Milford, Connecticut; educ. Yale Coll., New Haven, Connecticut; prof. didactic theol. Yale Divinity School 1822–58; revival preacher; representative of New* Eng. theol. and New* Haven theol. Works include Practical Sermons; Lectures on the Moral Government of God; Concio ad clerum (sermon).

Taylor, Thomas Rawson

(1807–35). Cong. minister; b. Ossett, near Wakefield, Yorkshire, Eng.; pastor Sheffield 1830; tutor Airedale Coll., Bradford; hymnist; died of consumption. Hymns include “I'm But a Stranger Here.”

Taylor, William

(1821–1902). Meth. Episc. miss.; b. Rockbridge Co., Virginia; connected with Baltimore Conf. of the M. E. Ch. in the 1840s; miss. to California 1849–56; evangelist in E US 1856–62, Eng. and Australia 1862–66, India 1870–75, Eng. 1875, S. Am. 1877–84; bp. for Afr. 1884–96. Works include Ten Years of Self-supporting Missions in India.

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

Internet Version Produced by
The Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod

Original Editions ©Copyright 1954, 1975, 2000
Concordia Publishing House
All rights reserved.

Content Reproduced with Permission

Stay Connected! Join the LCMS Network:

Contact Us Online
(Staff Switchboard)
(Church Info Center)
1333 S Kirkwood Rd
Saint Louis, MO 63122-7226 | Directions


Featured Publication

The Lutheran Witness

LCMS Communications

Interpreting the contemporary world from a Lutheran Christian perspective.
Visit TLW Online