Christian Cyclopedia

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Sydow, Karl Leopold Adolf

(1800–82). B. Berlin, Ger.; pastor military school Berlin 1822; court preacher Potsdam 1836; pastor Berlin 1848–76. Tried to develop scientific and critical NT study. Cofounder Unierte Kirchenzeitung and Ger. Protestant* Union.

Syllabus of Errors.

Eighty RC theses condemning “the principal [Lat. praecipuos] errors of our time” condemned by Pins IX (see Popes, 28); issued 1864 with encyclical Quanta cura (see Encyclicals); not signed by Pius IX.

Propositions condemned include statements on pantheism, naturalism, rationalism, indifferentism, latitudinarianism, socialism, communism, secret socs., Bible socs., clerical-liberal socs., ch. rights, ch. and state, ethics.

Reactions varied. Some regarded the theses as absolute and untenable; others regarded them as relative and conditioned by hist. roots. The latter opinion seems to prevail in RCm today. JEG

See also Roman Catholic Confessions, D.

R. Aubert, “Monseigneur Dupanloup et le Syllabus,” Revue d'Histoire Écclésiastique, LXI (1956), 79–142, 471–512, 837–915; J. Schmidlin, Papstgeschichte der neuesten Zeit, II (Munich, 1934); E. E. Y. Hales, Pio Nono (New York, 1962).

Sylvester, Johannes

(Johann; Janos; Erdösi; ca. 1504–ca. 1552). Hung. humanist, reformer; b. Szinyerváralja (Szinér-Váralja; Seine); educ. Kraków and Wittenberg; prof. Heb. 1544, hist. 1552 Vienna; banished by Jesuits. Tr.. NT.


1. Creed; summary of doctrine or faith; confession of faith used as a distinctive emblem. See also Creeds and Confessions; Ecumenical Creeds; Symbolics; Symbolists. 2. Visible sign of something. See also Art, Ecclesiastical and Religious; Symbolism, Christian; Worship, 7. 3. Anything (e.g., a word, abbreviation, name, nickname, sound, motion, color, action, pain or other sensation) that symbolizes, means, indicates, or designates something. See also “D”; “E”; “J”; “P.”

Religious Symbolism, ed. F. E. Johnson (New York, 1955); C. W. Morris, Signs, Language and Behavior (NYC, 1946); N. O. Schedler, “Paul Tillich's Theory of Symbol,” unpub. STM thesis (Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1958); G. Ferguson, Signs & Symbols in Christian Art (NYC, 1959); T. A. Stafford, Christian Symbolism in the Evangelical Churches (NYC, 1942); F. R. Webber, Church Symbolism (Cleveland, Ohio, 1938).

Symbolic Books

(symbolical books). Books containing creeds (see Symbol, 1) of a ch. See also Book of Concord.


Branch of theol. knowledge dealing with creeds of the ch.. Comparative symbolics is the comparative study of creeds. See also Symbol, 1.

Symbolism, Christian.

1. A cross* or crucifix* has been used from early NT times as a symbol (see Symbol, 2) of Christ's crucifixion or of Christianity.

2. Figures of Christ and the evangelists came to be used, often with identifying objects (e.g., the instrument of death: Christ with cross in hand; the evangelists, each with a copy of his gospel, and Matthew with a battle-ax, Mark with a club, Luke with a short-handled ax). The evangelist John is sometimes pictured with his gospel and with a chalice out of which a serpent is rising (in reference to the tradition that a priest of Diana gave him poisoned wine to drink, but John made the sign of the cross over the cup and the poison left in the form of a serpent).

Matthew is sometimes shown as a winged man (because he stressed the incarnation of Christ), or with a lion* (symbol of royalty), or with 3 purses or a money chest (in reference to his original calling; cf. Mt 10:3; Lk 5:27); Mark is sometimes assoc. with the winged man, sometimes with a lion (“the voice of one crying in the wilderness,” Mk 1:3), sometimes with an eagle (symbol of grace); Luke is sometimes assoc. with the lion or with a calf or ox (because he gives a full account of the sacrificial death of Christ); John is sometimes assoc. with a lion (because he speaks of the divine nature and kingly office of Christ) or eagle (because his gospel soars, as it were, on eagles' wings to the throne of heaven). Cf. Rv 4:7.

3. The 12 apostles are often similarly assoc. with identifying objects (e.g., Peter with 2 keys [for binding and loosing], Mt 16:19; Andrew with an X-shaped cross [on which he is said to have died], or with fish, or a boathook, or a fisherman's net [cf. Mk 1:16]; James with shells, or a pilgrim's staff, wallet, or hat [symbols of pilgrimage and missionary journeying], or a sword [cf. Acts 12:2]). Paul is sometimes assoc., e.g., with an open Bible bearing the Lat. words Spiritus gladius (“Sword of the Spirit”) and a cross-hilted sword behind the Bible, or with a shield (cf. Eph 6:16), or with a serpent and fire (cf. Acts 28:3–6), or a scourge (cf. Acts 16:23, 37; 2 Co 11:24).

4. Stephen is pictured with several stones lying at his feet (cf. Acts 7:59–60). Columba (see Celtic Church, 7) is pictured with a coracle (small boat with wicker frame covered by leather or hide; used by ancient Britons). Boniface* is pictured with a fallen oak at his feet (it is said that, when he was told at Geismar, Ger., that to touch the ancient oak sacred to Thor [god of thunder] meant instant death, he felled it with an ax) or with a Bible transfixed by a sword (it is said that at his martryrdom he held a Bible which was struck by the swords of those who killed him). Agnes* was called agna sanctissima (“most holy lamb”) and is pictured with a lamb. Lawrence* is pictured with a gridiron, said to have been the instrument of his death.

5. IHC uses the 1st 3 letters of the Gk. word for “Jesus” as an abbreviation (I = J; H = Gk. for E [capital eta]; C = Gk. for S [capital sigma]). IHS is not a proper reproduction of the Gk. but a mixture of Gk. and Eng.. Also not valid is the suggestion that the H is not an E and that the letters stand for the Ger. Jesus, Heiland, Seligmacher (“Jesus, Redeemer, Savior”), or for the Lat. In Hoc Signo (see Constantine I), or (as suggested by Bernardino* of Siena) for the Lat. Iesus, Hominum Salvator (“Jesus, Mankind's Savior”). In this symbol the “I” should, of course, not be changed to “J”; the Gk. had no “J.”

The Chi-Rho symbol uses the 1st 2 letters of the Gk. word for “Christ” as an abbreviation (X is the capital Gk. letter for Eng. “Ch” and is called Chi; P is the capital Gk. letter for Eng. “R,” is called Rho, and is sometimes pictured in the form of a shepherd's crook. The 2 letters are sometimes superimposed one on the other.

See also Alpha and Omega; Fish.


(derived from “symbol*” in the sense of “confession of faith used as a distinctive emblem”). Name applied by adherents of “American* Lutheranism” to confessional Luths.. (see Old Lutherans).

Symeon Metaphrastes

(Simeon; Logothetes [Gk., primarily “one who audits accounts”; administrative functionary under a Byzantine emp.]; fl. ca. 960; d. perhaps ca. 976/977). Byzantine hagiographer; reworked (“metaphrased”) some biographies, hence his name. His compilation was later expanded. See also Menologion, 3.


(from Gk. synagoge, “assembly; meeting place”). Jewish place of worship, and, since the destruction of the temple, the only such place. Its furniture includes an “ark” (box, cabinet, or shrine for the sacred scrolls) and a platform from which Scripture is read. In some cases an area is set aside for women.


(synaxary; synaxarium; plurals: synaxaria or synaxaries; from the Greek synaxis, from synagein, “to gather together”). Term used in reference to E Orthodox cultus for 1. short life of a saint or exposition of a feast included in the Menaion* and appointed to be read at early morning service; 2. Greater Synaxarion: book containing synexaria arranged acc. to calendar. At times used interchangeably with Menologion*; 3. Lesser Synaxarion: book listing feasts for each day, with pericopic notes (see Pericope).


(from Gk. for “union; federation” and perhaps assoc. with Gk. for “mix, mingle”). Union, or effort to unite; in religious context practically a synonym for unionism.*

The term is used mainly in reference to 3 controversies: (1) That which began after the 1645 Colloquy of Thorn* (see Poland, 4; Reformed Confessions, D 3 c), involved G. Calixtus,* and ended with the latter's death 1656; Calixtus tried to unite Prots. with each other and with RCs. See also Dorsche, Johann Georg. (2) That which extended from the 1661 Colloquy of Cassel* to 1669, when an order (probably originating from Frederick* William of Brandenburg) to refrain from literary polemics was heeded. An interim of quiet followed till 1675. See also Gerhardt, Paul(us). (3) That which began 1675, when A. Calov(ius)* renewed the conflict, and ended with his death 1686.

Syncretistic notions of the 17th c. led to union movements in the 20th c.. See Union Movements, 8–16; Union and Unity Movements, Lutheran, in the United States.


(from Gk. synergeo, “to work with”). In religious context the term refers to the concept of man cooperating with God in his own conversion.* The concept of synergism developed out of an attempt to solve an apparent contradiction. Scripture teaches the native corruption of man (Jn 3:6), that God provided all-inclusive redemption (Eze 33:11; Jn 3:16; 2 Co 5:19; 1 Ti 2:4), and that man is saved by faith (Mk 16:16; Gl 3:11).

Three views have been held regarding the “how” of conversion: (1) God alone brings man to faith; (2) man unilaterally decides to believe; (3) man cooperates with God (God begins, man completes conversion; or vice versa). Gen. speaking, the synergistic view holds that man is by nature not altogether spiritually dead and that some resist God's call to faith less violently than others.

The synergistic view rests on such arguments as these: (1) if one can do nothing in his conversion, he will become careless and fatalistic; (2) the call to repent (Mk 1:15; Acts 2:38) implies power to repent; (3) if man is entirely passive, conversion is mechanical; (4) God makes conversion possible, man makes it real; (5) since man can hinder conversion (Mt 23:37; Lk 7:30) he can also cooperate in it; (6) ability to resist implies ability to cease resisting.

Scripture teaches that man is by nature spiritually dead (Jn 5:24; Eph 2:1) and antagonistic to spiritual things (Ro 8:7–8; 1 Co 2:14) and that man is saved by God's grace, not by works (Eph 2:8–10). Whatever synergism there is, in the proper sense of the term, follows conversion and is a result of God's monergism in man's conversion (Jn 6:44, 63–65; Ro 9:16; 2 Co 4:6; 5:17; 6:1; Eph 4:24; Cl 1:13). EMP

See also Synergistic Controversy.

E. M. Plass, “Synergism,” The Abiding Word, II, ed. T. F. C. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1947), 299–321.

Synergistic Controversy.

In the 2d ed. of his Loci (1535), P. Melanchthon* taught 3 cooperating causes in conversion: (1) God's Word; (2) the Holy Spirit; (3) man's will not resisting God's Word. Like D. Erasmus,* he ascribed to man the ability to apply himself to grace. This synergistic view found expression in the Leipzig Interim* 1548. But controversy did not arise till J. Pfeffinger* formulated Melanchthonian theses on free* will 1555. J. Stoltz* countered with 110 theses 1556 and was supported by N. v. Amsdorf* and M. Flacius* Illyricus. V. Strigel* was imprisoned 1569 for opposing the 1568–69 Konfutationsbuch.* Synergism was debated at Weimar August 2–8, 1560 (see also Weimar, Colloquies and Conventions of); Strigel held that the unconverted had latent power to cooperate in conversion; Flacius opposed Strigel and was supported by all true Luths. and by the Philippists* of Wittenberg.

The Konfutationsbuch was now enforced so rigorously, esp. by J. Wigand* and M. Judex,* that John* Frederick II countered July 8, 1561, by depriving ministers of the right to excommunicate and vesting this power in a consistory est. at Weimar. Flacius and his adherents protested against this measure in the name of freedom of conscience and of the ch., where only Christ and His Word are to decide. Flacius, Wigand, Judex, and J. Musäus* were suspended and expelled from Jena December 10, 1561. Strigel was reinstated at Jena May 24, 1562, after signing an ambiguous declaration. J. Stössel* drew up a declaration intending to explain Strigel's declaration in an acceptable way, but only made matters worse; Strigel refused to sign it and 40 Thuringian pastors who refused to sign both Strigel's and Stössel's declarations were deposed and exiled.

Johann Wilhelm (d. 1573) succeeded John Frederick II 1567 and issued an edict January 16, 1568, supporting Luth. orthodoxy; the Philippists left Jena; Flacians (except Flacius) returned. The 1568–69 Altenburg* Colloquy reached unsuccessfully for final solution, which came 1571 in the Final Report and Declaration of the Theologians of Both Universities Leipzig and Wittenberg; it includes this: “Consideration and reception of God's Word and voluntary beginning of obedience in the heart arises out of that which God has begun graciously to work in us.” Difference of terminology in explanation persisted. FC I and II reject the extremes of Strigel and Flacius and teach that man is purely passive in his conversion but cooperates with God after conversion.

See also Synergism.


(ca. 370–ca. 414). B. Cyrene, Libya, Afr.; studied at Alexandria, Egypt, under Hypatia*; Neoplatonist; influenced by Origen*; married a Christian wife 403 with the blessing of Theophilus,* patriarch of Alexandria; bp. Ptolemais (chosen 410, consecrated 411 by Theophilus); opposed Anomoeans*; Credited with 10 hymns. Other works include Oratio de regno; De providentia; De insomniis; Epistolae.

MPG, 66, 1021–1616.

Synodical Conference.

1. Fed. of Am. Luth. synods organized 1872 as Evangelisch-lutherische Synodal-Conferenz (Ev. Luth. Synodical Conf.) Proceedings call it Ev. Luth. Syn. Conf. of N. Am..

In 1856 the hope was expressed in Lehre und Wehre, II, 3–5, that the Luth. Ch. in Am. would be one, united by sincere and unqualified acceptance of Scripture and the Luth. Confessions, and all Luths. who were confessionally minded were invited to meet with that in view. This led to conferences 1856–59 (see Free Lutheran Conferences, 1).

Renewed confessional crisis in the 1860s (see United States, Lutheran Theology in the, 7; United States, Lutheranism in the, 8) and est. of the General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (N.) Am. led to renewed interest in a confessional intersyn. body. See also Four Points. The more staunchly confessional syns. rallied around the Mo. Syn., which reached fellowship agreement with the Wisconsin* Syn. 1869, the Ohio Syn. 1868–72 (see Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, The, V 15), the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Illinois* 1872; agreement bet. the Mo. Syn. and the Minnesota* Syn. was reached, at the June 1872 Minnesota Syn. conv., after discussion bet. that syn. and Mo. Syn. representatives; fraternal relations had existed bet. the Mo. Syn. and the Norw. Syn. (see Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 8–13) since 1857.

2. Preliminary meetings were held January 11–13, 1871, Chicago, Illinois, and November 14–16, 1871, Fort Wayne, Indiana Formal organization took place at a meeting held July 10–16, 1872, Milwaukee, Wisconsin Charter mems.; Mo. Syn., Ohio Syn., Wisconsin Syn., Norw. Syn., Illinois Syn., Minnesota Synod. Vice-pres. W. F. Lehmann*; secy. J. P. Beyer.* See also United States, Lutheran Theology in the, 11.

3. The recommendation adopted 1876 that the theol. schools of mem. syns. be combined into 1 school and that it and the teachers sem. come under Syn. Conf. supervision was frustrated by the predestinarian* controversy of the 1880s. State syns. were recommended 1876, to eliminate fragmentation and unite into 1 organization all congs. within a given State or territory, except for language divisions; accordingly, the Ev. Luth. Concordia* Syn. of Virginia, which joined the Syn. Conf. 1876, became the Conc. Dist. of the Ohio Syn. 1877 and the Illinois Syn. merged with the Illinois Dist. of the Mo. Syn. 1880. Disruption of the Syn. Conf. in the early 1880s prevented further moves in this direction.

4. As a result of the predestinarian* controversy the Ohio Syn. withdrew from the Syn. Conf. 1881, the Norw. Syn. 1883. Dissidents in the Ohio Syn. withdrew from this syn. and organized the Ev. Luth. Concordia* Syn. of Pennsylvania and Other States, which joined the Syn. Conf. 1882, disbanded and merged with the Mo. Syn. 1886. The Gen. Eng. (Ev.) Luth. Conf. of Missouri and Other States (see Missouri and Other States, The English Evangelical Lutheran Synod of) joined the Syn. Conf. 1890, became a Mo. Syn. dist. 1911. The Michigan* Syn. joined the Syn. Conf. 1892. The Ev. Luth. Dist. Syn. of Nebraska and Other States joined the Syn. Conf. 1906 (final approval 1910), became a dist. of the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, and Other States 1917 (see also Nebraska, German Evangelical Lutheran District Synod of). The Slovak Ev. Luth. Ch. (see Synod of Evangelical Lutheran Churches) joined the Syn. Conf. 1906 (final approval 1910).

5. The Syn. Conf. acknowledged the canonical writings of the OT and NT as God's Word and the 1580 Book of Concord as its confessional standard.

6. Purposes: external expression of the spiritual unity of mem. syns.; mutual strengthening in faith and confession; promotion of unity in doctrine and practice and elimination of actual or threatening disturbance thereof; united action for common aims; geog. delimitation of mem. syns. except for necessary language divisions; consolidation of all Luth. syns. in Am. into 1 orthodox Am. Luth. Ch..

7. The Syn. Conf. was only an advisory body in all matters in which it had not been given decisive power by all mem. syns. Negro miss. work in the US and Afr. was the only major activity of the Syn. Conf. (see also Africa, C 14; Alpha Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Freedmen in America; Missions, 10).

8. Charges against the Missouri Syn. of improper relations with other Luth. bodies and of growing doctrinal laxity led to withdrawal 1963 of the Wisconsin* Ev. Luth. Syn. and the Evangelical* Luth. Syn. from the Syn. Conf., which became inactive 1966. It was dissolved 1967.

9. Pres.: C. F. W. Walther* (Mo. Syn.) 1872–73; W. F. Lehmann* (Ohio Syn.) 1873–76, 1877–80; H. A. Preus* (Norw. Syn.) 1876–77; P. L. Larsen* (Norw. Syn.) 1880–82; J. Bading* (Wisconsin Syn.) 1882–1912; C. F. W. Gausewitz* (Wis. Syn.) 1912–27; L. E. Fuerbringer* (Mo. Syn.) 1927–44; E. B. Schlüter* (Wis. Syn.) 1944–50; G. C. Barth* (Mo. Syn.) 1950–52; W. A. Baepler* (Mo. Syn.) 1952–56; John Samuel Bradác (SELC) 1956–60; John Daniel of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania (SELC) 1960–67. WDU

J. T. Mueller, A Brief History of the Origin, Development, and Work of the Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America, Prepared for Its Diamond Jubilee 1872–1947 (St. Louis, [1948]); W. D. Uhlig, “The Origin of the Synodical Conference,” unpub. STM thesis (Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1965).

Synod of Dort

(1574, 1578, and 1618–19). See Dordrecht, Synods of.

Synod of Evangelical Lutheran Churches.

1. A few Slovaks came to the US in the 1770s; others came as a result of the 1848 revolution in Hung., settling in Chicago, Illinois, and elsewhere. Measures resulting from Hung. dominance led many more to leave their homeland (see Czechoslovakia) and settle in Pennsylvania, New York, Illinois, Minnesota, California, and the Northwest, including Washington and Alaska, in the last decades of the 19th and first decades of the 20th c..

2. In Eur. the founders of the Syn. of Ev. Luth. Chs. had been mems. of the Luth. Ch. (see Czechoslovakia, 5–7; Slovakia, Lutheran Theology in). Congs. were organized at Freeland, Pennsylvania, 1883; Streator, Illinois, 1884; Mount Carmel and Nanticoke, Pennsylvania, and Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1888; Tabor, Minnesota, 1889. Others followed in the 1890s in Illinois, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, New Jersey, Ohio, New York, Minnesota. For various reasons, including lack of regular and properly indoctrinated Slovak pastors and teachers, some congs. were not strictly confessional Luth..

3. A “Seniorate” was formed by a small group early June 1894 at Mahanoy City, Pennsylvania, but soon died, apparently for lack of real spiritual union. Official organ: Cirkevne� Listy (“Church Letters”).

4. Three pastoral conferences were held in Pennsylvania (June 9, 1899, Wilkes-Barre; January 16–17, 1900, and June 4, 1902, Braddock) with a view to organize a Slovak Luth. syn. Organization of the Slovak Ev. Luth. Ch. (Slovensk-evanjelicka� augsburgske&140;ho vyznania celocirkev v Spojenych sta�toch americkych, “The Slovak Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in the United States of America,” abbreviated S. E. A. V. C.) took place at a meeting held September 2–4, 1902, at St. Peter Luth. Ch., Connellsville, Pennsylvania Official organ: Luthera�n (“The Lutheran”).

Original (1903) charter name: Celocirkev cili Synoda ev. a. v. slovenska� Pennsylva�nska� (“The Slovak Evangelical Church or Synod of the Augsburg Confession in Pennsylvania”). Joined Synodical* Conf. 1908. New charter name (1913): Slovak Evangelical Lutheran Synod of the United States of America. See also 6.

5. Controversies threatening disruption and concerning confessional prayer (whether it is necessary to state Christ's deity in a prayer which mentions Him), announcement for Communion, and open Communion arose by 1905. The first was soon settled; the others continued to some extent for ca. 2 decades.

6. Charter amended January 24, 1945, changed name to Slovak Ev. Luth. Ch. (Slovenska� Evanjelicka� Lutera�nska Cirkev).

7. Name changed 1959 to Syn. of Ev. Luth. Chs..

8. SELC pastors and teachers were educ. in Missouri Syn. colleges and sems.. For some time the SELC had a prof. of Slovak in Missouri Syn. schools (e.g., Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois).

9. The SELC was governed by elected officers and a bd. of directors and held regular convs. every 2 yrs..

10. Funds for for., Negro, and Jewish missions were channeled through the Missouri Syn. and Syn. Conf. respectively; missions in Can. and Argentina were administered by the SELC.

11. Official SELC organs: Svedok—The Witness and Lutheran Beacon (the latter ceased pub. at end of 1970).

12. SELC youth organized the Slovak Luther League (later simply Luther League) at St. Paul Luth. Ch., Whiting, Indiana, September 5, 1927. Official organ: The Courier.

13. SELC created a Publication Department. Publications included Symbolicke� knihy (the Book of Concord) and Pi�sne Duchovni� (Slovak hymnal first issued 1636 by J. Tranovský.*

14. Services were held in Eng. and Slovak; The Lutheran Hymnal was used.

15. SELC est. Lutheran Haven at Oviedo, Florida, with services for aging, families, and children.

16. The SELC Army and Navy Bd. operated in conjunction with the corresponding LCMS commission. JSB

17. SELC pres.: Daniel Jonaten Záboj Laucek 1902–05; John Pelikán 1905–13; Stephen Tuhy 1913–19; J. Pelikán 1919–21; John Somora 1921–22; John Samuel Bradác 1922–39; Andrew Daniel 1939–49; Paul Rafaj 1949–63; John Kovac 1963–69; Milan A. Ontko 1969–71.

18. SELC became an LCMS dist. January 1, 1971.

See also Lutheran Council in the United States of America.

Synod of Orange

(Arausio, SE Fr.). First Syn. of Orange, 441 (see Advowson). Second Syn. of Orange, 529 (see Pelagian Controversy, 11).


See entries beginning Synod … and Synodical.…

Synods, Extinct.

Extinct (either no longer existing or no longer existing under the names given) syns. include Alleghany Syn.; Alpha Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. of Freedmen in Am.; Augsburg Syn.; Buffalo Syn.; Cen. Can., Ev. Luth. Syn. of; Chicago Syn.; Conc. Syn. of Pennsylvania and Other States, Ev. Luth.; Conc. Syn. of the West; Conc. Syn. of Virginia, Ev. Luth.; Franckean Syn.; Georgia Syn.; Hartwick Syn.; Hauge Syn.; Holston Syn.; Illinois Syn. (1846–67); Illinois Syn. (1867–80); Illinois, Ev. Luth. Syn. of Cen.; Illinois, Ev. Luth. Syn. of Cen. and Southern; Illinois, Ev. Luth. Syn. of Northern; Illinois, Ev. Luth. Syn. of Southern; Immanuel Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in N. Am.; Indiana Syn. (I); Indiana Syn. (II); Indiana Syn., Northern; Indianapolis, Ger. Ev. Luth. Syn. of; Iowa and Other States, Ev. Luth. Syn. of; Kentucky Syn. (Ev. Luth. Syn. of Kentucky); Man. and Other Provinces, The Ger. Ev. Luth. Syn. of; Man. and the NW Territories, Syn. of; Maryland, Ev. Luth. Syn. of (Maryland Syn.); Maryland, Ger. Syn. of; Maryland and Adjacent States, Ger. Ev. Luth. Syn. of (Ger. Syn. of Maryland and the South; Ger. Syn. of Maryland; Maryland and the South Syn.); Maryland and Virginia, The Ev. Luth. Syn. of; Melanchthon Syn.; Miami Syn.; Michigan Syn. (Missionary Syn. of the West); Michigan Syn. (Ev.-Luth. Synode von Michigan und andern Staaten); Michigan Syn. of the ULC; New Jersey, Ev. Luth. Syn. of (I); New Jersey, Ev. Luth. Syn. of (II); New York, Ev. Luth. Syn. of; New York, Ministerium of; New York, Syn. of, of the Ev. Luth. Ch.; New York, United Luth. Syn. of; New York and New Eng., Ev. Luth. Syn. of; New York and New Eng., United Luth. Syn. of; New York and New Jersey, Ev. Luth. Syn. of; New York and Other States, Ger. Ev. Luth. Syn. of (Steimle Syn.); North Carolina, Ev. Luth. Syn. and Ministerium of; North Carolina, United Ev. Luth. Syn. of; Norw. Syn. (The Norw. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am.; The Syn. for the Norw. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am.; see Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 8–13); Syn. and Ministerium of the Eng. Ev. Luth. Chs. in Ohio and Adjacent States (The Eng. Ev. Luth. Syn. and Ministerium of Ohio and Adjacent States; see Ohio and Other States, The Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of, 4); East Ohio Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. (see General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America, The, 3); Ohio Syn. (known by various names 1818–1930); Eng. Ev. Luth. Dist. Syn. of Ohio and Adjacent States (see Ohio and Other States, The Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of, 4); Syn. of Ohio of the ULC (see United Lutheran Church in America, The. Districts of, 19); Pennsylvania, Ev. Luth. Syn. of Cen. (Cen. Pennsylvania Syn.); Pennsylvania, Ev. Luth. Syn. of East (East Pennsylvania Syn.); Pennsylvania, Ev. Luth. Syn. of West (West Pennsylvania Syn.); Pennsylvania and Adjacent States, Ministerium of; Pittsburgh Syn. (1845–1919); Pittsburgh Syn. (1867–1919); Southwest, Syn. of the; Steimle Syn. (see New York and Other States, German Evangelical Lutheran Synod of); Susquehanna Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the US (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 23); Susquehanna Syn. of Cen. Pennsylvania of the Ev. Luth. Ch., shortened 1932 to Susquehanna Syn. (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 23); Tennessee Syn., Ev. Luth.; Tennessee, Ev. Luth. Syn. of Middle; Union Syn. of the Evangelic Luth. Ch.; Virginia Syn. (1829–1922); Virginia Syn. (1922–62); Virginia Syn., Cen.; Virginia Syn., Southwestern; Virginia Syn., Western; Wartburg Syn.; West, Ev. Luth. Syn. of the (Syn. of the West; 1835–46); West, Ev. Luth. Syn. of the (Syn. of the West; 1846; dissolved); West, Missionary Syn. of the (1840s; see Michigan Synod, 1); West,* Missionary Syn. of the (Franckean Syn. II; 1866–72); Wittenberg Syn..


(Gk. “with-throne”). Structure combining clergy stalls and bishop's throne; placed against E wall behind altar; now mostly in E chs..

Systematic Theology.

Branch of theology* that tries to express all religious truth in self-consistent statements forming an organized whole. See also Revelation, 10; Theology.

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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