Christian Cyclopedia

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Suárez, Francisco

(1548–1617). Jesuit philos.; b. Granada, Sp.; held that the pope has power to depose temporal rulers. Works include Defensio fidei; commentary on Thomas* Aquinas' Summa theologica (or Summa theologiae).

Subjective Idealism.

Sometimes called subjectivism. View that the world has no real existence apart from perceiving minds, including the mind of God. Opposed to absolute* idealism. Exponents include G. Berkeley,* whose system came to be called Berkeleianism or Berkeleyiem.


Term sometimes used as alternate name for subjective* idealism.


View that because Christ is begotten of the Father, He is subordinate to the Father in essence and majesty, being God is a secondary or lesser sense. Found in crass form in Arianism, Ritschlianism, and modernism, in subtler forms in other misinterpretations of Jn 14:28 (which is properly understood in reference to Christ's human nature in His state of humiliation, as the context shows).

Succop, H. H.

(Heinrich; July 13, 1845–December 24, 1919). B. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne. Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor Wallace and Harick, Ont., Can., 1869–72; Ellice, near Sebringville, Ont., 1872–75; Chicago, Illinois, 1875–1919. Pres. Illinois. Dist. of the Mo. Syn. 1891–1903; Mo. Syn. vice-pres. 1905–08.

Sudan Interior Mission.

Interdenom, soc. organized 1898 by R. V. Bingham* as Africa Industrial Mission, as indep. faith mission, at Toronto, Ont., Can., to support work begun 1893 as Soudan Interior Mission on individual initiative; name changed 1905 to Africa Evangelistic Mission; merged with Sudan* United Miss. 1906; union dissolved and present name adopted 1907. The 1st station was est. 1902 at Patigi (or Patiji), several hundred miles up the Niger R., another at Bida 1903, another at Wushishi 1904. Fields have included Aden, Dahomey, Ethiopia, Ghana, Liberia, Niger, Nigeria, Somali Rep., Sudan, Upper Volta. Mem. IFMA See also Africa, C 12, 14, E 1.

Sudan Pioneer Mission.

Founded 1900 by H. K. W. Kumm.* First station est. at Aswan, Upper Egypt. See also Sudan United Mission.

Sudan United Mission.

Began 1902 as Sudan* Pioneer Miss. Reorganized 1904 by H. K. W. Kumm* et al. First station opened 1904 at Wase, N Nigeria. Other fields have included Cameroon, Chad, Sudan. See also Africa, C 14, E 1; Danish Sudan Mission.

Suelflow, Roy Arthur

(March 24, 1918–February 2, 1981). B. Germantown, Wisconsin; educ. Conc. Sem, St. Louis, Missouri; ordained LCMS 1945; miss. to China 1946–49, Jap. 1949–52; dir. Institute of Japanese Language 1951–52; pres. Conc. Sem., Chia Yi, Taiwan, 1952–60; prof. Conc. Coll. Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1960–74, Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1974–81; dir. World Mission Institute 1974–81; dir. Works include A Plan for Survival; Walking with Wise Men; Christian Churches in Recent Times; Correspondence of C. F. W. Walther.


1. Bp. subordinate to abp. or metropolitan. 2. Asst. bp..


Intercessory prayer (as in a liturgy); usually used in pl..


(Sufiism; derivation uncertain). Ascetic Islamic mysticism; began 7th c. AD, largely under Christian influence; developed esp. in Persia; spread to other countries, including Eng. and Am. Includes elements of pantheism.

Suicer, Johann Caspar

(Johannes Casparus Suicerus; Hans Kaspar Schweitzer; 1620–84). Ref. theol.; b. Frauenfeld, Thurgau canton, N Switz.; educ. Montauban, Saumur, and Paris; pastor; prof. Zurich 1646. Works include Thesaurus ecclesiasticus e patribus Graecis ordine alphabetico concinnatus.


(from Lat. for “take one's own life”). Self-murder. Christians regard it as a transgression of the 5th Commandment (“Thou shalt not kill”). Many non-Christians have either been indifferent to the problem of suicide or have advocated suicide.


(Suda; Gk. Souidas or Souda; before Eustathius* of Thessalonica; perhaps late 10th c.). Byzantine lexicographical compendium; includes comments on early Christian writings. Some have regarded “Suidas” (perhaps erroneously) as author's name.


(d. 713). Northumbrian priest; assoc. with Egbert* and Willibrord* in Frisia; fled under Saxon attack; founded monastery Kaiserswerth on an is. in the Lower Rhine.

Sullivan, Arthur Seymour

(1842–1900). Composer, organist, choirmaster; b. Lambeth, London, Eng.; studied music at Leipzig, Ger. Wrote light operas to the librettos of William Schwenck Gilbert (1836–1911), including H. M. S. Pinafore; The Pirates of Penzance; The Mikado; The Gondoliers. Other works include oratorios The Prodigal Son and The Light of the World; songs, including “The Lost Chord”; hymn tunes, including St. Gertrude (“Onward, Christian Soldiers”) and Heaven Is My Home (“I'm But a Stranger Here”).


Mems. of an order of secular priests named after the parish of St. Sulpice in Faubourg St. Germain, near Paris, Fr., with which the community became assoc. 1642 soon after it was founded; purpose: to prepare young men for the priesthood. Administer the Theol. Coll. at The Cath. U. of Am., Washington, D. C. See also Olier, Jean Jacques; Roman Catholic Church, The, E 4.

Sulpicius Severus

(ca. 360–ca. 410/20). B. Aquitaine (hist. region SW Fr.); lawyer; influenced by Martin of Tours (see Celtic Church, 2); became monk. Works include Historia sacra, which reflects and summarizes world hist..

Sulze, Emil

(1832–1914). Ev. theol.; b. Kamenz, Saxony, Ger.; pastor Dresden 1876–95; emphasized small congs., observance of parish lines, lay activity. Works include Die Hauptpuncte der kirchlichen Glaubenslehre; Die Reform der evangelischen Landeskirchen nach den Grundsätzen des neueren Protestantismus.

Sulzer, Simon

(1508–85). Ref. theol.; b. Meiringen. Bern canton, S cen. Switz.; educ. Bern, Lucerne, Strasbourg, Basel; teacher and pastor Bern 1533; became follower of M. Luther 1536 after visiting Wittenberg; preacher and prof. Basel.


(Lat. “compendium; whole”). Name often used in Middle Ages for textbooks of philos, and theol. See also, e.g., Thomas Aquinas.

Sumner, John Bird

(1780–1862). B. Kenilworth, Warwickshire, cen. Eng.; educ. Eton and Cambridge; ordained 1803; bp. Chester 1828; opposed Oxford* Movement; abp. Canterbury 1848. Works include Apostolical Preaching; A Treatise on the Records of the Creation; The Evidence of Christianity. See also Gorham, George Cornelius.


(from OE sunne, “sun,” and daeg, “day,” tr. of Lat. dies solis, tr. of Gk. he tou heliou hemera, “the day of the sun”). 1st day of the week; named after heathen consecration of it to the sun(god).

The “Sunday question” (whether to exclude from ch. fellowship those who held that the ch. had to set apart 1 day in 7 because God had rested 1 day in 7) was a point of controversy bet. the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Iowa* and Other States and the Mo. Syn. The latter summarized its position in the Brief* Statement: “We teach that in the New Testament God has abrogated the Sabbath and all the holy days prescribed for the Church of the Old Covenant, so that neither 'the keeping of the Sabbath nor of any other day' nor the observance of at least one specific day of the seven days of the week is ordained or commanded by God, Col. 2:16; Rom. 14:5 [AC XXVIII 51–60].

”The observance of Sunday and other church festivals is an ordinance of the Church, made by virtue of Christian liberty. [AC XXVIII 51–53, 60; LC I 83, 85, 89]. Hence Christians should not regard such ordinances as ordained by God and binding upon the conscience, Col. 2:16; Gal. 4:10. However, for the sake of Christian love and peace they should willingly observe them, Rom. 14:13; 1 Cor. 14:40. [AC XXVIII 53–56]“

See also Lord's Day; Sabbath, 6, 8.

Sunday, William Ashley

(”Billy“; 1862[1863?]–1935). B. Ames, Iowa; professional baseball player 1883–90; YMCA worker 1891–95; evangelist and revivalist 1896; Presb. minister 1903; prohibitionist.

Sunday Letter

(dominical letter). That letter, of the first 7 of the alphabet, which falls on Sunday when the letters are assigned in order to the days of the yr., beginning January 1 (leap yr. requiring adjustments). Used with the Golden Number, or Prime, for the yr., and in connection with a calendar table found, e.g., in a prefix to the Book of Common Prayer, to determine the date of Easter in any given yr. The Golden Number is determined by mathematical calculation (e.g., for 1973: take 73, add 1, making 74: divide by 19; the remainder [17] is the Golden Number for 1973; if, for another yr., there is no remainder, the Golden Number is 19). For dates of Easter see also Easter Dates.

Sunday School.

1. Also called Sabbath school, or Sunday ch. school; primary agency of Christian educ. in most N. Am. Prot. chs. today.

2. It has been claimed that Sunday schools were begun in Scot. by J. Knox* ca. 1560. Sunday schools were est. in the 17th c. in Eng. and Am. The modern SS. movement is usually traced to efforts of R. Raikes* 1780, when he opened his 1st SS. (children worked on other days) in hope of preventing vice by educ. His movement originally was not ch.-related and was opposed by ch. leaders; yet it grew and spread.

3. The 1st SS. of the Raikes type in N. Am. was organized in Virginia in the mid-1780s. In course of time more emphasis was placed on religion, adults and small children were included, and volunteer teachers replaced professionals.

4. Local SS. unions formed and crossed denominational lines. The Am. SS. Union formed around some of these groups 1824; a nat. conv. was held Philadelphia 1832.

5. With the development of tax-supported ”free schools“ 1825–50, many Luth. parochial schools were replaced by Sunday schools. The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA est. a Luth. SS. Union 1830. Sunday schools began to appear in the Mo. Syn. in the 1840s, but the syn. in gen., distrustful of doctrinal laxity often assoc. with Prot. Sunday schools, long continued rather to emphasize parochial schools and Christenlehre (see Parish Education, F 5); the SS. was not officially accepted until ca. the time of WW I.

6. Curricular materials in the first Sunday schools were the Bible, catechisms, and hymnals. A wide assortment of other materials appeared in the early and middle 19th c. Internat.. Uniform Lessons were adopted 1872. In the 20th c. a philos. of child-centered, rather than curriculum-centered, educ. found wide acceptance.

7. Sunday schools spread through the world. In the US, world leader, ca. 90% of the enrollment is Prot. PHP

See also International Council of Religious Education; Parish Education, B 2–4, E; Protestant Education in the United States.

J. D. Butler, Religious Education (New York. 1962); M. A. Haendschke, The Sunday School Story: The History of the Sunday School in The Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, in Lutheran Education Association 20th Yearbook (River Forest, Illinois, 1963).

Sundermann, Wilhelm Heinrich

(October 29, 1849–April 24, 1919). B. Ladbergen (Tecklenburg), Westphalia, Ger.; Rhenish* Miss. Soc. miss. to Nias* 1815. Tr. Bible into Nias. Other works include Kurzgefasste niassische Grammatik; Die Insel Nias and die Mission daselbst.

Sung, John

(Siong Chiat Sung; September 27, 1901–August 18, 1944). B. Hinghwa, China; outstanding Christian miss. in China, Thailand, SE Asia. Works include My Testimony.


Larger of the 2 main branches of Islam. See also Abu Hanifa(h); Islam, 5.

Supererogation, Works of.

In RCm, works done, esp. by mems. of holy orders, over and above those that are required for salvation; their merit may be credited to those who fall short of requirement.


(supranaturalism). Term that came into prominence esp. in Eng. and Ger. ca. 1780–1830 in theol. discussions arising esp. out of tensions created by deism* and rationalism.* Supernaturalists held that the authenticity of divine revelation is attested, in part, by prophecies and miracles. After I. Kant* and G. W. F. Hegel* the term supernaturalist was applied to those who held the absolute transcendence of God; later the name supernaturalism was applied to many systems within Christianity that rejected reason as an absolute norm and held authoritarian, inner, emotional, or other criteria. Supernaturalists included L. F. O. Baumgarten-Crusius,* J. F. Flatt,* J. E. Gunnerus,* F. V. Reinhard,* J. M. Schröckh,* G. C. Storr,* F. G. v. Süskind,* J. A. H. Tittmann.*

Supervision, Educational

(including supervision of teachers). See Parish Education, K, L, M; Teachers, 17.


View that predestination* in which God determined to save some and damn others preceded creation and that God allowed the fall as a means of carrying out his purpose. See also Infralapsarianism.


(surahs). See Koran.

Surgant, Johann Ulrich

(1450–1503). B. Altkirch, Alsace; educ. Basel and Paris; priest 1472; prof. Basel. Works include Manuale curatorum predicandi prebens modum.

Survey Application Trust.

Founded 1924 London, Eng., to make world mission surveys and promote modern miss. methods and objectives. See also World Dominion Movement.


Faithful servant of D. Livingstone*; with Chuma (native companion) and others carried Livingstone's body from the district of Ilala on the S shore of Lake Bangweulu to Zanzibar, a journey of ca. 8 mo..

Süskind, Friedrich Gottlieb von

(Süsskind; 1767–1829). B. Neuenstadt am Kocher, N Württemberg, Ger.; prof. Tübingen; chief court chaplain; consistorial councillor; exponent of supernaturalism.* Works include Über das Recht der Vernunft in Ansehung der negativen Bestimmung der Offenbarung.

Suso, Heinrich

(Henricus; Henry Suso; Sus; Suse; Seuse; also called Amandus; real surname v. Berg; ca. 1295/1300–1366). Mystic, poet; ”Minnesinger of mysticism“; b. Konstanz (or Überlingen?), Ger.; itinerant preacher Swabia ca. 1335–48; settled at Ulm ca. 1348. Works include Das Büchlein der Wahrheit and Das Büchlein der ewigen Weisheit (titles occur in various forms). See also Friends of God; Heresy, 3.

Sutel, Johann

(1504–75). B. Altmorschen, Hesse, Ger.; educ. Erfurt; teacher Melsungen; preacher and supt. Göttingen; went to Allendorf in Schmalkaldic* War; returned to Göttingen 1548; pastor Northeim 1555–75. Works include Das Evangelion von der grausamen, erschrecklichen Zerstörung Jerusalem (title occurs in various forms).


(sati; Skt. ”good woman“). Hindu widow voluntarily cremated on her husband's funeral pyre; also: the act or custom of such cremation. The practice was made a statutory offense 1829/30 and became practically extinct soon thereafter.

Suttner, Bertha von

(nee Countess Kinsky; 1843–1914). Austrian writer; b. Prague; founded Austrian Soc. of Friends of Peace 1891; was awarded Nobel peace prize 1905. Works include Die Waffen nieder!

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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