Founded at St. Ansgar, Iowa, 1878; supported by St. Ansgar circuit of The Conf. for the Norw.-Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. (see Danish Lutherans in America, 3); became school of The United* Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am.; discontinued 1910.
In the N part of the Leeward group of the Leses Antilles in the E Caribbean Sea. Area: ca. 100 sq. mi. Formerly a Brit. possession; indep. 1983. Language: English. Religions (1970): Prot. 76.1% (including Angl. 36.1%, Meth. 32.3%, Moravian 10.3%, other Prot. 7.7%), RC 7.7%, other 5.9%. See also Caribbean Islands, E 5.
Halifax, N. S. See Canada, B 1.
Winfield, Kans. See Ministry, Education of, VIII B; Missouri and Other States. The English Evangelical Lutheran Synod of.
(Josephites; Josephite Fathers; Josephite Missionaries). RC miss. soc. founded 1866 Mill Hill (now in Hendon, suburb of London), Eng., as St. Joseph's Soc. for For. Missions by Herbert Alfred Vaughan (18321903; b. Gloucester, Eng.; 2d bp. Salford 1872; abp. Westminster 1892; cardinal 1893); chief work among Negroes. St. Joseph's Sem., Baltimore, Maryland, was est. 1888. The Am. community formed the new Soc. of St. Joseph, est. 1932.
Northfield, Minnesota. See Ministry, Education of, VIII B.
Concordia, Missouri. See Ministry, Education of, VIII C 2.
In the E Caribbean Sea, part of the Windward chain. Area: ca. 150 sq. mi. Former Brit. possession; indep. 1979. Ethnic composition: mostly of Afr. descent. Language: English. Religions (1970): Angl. 47%, Meth. 28%, RC 13%. See also Caribbean Islands, E 5.
One of the sequences (see Sequence) suppressed by the Council of Trent*; restored 1727. Probably of 13th-c. origin; authorship variously assigned, e.g., to Bonaventura,* Jacopone* da Todi, Innocent II (Gregorio Papareschi; d. 1143; b. Rome, It.; pope 113043). Named after its first 2 words in Lat., based on Jn 19:25. Includes reference to Lk 2:35. Used as a sequence in RCm on September 15, as a hymn in Lent. Musical settings supplied by various composers including F. J. Haydn,* G. P. da Palestrina,* G. B. Pergolesi,* A. Scarlatti,* F. S. P. Schubert,* A. Steffani,* G. Verdi.* Used also in Prot. adaptations. See also Seven Sorrows of Mary.
(18651944). Luth. pastor; b. Grunau, South Russ.; studied at miss. school Basel, Switz. 188388 (see Basel Missionary Society); worked in Ger. settlements at Annenfeld (Transcaucasia), Hochheim (Crimea), Freudental, Eugenfeld; diaspora preacher for West Siberia 1916; to Moscow 1920; left Russ. 1922; pastor Brandenburg, Ger., 192536. Works include Das Deutschtum in Sibirien, Mittelasien und dem Fernen Osten, von seinen Anföngen bis in die Gegenwart.
(18481906). B. Arnstadt, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Berlin; worked and taught at Leipzig 187175; prof. Giessen 1875. Founded (1881) and ed.. Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft; other works include Lehrbuch der hebräischen Grammatik. See also Grammars, A.
(15811634). Luth. composer, organist; b. probably Nürnberg, Ger.; court organist Bayreuth and Kulmbach from ca. 1603/04; at Nürnberg from ca. 1616; influenced by baroque* style; contributed to transition from older style of pure vocal music to newer style of instrumental accompaniment. Works include Harmoniae sacrae; Kirchen-Music; Hauss-Music.
(180261). B. Würzburg, Ger.; educ. Würzburg, Heidelberg, Erlangen; mem. Prussian chamber of deputies 1848; mem. cabinet 1854; mem. supreme council Ev. Ch. of Prussia 185259; pres. syn.; conservative; tried to develop a pol. science based on Christian world view. Works include Die Philosophic des Rechts, nach geschichtlicher Ansicht.
(ca. 15951657). B. Tallin(n) [Revel; Reval], Estonia; educ. Rostock, Greifswald, Wittenberg; pastor Estonia; provost 1627; mem. consistory 1637; supt. diocese Narva 1641. Works include an Estonian grammar; German-Estonian agenda.
(182397). Brother of L. Stählin*; Luth. cleric; b. Schmähingen, near Nördlingen, Ger.; educ. Erlangen; pastor Nördlingen 1864; preacher Ansbach 1866; mem. supreme consistory Munich 1879, pres. 1883. Works include Justin der Märtyrer und sein neuester Beurtheiler.
(18351907). Brother of A. (v.) Stählin*; Luth. theol.; b. Westheim, Bav., Ger.; educ. Erlangen; pastor Bayreuth and Ansbach. Works include Katholicismus und Protestantismus: Darstellung and Erläuterung der kirchengeschichtlichen Ansicht Schelling's.
(18831975). Ev. theol.; b. Gunzenhausen, Ger.; pastor Egloffstein 1910, Nürnberg 1916; prof. Münster 192645; bp. Oldenburg 194552; cofounder and leader of the Berneuchen* Conference.
(18401901). Composer; b. London, Eng.; organist at various places, notably St. Paul's Cathedral, London, 187288; prof. music Oxford 188999. Works include manuals Harmony and The Organ. Compositions include cantatas (The Daughter of Jairus; St. ;Mary Magdalen); anthems; oratorios (Gideon; The Crucifixion). See also Passion, The.
(18481927). B. Crieff, Perthshire, Scot.; educ. Edinburgh, Berlin, Halle. Pastor Kirkcaldy, Scot., 187487; Glasgow, Scot., 18871902. Prof. Aberdeen, Scot., 190226. Works include The Life of Jesus Christ; The Trial and Death of Jesus Christ; The Life of St. Paul. See also Jesus, Lives of.
(October 18, 1847November 6, 1915). B. Elizaville, Columbia Co., New York; educ. Union Theol. Sem., NYC, and Lutheran Theol. Sem., Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Pastor Cobleskill, New York; Martin's Creek, Pennsylvania; Lancaster, Pennsylvania; Baltimore, Maryland Assoc. ed. The Lutheran Observer; ed. Stall's Lutheran Year-Book and Historical Quarterly. Other works include What a Young Boy Ought to Know; What a Young Man Ought to Know; What a Young Husband Ought to Know; What a Man of Forty-five Ought to Know.
(July 5, 1887June 16, 1969). Son of H. Z. Stallmann*; b. Allendorf, on the Lumda, Hesse, Ger.; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; ordained by his father in Ger. 1911; miss. to Ambur, India; asst. in hosp. in Ger. during WW I; after WW I studied medicine at Giessen. Pastor Wittingen, then Berlin, then Bochum, then Wittingen again (1956). Pres. Ev. Luth. Free Ch. 1958.
(August 15, 1847February 26, 1933). Father of H. Stallmann*; son-in-law of F. A. Brunn*; b. Bremen, Ger.; educ. Göttingen, Tübingen, Halle; influenced by C. F. W. Walther,* he left the Hannover state ch. and joined the Luth. free ch.; pastor Dresden 1876; later pastor Allendorf, on the Lumda, Hesse; secy. and (in WW I) pres. of the Luth. free ch.; head of theol. high school founded 1920 Leipzig, moved 1922 to Berlin-Zehlendorf. See also Germany, Lutheran Free Churches in, 5.
(Francisco Stancaro; Stancari; ca. 150174). B. Mantua, It.; monk trained in scholastic theol.; opposed A. Osiander* the Elder at Königsberg; held that Christ is a mediator with God only in his human nature. Active in It., Switz., Ger., Poland, Hung., and Transylvania.
(18521924). Composer, conductor, teacher; b. Dublin, Ireland; conductor London Bach Choir 18851902; mem. Royal Academy of Arts, Berlin, 1904. Works include Stabat mater; Die Auferstehung; motet: The Lord of Might; oratorios: The Three Holy Children and Eden; Mass in G; Te Deum; Requiem.
(18701959). B. Hamburg, Ger.; educ. Halle, Göttingen, Leipzig, Jena; taught at Halle, Königsberg, Greifswald, Göttingen; active in Apologetic Seminar, Wernigerode, and Luther Academy, Sondershausen. Emphasized philos. and ethical aspects of Christianity. Founded and ed. Zeitschrift für systematische Theologie. Other works include Die Religion als Erfahrung; Einleitung in die Ethik; Hauptprobleme der Ethik.
(Stanislaus; ca. 103079). Patron saint of Poland; b. Szczepanów, Poland, acc. to tradition; bp. Cracow 1071; denounced and excommunicated Boleslav II (the Bold; ca. 103983; king of Poland 105879); murdered by king's order.
(181581). B. Alderly, Cheshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; ordained 1839; canon Canterbury 1851; prof. Oxford 1856; dean Westminister 1864; favored union of ch. and state; liberal (see also High Church). Works include The Life and Correspondence of Thomas Arnold, D. D.; Historical Memorials of Westminster Abbey. See also Metaphysical Society, The.
(original name John Rowlands; 18411904). B. Denbigh, Wales; adopted the name of a New Orleans merchant who adopted him; newspaper correspondent from 1865; commissioned 1869 by James Gordon Bennett Jr. (18411918; ed. New York Herald) to find D. Livingstone.* See also Africa, A 6, F 1.
(170875). Ref. theol.; b. Brugg, Aargau canton, Switz.; studied at Bern and Marburg; chaplain 173840; tutor and pastor Dissbach. Influenced by C v. Wolff*; exponent of mild rationalism. Works include Institutiones theologiae polemicae universae ordine scientifico dispositae.
(Stapelage; 151264). B. Osnabrück, Ger.; educ. Kraków, Poland, and Padua, It.; at Danzig ca. 1533, Wittenberg from 1536 for ca. 10 yrs.; prof. 1545, rector 1547 U. of Königsberg; councillor of Abert* of Prussia 1548; involved in controversy with A. Osiander* the Elder and others; RC 1552; helped restore RCm in Austria and Bav..
(153598). RC controversialist; b. Henfield, Sussex, Eng.; educ. Wirchester and New Coll., Oxford; prebendary (see Prebend) Chichester 1558 under Mary* I; taught at Douai, Fr., 156990; prof. Louvain, Belg., 1590; dean of Hilvarenbeek, Neth.; protonotary apostolic (see Prothonotarius apostolicus). Works include Principiorum fidei doctrinalium demonstratio; Tres Thomas (lives of the apostle, Thomas a Becket,* and Thomas More*); Auctoritatis ecclesiasticae defensio (against W. Whitaker*).
(16801756). B. Hildesheim, Ger.; educ. Giessen; preacher Sachsenhausen; pastor Frankfurt am Main 1723; exponent of mild, practical Pietism. Works include Tägliches Handbuch.
(Starcke; 16841744). B. Freienwalde, Ger.; studied at Halle; pastor and teacher Nennhausen, near Rathenow; chief pastor and military chaplain Driesen 1737. Works include Synopsis bibliothecae exegeticae in Vetus et Novum Testamentum.
The est. ch. of a realm; enjoys certain privileges, usually including state financial support. In medieval RCm and early Protestantism little tolerance was granted dissenting minorities. Intolerance was practiced esp. in Eng. and Scot. The Peace of Augsburg* was a concession to territorialism rather than toleration, which began to emerge with the Peace of Westphalia.*
Twelve propositions with comments signed 1945 by 44 Mo. Syn. clerics (sometimes called The Forty-four); deplored legalism; stressed ev. practice, also in inter-Luth. relations; emphasized privileges and responsibilities of local congs..
Issued 1925 by Southern Bap. Convention. Consists of an introd. (which explains the role of creeds as voluntary statements among Baps.) and 25 sections. Draws largely on the New* Hampshire Confession. Additions include statements on the creation of man as a special act (section 3); on the virgin birth of Christ (section 4); on resurrection, return of Jesus, religious liberty, peace and war, education, soc. service, cooperation, evangelism and missions, stewardship, the Kingdom of God (sections 1625).
J. H. Leith, Creeds of the Churches (Chicago, 1963), pp. 334352.
Issued by a theol. commission of the Cong. Christian chs. as a contribution to contemporary theol. thought and a statement of Cong. faith in light of contemporary issues and interpretations; 13 arts.; subject to further rev..
W. M. Horton, Our Christian Faith (Boston, 1945), pp. 127137.
Also called Papal States. 1. Territory in cen. It. formerly ruled by the pope as a temporal king.
2. The Donation of Pepin (see Pepin the Short) 754 marks the beginning of the temporal rule of popes. In the papal decline of the 9th and 10th c. (see Papacy, 4) much territorial authority slipped away. By the middle of the 11th c. papal rule was not recognized beyond Rome and immediate vicinity. Gains achieved in tension with the Holy Roman Empire from the 12th to the 16th c. were largely only apparent. See also Babylonian Captivity, 2.
3. Julius II (see Popes, 19) regained Romagna. Ferrara was regained 1598. Annexation of Ravenna, Ancona, Bologna was also effected. Submerged by the ground swell of the Fr. Revolution (see France, 5), the papal states were restored to the papacy 1815 by the Congress of Vienna (see Popes, 27). An 1831 insurrection was suppressed by Austrian and Fr. troops. Dissatisfaction continued. Attempts at conciliation by Pius IX (See Popes, 28) did not prevent another uprising in Rome 1848, which he survived only with the help of Eur. diplomacy and a Fr. expeditionary force.
4. In 1860 Romagna, Marches, and Umbria joined Piedmont (region in NW It.; nucleus around which the kingdom of It. grew in the early 1860s). Fr. troops left and Victor Emmanuel II (182078; b. Turin, It.; king Sardinia 184961; 1st King of It. 186178) made Rome capital 1870. The pope was not a temporal ruler again until 1929 (see Concordat, 7).
Series of 14 (or more, as in E Orthodox chs.) images or pictures portraying scenes (some legendary) in Christ's passion; usually placed at intervals around the nave in chs. or on the road to a shrine or ch.. A popular devotion is to visit the stations in sequence, with prayers and meditations suited to each.
Branch of theol. science that uses techniques of science, in the framework of a theol. value system, to comprehend the whole kingdom of God in its earthly manifestations. Includes descriptive statistics (description of geog. distribution and expansion, numerical strength and growth, and the socioeconomic nature and structure of Christendom); inferential statistics (comparison within and bet. various segments of Christendom, projection of growth and related trends in Christendom, and explanation of internal and external factors that influence the nature, structure, and development of Christendom).
Reference books in the field include editions of World Christian Handbook (Nashville, Tennessee); F. S. Mead, Handbook of Denominations in the United States (Nashville, Tennessee); Yearbook of American Churches (Nashville, Tennessee); Catholic Almanac (Huntington, Indiana); Statistical Yearbook of the Mo. Syn. (St. Louis, Mo). PRP
(Ger. Stand der Bekenntnispflicht). Literally state of confession. the FC (Ep X 2, 11; SD X 2, 3, 10, 25) speaks of cases and times when confession is required, e.g., under persecution, when enemies of the Gospel try to force observance of adiaphora* or suppress the pure doctrine of the holy Gospel. In such cases the faithful must take a confessional stand, i. e., they find themselves in a state of confession (in statu confessionis). M. Flacius Illyricus: Nihil est adiaphoron in casu confessionis et scandali (Nothing is an adiaphoron when confession and offense are involved). See also Adiaphoristic Controversies.
F. Bente, Historical Introductions to the Symbolical Books of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, in Concordia Triglotta (St. Louis, Missouri, 1921), p. 110; Kirchliches Handlexikon, ed. C. Meusel et al., I (Leipzig, 1887), p. 689.
(John Stough; January 25, 1762July 1845). B. York Co., Pennsylvania; wagonmaker; lay preacher in W Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylvania from 1787; licensed as catechist by Pennsylvania Ministerium 1793, licensed candidate 1794, ordained pastor 1804; pioneer preacher in Ohio and Ky ca. the turn of the c.; to Columbiana Co., Ohio, 1802 to organize congs. and conduct revivals; settled in Columbiana Co. 1806; to Crawford Co., Ohio, 1829; pres. of what later became The Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States 181820, 1822, 1824, 1828; said to have traveled 100,000 mi. preaching in 5 states.
(Carl; 17611826). B. Stuttgart, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; prof. Göttingen 1790. Works include Geschichte und Geist des Skepticismus; Universalgeschichte der christlichen Kirche; Geschichte der theologischen Wissenschaften.
(ca. 1469/701524). B. Motterwitz, near Leisnig, Saxony, Ger.; educ. Cologne and Leipzig; Augustinian ca. 1490; prior Tübingen 1497, later Munich; charter mem. of the faculty of the U. of Wittenberg (see also Frederick III ) and dean of theol. faculty; made Luther his successor as prof. of Bible (see also Luther, Martin, 6); influenced by Thomism* and mysticism*; emphasized Scripture; freed Luther from vow of obedience 1518 (see also Luther, Martin, 10).
Formulated 1948 by Fred Hoyle (b. 1915 at Bingley, Yorkshire, Eng.; astronomer and math.; taught at U. of Cambridge; assoc. with Mt. Wilson and Palomar Observatories [now Hale observatories], near Pasadena, California; works include The Nature of the Universe ), Thomas Gold (b. 1920 at Vienna, Austria; astronomer; assoc. with U. of Cambridge and the Royal Greenwich Observatory, London, Eng.; to Cornell U., Ithaca, New York, 1959), and Hermann Bondi (b. 1919; Austrian-Brit. math. and astronomer). In its first form the theory held that the universe is infinite, uniform, changeless, without beginning and end, with density constant. Hoyle modified the theory 1965 to incorporate evidence that the known universe is an oscillating finite region with varying density in an infinite universe. See also Cosmogony; Evolution, I; Lucretius.
(Steg; October 5, 1756July 14, 1830). B. Germantown, Pennsylvania; studied theol. under J. H. C. Helmuth*; without ordination or license he began his ministerial career at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, 1784; served congs. in Bedford and Somerset counties, Pennsylvania, 178992, Westmoreland Co., Pennsylvania, 17921830 (licensed by Pennsylvania Ministerium 1796; ordained 1806); active also in Ohio and in early convs. of The Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States.
(Stedingo; Stetingi; Stadingi; Low Ger. for Gestadebewohner, dwellers along the bank or shore). Inhabitants (mostly Frisians) along the lower Weser, near the North Sea, in the 12th and 13th c.; revolted against ecclesiastical oppression; after many yrs. of war with the ch. they were nearly wiped out 1234 by a crusade under Gregory IX (see Popes, 11).
(171678). B. Broughton, Hampshire, Eng.; daughter of a timber merchant who served as an unsalaried Bap. minister; hymnist. Works include Hymns, Psalms, and Poems. Hymns include Enslaved by Sin and Bound in Chains; The Savior Calls; Let Every Ear; To Our Redeemer's Glorious Name.
(16721729). Essayist, dramatist; b. Dublin, Ireland; studied at Oxford. Ed. The Tatler; with J. Addison* coed. The Spectator. Other works include The Christian Hero (1701), a devotional book reflecting Puritan idealism in contrast to the licentiousness of the Restoration period (sometimes identified with the reign of Charles II, sometimes regarded as extending to the accession of Anne [16651714; queen of Gt. Brit. and Ireland 170214]).
(Per; 18701947). Norw. Luth. composer and organist; studied in Oslo, Leipzig, Copenhagen; taught in various Oslo schools and 193547 at the conservatory of music there; specialized in G. P. da Palestrina.* Works include Koralbok.
(ca. 16541728). RC composer, diplomat; b. Castelfranco, Near Venice, It.; studied organ with J. K. (v.) Kerll*; priest 1680; abbot Lepsing 1682; influenced G. F. Handel,* whom he recommended for kapellmeister Hanover. Works include Stabat mater.
(17731845). Philos., naturalist; b. Stavanger, Norw.; educ. Copenhagen and Kiel; taught in Copenhagen 1802; prof. Halle 1804, Breslau 1811, Berlin 1831. Influenced N. F. S. Grundtvig.* Works include Von der falschen Theologie und dem wahren Glauben; Wie ich wieder Lutheraner wurde und was mir das Luthertum ist; Christliche Religionsphilosophie; Was ich erlebte. See also Germany, Lutheran Free Churches in, 1.
(15881632). B. Sulzfeld, near Meiningen, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; adjunct philos. faculty Leipzig; supt. Schaumburg, also pastor Stadthagen and prof. Gymnasium there 1617; moved with the Gymnasium to Rinteln 1621; suffered in Thirty* Years' War, esp. under Edict of Restitution.* Hymnist. Hymns include Ach bleib mit deiner Gnade.
(1827February 28, 1880). B. Württemberg, Ger.; educ. in the institute of the Basel* Miss. Soc.; to Am. 1851. Pastor Ellenville, New York; asst. pastor St. Matthew's Luth. Ch., NYC, 185155; pastor Willamsburg (Brooklyn) and then in Brooklyn proper, New York Helped found Ger. Ev. Luth. Syn. of New* York and Other States and was its only pres.; organized Ger. Pastoral Conf. of New York and Brooklyn 1872, which disbanded at his death. See also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 15.
(17381809). Ev. theol.; b. Züllichau (Suelchow), Brandenburg; prof. Frankfurt am Main 1774; reduced the content of faith to a doctrine of happiness. Works include System der reinen Philosophie oder Glückseligkeitslehre des Christenthums.
(18881949). RC philos., theol.; b. Cologne, Ger.; taught at Bonn, Giessen, Munich, Tübingen. Works include Der Sozialismus als sittliche Idee; Die philosophische Grundlegung der katholischen Sittenlehre.
(18611925). B. Kraljevec (Kraljevic), Hung.; educ. Vienna; left RCm for theosophy,* but rejected the latter's Oriental associations. Founded anthroposophy: spiritual and mystical doctrine, acc. to which higher knowledge may be attained through concentration and meditation. Works include Die Philosophie der Freiheit.
(September 30, 1876November 1, 1924). B. Buffalo, New York; educ. Luth. Theol. Sem., Mount Airy, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; ordained 1898; pastor in Pennsylvania Tr. J. M. Reu's* Homiletics and excerpts from works of M. Luther; other works include The Man of Sorrows.
(18461924). Painter; b. Sorau, Lower Lusatia; realist. Works include portrayals of events in the life of Christ.
(170661). B. Owen, Württemberg, Ger.; follower of N. L. v. Zinzendorf from the 1730s; leader among Moravians. Works include Die Haushaltung des dreieinigen Gottes.
(17731859). B. Ludwigsburg, Ger.; pupil of J. A. Bengel*; secy. Deutsche Christentumsgesellschaft*; pastor London, Eng.; secy. BFBS; helped est. Bible socs. in Ger..
(181086). Painter; b. Vienna, Austria; worked in Rome, It., 182834; prof. hist. painting Frankfurt 185086. Works include religious and mythological subjects and portraits. See also Nazarenes, 3.
(180154). B. state of Waldeck, Ger.; pastor Rehburg; supt. Holtorf, near Nienburg; gen. supt. Klausthal; with A. F. O. Münchmeyer* and L. A. Petri* founded Gotteskasten.*
(18111900). B. Beeskow, near Frankfurt an der Oder, Brandenburg; educ. Berlin; asst. Luth. pastor Wittenberg; chaplain navy officers' training school Kulm; taught at Berlin 1848; prof. Breslau 1852 Bonn 1854, Berlin 1858. Works include Beiträge zur praktischen Theologie.
(June 2, 1887May 17, 1964). B. Red Bud, Illinois; educ. Ev. Luth. Teachers Sem., Addison, Illinois Elementary school teacher Red Bud, Illinois, 190811; Indianapolis, Indiana, 191118. Supt. of schools, Cen. Dist. of the Mo. Syn., 191821; 1st Secy. of Schools of the Mo. Syn. 192160. Ed. Conc. ed. Bobbs-Merrill Readers; Comprehensive Bible History; Graded Memory Course for Lutheran Sunday Schools and Other Institutions. Other works include The Beginning Teacher; Schools of The Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod. WAK
(October. 2, 1841March 17, 1919). B. Brüninghorstedt, Hannover, Ger.; to US 1854. Educ. at the practical sem., Fort Wayne, Indiana (see Löhe, Johann Konrad Wilhelm); Conc. Coll. and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Asst. pastor St. Louis 186567; pastor De Kalb Co., Indiana, 186769. Prof. Northwestern U. (also known as Northwestern Coll.), Watertown, Wisconsin, 186974; Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, 187481; Capital U., Columbus, Ohio, 18811919 (pres. Capital U. 18941900). Ed. Lutherische Kirchenzeitung; Theologische Zeitblätter. Other works include The Epistle of St. Paul to the Romans; commentaries on other NT books; a NT Gk. lexicon. See also Ohio and Other States, The Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of, 5.
171496). Luth. pastor in Latvia; b. Kurland; promoted culture and soc. progress. Works include Latvian grammar; Latvian-Ger. dictionary; Latvian encyclopedia.
(17891835). Luth. theol.; b. Jevnaker, Norw.; educ. Copenhagen (influenced by N. F. S. Grundtvig,* whom he followed till 1825); taught at Christiania (now Oslo) from 1814; his theol. was Biblical and represented moderate Luth. orthodoxy. Works include exegetical and hist. writings.
(Nicolaus Stenonis; 163886). Pioneer in anatomy, paleontology, geology, crystallography; b. Copenhagen, Den.; descendant of long line of Luth. pastors; MD Leiden 1664; impressed by Corpus Christi procession in Livorno, It.; RC 1667; vicar apostolic for Nordic missions 1677; titular bp. Titiopolis 1677; auxiliary bp. Münster 1680; left Münster 1683 in protest against simoniacal election; active in Hamburg and Schwerin.
(July 23, 1823January 16, 1884). Son of M. Stephan* Sr.; b. Dresden, Ger.; to US 1838/39; studied architecture in Dresden; returned to US 1847; worked for a lithographer in NYC 184749; private tutor Brattleboro, Vermont, 1849; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor Theresa, near Mayville, Dodge Co., Wisconsin, 1853; Kalamazoo, Michigan, 1856; served congs. in and near Oshkosh, Wisconsin, 185758; asst. pastor Fort Wayne, Indiana, 1858, also instructor in secular subjects at the sem. (see Löhe, Johann Konrad Wilhelm). Pastor Adams Twp., Allen Co., Indiana, 186065; Wolcottsville, New York, 186566; Chester, Illinois, 186675; Warren Twp., Bremer Co., Iowa, 187584. Drew bldg. plans for a number of chs., for the 1st bldg. of Conc. Sem., St. Louis 1849, and for the teachers' sem. at Addison, Illinois, 1864.
(August 13, 1777February 21, 1846). Father of M. Stephan* Jr.; b. Stramberg, Moravia; studied theol. at Halle and Leipzig. Pastor Haber, Boh. 1809; Dresden, Ger., 181037; opposed rationalism; widely known as spiritual adviser; influenced C. F. W. Walther; resolved in the 1830s to emigrate to the US with his followers; placed under temporary suspension 1837; led Saxon emigration to Missouri 1838/39; deposed and taken to Illinois 1839; by 1841 he was living in or near Kaskaskia, Illinois, and preaching there in the courthouse every 2 weeks; served a cong. at Horse Prairie, several miles SE of Red Bud, Illinois, 184546. See also Altenburg Debates; Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, The, II 12.
(of Rome; fl. 3d c.). Pope 254257. Opposed Cyprian* of Carthage in the question of heretical Baptism, holding that the validity of Baptism depends not on the officiating person but on the institution of Christ and on administration in conformity with that institution.
(17621833). Icelandic ch. leader; educ. Copenhagen, Den.; held offices in service of Dan. crown in Iceland; worked for cultural and soc. reform; rationalist; removed reference to divinity of Christ, atonement, and Holy Spirit in hymns in Grallarinn (Gradual; Order of Worship); removed significant parts of liturgy (Confiteor; Kyrie; Nicene Creed; Sanctus; Gloria in excelsis).
(Aloys; Alois; 18981960). RC Yugoslav official; b. Krasic, Croatia; priest 1930; abp. Zagreb 1937; condemned to forced labor 1946 for cooperation with the enemy; released 1951; cardinal 1953.
(15901643). Luth. theol.; b. Schwickardshausen, Upper Hesse; prof. Giessen 1614, Marburg 1624. Helped restore Lutheranism in territory of Marburg and Schmalkalden.
(18661939). B. Tuttlingen, Württemberg; prof. Tübingen; pastor Maienfels and Bremen; radical theol.; rejected Biblical and dogmatic foundations of Christianity. Works include Das Christusproblem und die Zukunft des Protestantismus; Im Kampf um die Christusmythe.
(15461613). B. Schmalkalden, Ger.; studied law; town clerk Wasungen (on the Werra, bet. Schmalkalden and Meiningen, Thuringia), cen. Ger., ca. 1580; secy. in chancery 1589, mayor ca. 1604 Meiningen. Crowned as poet by Rudolf* II for a metric Bible; also made a metrical version of Ecclus. Musician; works include melodies and 4-part settings.
Term used Lk 16:24 (in the parable of the unjust steward). A steward is a servant entrusted with administration of his master's property and interests (cf. Gn 39:46). The Bible uses the term in a secular sense but elevates it to a fruit of faith, permeating it with spiritual meaning and implications for pastors (1 Co 4:1; Tts 1:7) and Christians in gen. (1 Ptr 4:10).
Christian stewardship is recognition and fulfillment of the personal privilege and responsibility to administer all endowments of life acc. to God's will. Sometimes identified with sanctification, it is more properly sanctification in a narrower sense.
Christian stewardship acknowledges that God owns all (1 Ch 29:14; Ps 24:1; 100:3; 1 Co 4:7; 6:19), that we belong to Him by virtue of creation, preservation, redemption, and sanctification and are to glorify Him in all things (Ro 14:78; 1 Co 6:20: 10:31; 1 Ptr 4:11), that all our talents and endowments are temporarily in our charge (Lk 12:20; 16:2), and that we must render account to God (2 Co 5:10).
True motivation for Christian stewardship is supplied by the Gospel, not by the Law.
A proper ch. stewardship program is educational, aimed at lay participation in ch. work and at growth in the grace of giving. RGL. JEH
See also Finances in the Church.
P. Lindemann, My God and I (St. Louis, 1949); K. Kretzschmar, The Stewardship Life (St. Louis. 1929); W. C. Birkner, Christian Stewardship, The Abiding Word, I, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1946). 457481; C. W. Berner, Spiritual Power for Your Congregation (St. Louis, 1956); T. A. Kantonen. A Theology for Christian Stewardship (Philadelphia. 1956); R. C. Rein, First Fruits (St. Louis, 1959); H. Rolston, Stewardship in the New Testament Church (Richmond, Virginia, 1946); J. E. Herrmann, The Chief Steward. (St. Louis, 1951).
(ca. 15441610). B. Roskilde, Den.; rector 1565, chaplain 1573 Helsingör (Elsinore); pastor and provost Maimö 1583; hymnist. Works include En liden haandbog; En liden vandrebog. Hymns include Herre Jesu Krist!
Ecclesiastical vestment similar to alb (see Vestments, Clerical, 2); worn by deacons and priests in Eastern Orthodox Ch.
(pl. stichera; from Gk. for verse). In the Eastern Orthodox Ch., short hymn usually following a Ps verse.
(Stiffel; Stefel; 1556/641626). B. Langensalza, Ger.; merchant; wine seller in Langensalza; fanatic 1604; ran afoul of religious and civil authorities; arrested; put into solitary confinement; recanted and released 1606; moved to Erfurt, then to Gispersleben; wrote fanatic treatises; arrested and released at various times and places; died under light custody while hospitalized in Erfurt. Championed Tritheism.* LP
(Stifel; Stieffel; Styfel; 14871567). Augustinian monk at Esslingen, Ger.; follower of M. Luther 1522; pastor Mansfeld, Tollet (Austria), Lochau, Holzdorf (near Schweinitz), Memel, Haffstrom (near Königsberg); taught math at Jena 155967; predicted end of world for October 19, 1533. Works include Von der Christförmigen rechtgegründten leer Doctoris Martini Luthers; Ein Rechenbüchlein Vom End Christi. See also Apocalyptic Literature.
(180062). B. Fraustadt, ca. 57 mi. NW of Breslau, Posen; studied at Berlin and Halle; pastor and supt. at various places, last at Eisleben; hymnist. Works include Die Reden des Herrn Jesu (tr. W. B. Pope, The Words of the Lord Jesus); commentaries. Hymns include Wir sind vereint, Herr Jesu Christ.
(from Gk. stigma, prick, or puncture of a pointed instrument). Formation (some hold supernatural) of wounds resembling those received by Jesus from the crown of thorns, nails, and spear. Francis* of Assisi is alleged to have been so marked 1224. Since then the number of persons with stigmata increased considerably, but there is no reliable list of stigmatized persons. See also Emmerich, Anna Katharine.
(163599). Angl. prelate; b. Cranborne, NE Dorsetshire, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; held various positions; dean St. Paul's, London, 1678; bp. Worcester 1689. Works include A Rational Account of the Grounds of Protestant Religion.
Chryno Hermann (180982). Luth. theol., hymnist; b. Norden, East Friesland; educ. Bonn and Göttingen; pastor Osteel, near Norden; resigned 1839; to Bern, Switz., and London, Eng. (where he lived with C. K. J. v. Bunsen*); settled at Alexandrowka, near Potsdam. Emphasized faith rather than traditional form of expression in hymnal reform. Ed. Unverfälschter Liedersegen; other works include Hymnologische Reisebriefe.
(Stobaeus; Stobeus; Stoboeus; 15801646). Composer; b. Graudenz, West Prussia; educ. Königsberg; studied music under J. Eccard 1599; bass singer ducal chapel 1601; cantor Domkirche 1602; kapellmeister to the Elector of Brandenburg, Königsberg, 1626. Works include Cantiones sacrae; Geistliche Lieder.
(151060). B. Bartfeld, Hung.; studied at Wittenberg; won for Reformation esp. by P. Melanchthon*; school rector Bartfeld 1539. Perhaps drew up Confessio Pentapolitana (see Lutheran Confessions, A 5). See also Hungary.
(17871866). Apostle of the Laplanders; b. Fredrikstad (Frederikstad; or Christiania?), Norw.; after serving in armed forces, studied theol. at Christiania; after ordination 1825, studied language of Laplanders. Tr. NT, Ps, and some of M. Luther's writings into Lapp; other works include a Lapp grammar and a Norw.-Lapp dictionary.
(February 17, 1842January 9, 1913). B. Chemnitz, Saxony, Ger.; educ. Erlangen, Leipzig, Berlin; instructor at an academy for girls, Tharandt, 1866; asst. pastor of a Ger. Luth. ch. Paris June 1870. The Franco-Prussian war (began July 19, 1870) caused him to flee to Belg. in fall 1870; ministered to wounded and dying at Sedan 3 mo. Private tutor OT and NT exegesis Erlangen U. and teacher of religion Erlangen Gymnasium 1871. Pastor (diaconus) of a state ch. at Planitz 187376; influenced by F. C. T. Ruhland* and Mo. Syn. theol. literature; suspended; resigned; with part of his cong. he joined Ruhland's cong.; assoc. pastor there 187678; also conducted a Lat. school and prepared a number of boys for coll. To US 1878; pastor Holy Cross Luth. Ch., St. Louis, Missouri, 1878; began teaching exegesis at Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1878 (part-time prof. 1881, full-time 1887).
Stöckhardt was the only Ger. U. trained exegete in the early hist. of the Mo. Syn.. His learning was coupled with firm belief in the verbal inspiration of the Bible, childlike acceptance of all Bible teachings, and great love of revealed truth. He concentrated on the written Word and unfolded its message in concise, clear, convincing language. He was a forceful preacher. In the Predestinarian* Controversy of the 1880s he sided with C. F. W. Walther.*
Works include Adventspredigten; Ausgewählte Psalmen; Die biblische Geschichte; Commentar über den Brief Pauli an die Römer; Commentar über den Propheten Jesaia (chaps. 112); Gnade um Gnade: Ein Jahrgang Evangelienpredigten; Die Heilsame Lehre oder Erklärung des kleinen Katechismus Luthers; Die kirchlichen Zustände Deutschlands; Kommentar über den Brief Pauli an die Epheser; Kommentar über den Ersten Brief Petri; Passions-predigten. WEG
O. Willkomm, D. th. Georg Stöckhardt (Zwickau, 1914); Dr. George Stoeckhardt, Theological Quarterly, XVII (1913), 6575, 136153; XVIII (1914), 1623; E. Biegener, Karl Georg Stoeckhardt, D. Theol., 18421913, CHIQ, XXI (194849), 154166; R. Baepler, The Hermeneutics of Johannes Christian Konrad von Hofmann with Special Reference to His Influence on George Stoeckhardt, Conc. Sem., St. Louis, BD thesis 1954; W. R. Goerss, Some of the Hermeneutical Presuppositions and Part of the Exegetical Methodology of Georg Stoeckhardt, Conc. Sem., St. Louis, ThD theses 1964.
To est. claim to the Swed. throne, Christian* II of Den. and Norw. repeatedly attacked Swed.; the 3d attack (1520) succeeded; he secured capitulation of Swed. in exchange for a promise of gen. amnesty; but a few days after coronation as king of Swed., he had more than 80 Swedes, mostly nobles, executed at Stockholm on charges of hostility to the pope. This bloodbath was followed by successful revolution led by Gutavus* I. who est. Lutheranism in Swed..
(16341712). B. Lützen, near Merseburg, Ger.; educ. Jena; pastor Bayer-Naumburg, near Mansfeld, cen. Ger.; held various other positions; hymnist. Hymns include Gott, der wird's wohl machen.
(18381917). Ev. theol.; b. Aalen, Württemberg, Ger.; tutor in Switz.; leader in holiness* movement; opposed Pentecostalism* and perfectionism.* Works include Die Gabe des Heiligen Geistes; Die Gnade ist erschienen.
(16431729). Grandfather of J. Edwards* the Elder; Cong. cleric; b. Boston, Massachusetts; educ. Harvard Coll., Cambridge, Massachusetts; chaplain to Dissenters* on Barbados; pastor Northhampton, Massachusetts, 16721729; held that Lord's Supper is a means of regeneration; developed the practice, called Stoddardeanism, of admitting to full ch. privileges (e.g., Communion) also those who could not relate a specific experience of regeneration; pol. leader of W Massachusetts See also Half-Way Covenant.
(Stöcker; 18351909). B. Halberstadt, Ger.; educ. Halle and Berlin; private tutor 185762. Pastor Seggerde, near Halberstadt, 1863; Hamersleben, near Magdeburg, 1866. Military chaplain Metz 187174; court and cathedral preacher Berlin 1874; dismissed as court preacher 1890 because of his Socialist party activities. Organized Berlin City Miss. 1877 by merging 2 previously launched efforts; founded Christian Social Labor Party 1878. Helped found Ev. Social Congress 1890; left it 1896 because of its liberalism; founded the Ecclesiastical Social Conf. 1897, in Kassel, as a rival organization. Antisemite. See also Christian Socialism; Inner Mission, 3.
(Steffer; Casper; December 21, 1707May 13, 1779). Son of J. C. Stoever* Sr.; b. Luedorf, Ger.; privately educ.; to US 1728; ordained 1733; miss. in E Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia; joined Pennsylvania Ministerium 1763; organized many congs.; opposed pietism of H. M. Mühlenberg.*
Records of Rev. John Caspar Stoever, Baptismal and Marriage, 17301779, tr. F. J. F. Schantz (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 1896); R. L. Winters, John Caspar Stoever (Norristown, Pennsylvania, 1948).
(Steffer; Casper; January 13, 16851738). Father of J. C. Stoever* Jr.; b. Frankenberg, Hesse, Ger.; close relative of J. P. Fresenius*; schoolmaster; to US 1728; pastor Virginia; to Ger. 1734 to gather funds; d. on return voyage.
(February 17, 1820July 22, 1870). Great-grandson of J. C. Stoever* Jr.; b. Germantown, Pennsylvania; educ. Pennsylvania Coll. and Lutheran Theol. Sem., both at Gettysburg; taught at Gettysburg from 1842. Coed. The Evangelical Review; ed. The Evangelical Quarterly Review; other works include Memoir of The Life and Times of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, D. D., Patriarch of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.
(Stöylen; 18581937). Norw. Luth. bp.; ordained 1887; pastor; dir. of teachers' coll. 1895; pres. of practical sem. Oslo 1902; bp. Kristiansand (Christiansand) 191430. Helped compile Nyorsk salmebok; issued Hymns and Spiritual Songs; other works include Life with God (sermon collection).
(from Gk. Stoa [Poikile], Painted Portico, where Zeno* of Citium taught in Athens). Greco-Roman school of philos, founded ca. 300 BC by Zeno; divided philos, into logic (including definitions, syllogisms, paradoxes, etymology, grammar, dialectic, rhetoric), physics (including metaphysics, astronomy, religion, anthropology, psychology), and ethics.* Earlier Stoics (e.g., Chrysippus [3d c. BC; b. Soli, Cilicia; disciple of Cleanthes*]; Diogenes of Babylonia [or of Seleucia; 2d c. BC]) stressed logic, later Stoics (e.g., Epictetus*) stressed ethics.
Stoicism is a form of materialistic monism.* It is deterministic, regarding God as the all-pervading energy (spirit, pneuma), law, and reason (logos) that gives order and beauty to the world. Some regard Stoicism as pantheistic, others as panentheistic.
In ethics man must recognize that he cannot change the predetermined course of events; his function is to bring his will, which is free, into harmony with what happens, to live according to scientific knowledge of the phenomena of nature (Chrysippus). He can do this because he is kin to God. Absolutely self-sufficient, he can practice the Stoic virtues: practical wisdom, bravery, justice, self-control. He is not bound to things or life itself.
Despite similarities bet. Stoicism and Christianity, Stoic and Christian ethics are mutually exclusive. EK
E. V. Arnold, Roman Stoicism (New York, 1911); E. R. Bevan, Stoics and Sceptics (New York, 1913); M. Pohlenz, Die Stoa, 2 vols. (Göttingen, 194849); J. N. Sevenster, Paul and Seneca (Leiden, 1961 ).
Adherents of Stoicism.*
(or zu; 17501819). Poet; statesman; b. Bramstedt, Holstein, Ger.; friend of J. W. v. Goethe* and F. G. Klopstock*; at first Luth.; RC 1800; mem. Münster* Circle. Works include Geschichte der Religion Jesu Christi; Betrachtungen und Beherzigungen der heiligen Schrift; Ein Büchlein von der Liebe.
(Stolz; ca. 151456). B. Wittenberg, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; diaconus Jessen; tutor August* (later elector Saxony); prof. Wittenberg 1544; court preacher Weimar 1547; opposed Interim.* Helped ed. the Jena ed. of M. Luther's works. See also Synergistic Controversy.
(variants include Stolczer, Scholczer, Stollerus, Stollcerus; b. perhaps before 1450 or as late as 1485; d. perhaps 1526 or as late as 1544). Composer; b. Schweidnitz, Silesia; kapellmeister at Ofen or Buda to Louis II (150626; king of Hung. and Boh. 151626). Ch. music includes motet settings of Psalms.
(17721844). Evangelist; b. near Port Tobacco, Maryland; licensed Presb. 1796; ordained 1798; withdrew from Syn. of Kentucky 1803 and helped form Springfield Presbytery, which dissolved 1804, its mems. declaring that they would know no creed but the Bible and no designation but Christian. Active in Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Ed. The Christian Messenger; other works include An Address to the Christian Churches in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio, on Several Important Doctrines of Religion. See also Churches of Christ; Disciples of Christ, 2 c; United Church of Christ, The, I B.
(160263). Puritan; b. Hertford, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; to Am. with J. Cotton* and T. Hooker* 1633; pastor Cambridge, Massachusetts, 163336; helped est. Puritan colony Hartford, Connecticut, 1636: pastor Hartford 163663.
(18391900). B. Whitmore, Staffordshire, Eng.; educ. at the Charterhouse (Godalming, Surrey) and Oxford; held several positions as curate, vicar, and rector; mem. of the committee of Hymns Ancient and Modern; hymnist. Hymns include The Church's One Foundation.
(Storch; Carl Augustus; June 16, 1764March 27, 1831). B. Helmstadt, Brunswick, Ger.; educ. Helmstadt; tutor and private teacher; ordained in Ger.; to US 1788; pastor North Carolina; helped organize the Ev. Luth. Syn. and Ministerium of North Carolina 1803 (see United Lutheran Church in America, The. Synods of, 16). See also Velthusen, Johann Kaspar.
(17461805). Son of J. C. Storr*; b. Stuttgart, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; prof. Tübingen 1775; chief court chaplain and consistorial councillor Stuttgart 1797. Founded Old Tübingen* School of theology. Biblico-apologetic supernaturalist; opposed J. S. Semler's* theory of accommodation. Works include Opuscula academica ad interpretationem librorum sacrorum [of the NT] pertinentia; Die Geschichte der Auferstehung Jesu Christi. See also Flatt, Karl Christian.
(171273. Father of G. C. Storr*; b. Heilbronn, Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; held various positions, including that of court chaplain 1744 and city preacher 1757 Stuttgart; consistorial councillor and chaplain of collegiate ch. Stuttgart 1759; prelate Herrenalb 1765; consistorial councillor and prelate Alpirsbach. Pietist; pupil and follower of J. A. Bengel.* Works include Christliches Hausbuch zur Uebung des Gebets.
(160486). Ref. theol.; b. Silesia; educ. Frankfurt an der Oder; tutor; preacher Kurland 1640; court preacher 1643, consistorial councillor Berlin 1659; effective adviser of and spokesman for Frederick* William of Brandenburg in matters pertaining to ch. affairs; shaped a policy that favored the Ref., gave promise of tolerance, but oppressed Luths.
(Wit Stosz, or Stwosz; ca. 1438/471533). Sculptor, painter, engraver, and wood carver; b. Nürnberg, Germany. Works include the high altar for the Ch. of the Virgin Mary, Krakow.
(152478). B. Kitzingen, Lower Franconia, NW Bav., Ger.; educ. Wittenberg and Jena; diaconus Jena 1550; pastor and supt. Heldburg 1554; supt. 1561, prof. 1562 Jena. Sided with V. Strigel* against M. Flacius* Illyricus. Left Jena 1568. Supt. Pirna. Expelled from Thuringia 1573. Died in prison.
(18481922). B. Berlin, Ger.; educ. Berlin and Leipzig; taught in Berlin 187273; worked in the Imperial Library, St. Petersburg, 187376; prof. Berlin 1877. Coed. with O. Zöckler* Kurzgefasster Kommentar zu den heiligen Schriften Alten und Neuen Testamentes sowie zu den Apokryphen; other works include Einleitung in das Alte Testament.
(181356). B. Scipio, New York; Mormon 1843; claimed endorsement of Joseph Smith* Sr.; founded village of St. James, Beaver Is., Michigan, 1849; crowned king 1850; mem. Michigan legislature 185254; sanctioned plural marriage 1850; assassinated. Followers called Strangites. Works include alleged discovery and tr. of Plates of Laban, mentioned in The Book of Mormon (1 Nephi 35); The Book of the Law of the Lord. See also Latter Day Saints, g 6.
(Karl; Strassen; May 30, 1827February 25 ?, 1909). B. Jürgenshagen, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Ger.; to US 1846; educ. at the practical sem. Fort Wayne, Ind. (see Löhe, Johann Konrad Wilhelm). Pastor Horse Prairie, near Red Bud, Illinois, 1847; Collinsville, Illinois, 1850; Watertown, Wisconsin, 1859. Pres. Northwestern Dist. 187582. Wisconsin Dist. 188285, both Districts of the Mo. Syn.
(180874). B. Ludwigsburg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen and Berlin; influenced by F. C. Baur,* F. D. E. Schleiermacher,* F. W. J. v. Schelling,* G. W. F. Hegel*; vicar at a village near Ludwigsburg 1830; taught in the sem. at Maulbronn 1831; taught at Tübingen 1832. Held mythical theory of the gospels: the Christian religion developed gradually, like heathen mythology, without intentional fabrication by the writers. Works include Das Leben Jesu, kritisch bearbeitet; Der alte und der neue Glaube. See also Vatke, Johann Karl Wilhelm.
(perhaps ca. 1480/85perhaps ca. 1533). B. Basel, Switz.; educ. Basel; taught in Wertheim, Strasbourg, educ. Basel; taught in Wertheim, Strasbourg, and probably in Horb; ev. preacher in Berchtesgaden; active in the Austrian firol 152122 (esp. at Hall) and later in Wertheim, Eisenach, Nürnberg, Schwäbisch-Hall, and Baden-Baden.
(18741937). Angl. theol. and religious philos.; b. Croydon, Eng.; educ. Oxford; prof. exegesis Oxford. Tried to correlate science and theol. Works include The Four Gospels: A Study of Origins.
(William; April 10, 1827May 20, 1915). B. Lahr, grand duchy of Baden, Ger.; educ. Basel, Switz.; ordained 1850; sent by ch. authorities of the canton of Glarus as miss. to the colonies at New Glarus and New Bilten, Green Co., Wisconsin; joined Wisconsin* Syn. 1856. Pastor Newton (Newtonburg and Liberty, Manitowoc Co., Wisconsin, 185556; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 185668; Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, 186872; St. Paul, Minnesota, 187281; Kenosha, Wisconsin, 188186. Pres. Wis. Syn. 186567.
(June 7. 1749March 10, 1812). B. near New Germantown, New Jersey, of Swiss extraction; studied theol. privately under H. M. Mühlenberg* and C. M. Wrangel*; educ. Coll. of Philadelphia (which later became U. of Pennsylvania); ordained by Syn. of Pennsylvania 1770; Pastor Easton, Pennsylvania, 176976. Chaplain 8th Virginia regt. 177677. Pastor Charleston, South Carolina, 177880. Chaplain 9th Virginia regt. Prisoner of Brit. 178082. Pastor New Hanover (Falckner's Swamp), Pennsylvania, 178285; Winchester, Virginia, 17851812. Helped prepare P. Henkel (see Henkels, The, 2) and W. Carpenter* for the ministry.
(18751930). Pioneer in RC mission science; b. Fraustadt, Posen, Ger.; priest 1901. Works include Bibliotheca missionum.
(April 30, 1874Sept. 17, 1953). B. Chicago, Illinois; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; traveling miss. in N California 1895; served various parishes in Calif. 18951902; pastor Chicago 190232; Mo. Syn. Secy. of Missions 193253; held various other positions.
(Victorin; Strigelius; 152469). Melanchthonian Luth.; b. Kaufbeuren, Swabia; educ. Freiburg and Wittenberg; taught at Wittenberg, Erfurt, Jena; moved to Leipzig 1563, Heidelberg 1567. Failed to distinguish bet. philos. and theol. Works include Loci theologici. See also Synergistic Controversy.
(March 27, 1876May 30, 1947). B. Norristown, Pennsylvania; educ. Muhlenberg Coll., Allentown, Pennsylvania, and Lutheran Theol. Sem., Mount Airy, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; ordained 1899; pastor Trenton, New Jersey, and in Pennsylvania Edited The Children's Hymnal and Service Book. Other works include The Church Year; A Manual on Worship; Oremus; In the Presence.
(18741959). B. Brumath, near Strasbourg, Fr.; vicar Weissenburg (Wissembourg) and Ingweiler (Ingwiller), NE Fr., 1898; pastor Colmar 190619; taught in Strasbourg; noted for Luther studies. Works include Luther: Esquisse de sa vie et de sa pensée; Le Protestantisme en Alsace.
(18361921). Bap. theo.; b. Rochester, New York Educ. Yale coll., New Haven, Connecticut; Rochester (New York) Theol. Sem.; and in Ger. Pastor Haverhill, Massachusetts, 186165; Cleveland, Ohio, 186572. Pres. and prof. Biblical theol. Rochester Theol. Sem. 18721912. Works include Systematic Theology; The Great Poets and Their Theology.
(17481816). B. Coventry, Connecticut; educ. Yale coll., New Haven, Connecticut; studied law; tutor Yale coll. 177273; studied theol.; Cong. pastor Hartford, Connecticut, 1774. Helped est. Connecticut Home Mission Soc. 1801. Helped compile The Hartford Selection of Hymns. Hymnist. Hymns include Swell the Anthem, Raise the Song.
(Josip Juraj; 18151905). RC prelate; b. Osijek (Eszék; Esseg), Croatia; priest 1838; bp. Bosnia, with see at Djakovo, 1849. Worked for reunion of Orthodox and Catholics; opposed doctrine of papal infallibility.
(18461922). B. Barmen. Ger.; to US; became Meth.; preacher in Ger. congs. from 1869; worked for Jewish missions from 1894; returned to Eur. 1899; advocated evangelicalism in the spirit of neo-Darbyism (see Brethren, Plymouth); defended verbal inspiration (see Inspiration, Doctrine of). Works include Das Evangelium Gottes von der Allversöhnung in Christus.
(18571914). B. Cottesmore, Rutland, Eng.; RC 1879; superior gen. Soc. of the Sacred Heart 1911. Known for teaching of asceticism and writings on educ. topics.
(May 18, 1879June 15, 1968). Son of H. G. Stub*; b. Koshkonong, Wisconsin Educ. U. of Minnesota; Luther Coll., Decorah, Iowa; Luther Theol. Sem., St. Paul, Minnesota Pastor Seattle, Washington, 190354. Works include Music in the Church; Inspiration; Christ in the Old Testament; The Place of the Lutheran Church in America; The City Church; Home Mission Problems.
(February 23, 1849August 1, 1931). Father of H. A. Stub*; b. near Muskego, Wisconsin Educ. Bergen, Norway 186165; Luther Coll., Decorah, Iowa; Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana; Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor in Minnesota 187278. Prof. Luther Theol. Sem. (see Luther Theological Seminary, 1) 187896. Pastor and prof. Decorah, Iowa, 18961900. Prof. and pres. Luth. Theol. Sem. 190017. Pres. Norw. Syn. (see Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 813) 191017. Helped form The Norw. Luth. Ch. of Am. (see Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 1314) and was its pres. 191725. Pres. National* Luth. Council 191820. Works include Om Naadevalget; Foredrag rood det humanistiske og saakaldte kristelige Frimureri.
(Stubnatzi; February 15, 1829 September 13, 1880). B. Fürth, Franconia, Bav., Ger.; sent to US by J. K. W. Löhe* 1847; educ. at the practical sem., Fort Wayne, Indiana (see Ministry, Education of, X E and F). Pastor Coopers Grove, Cook Co., Illinois, 184962; asst. pastor to W. Sihler* in the Fort Wayne, Indiana, area 186268; pastor Emmanuel Luth. Ch., Fort Wayne, 1868; pres. Cen. Dist. of the Mo. Syn. 187880.
(Wilbrand; Willbrandt; January 6, 1835May 28, 1903). B. Bramsche, near Osnabrück, Hannover, Ger.; to US 1839. Educ. Wittenberg Coll., Springfield, Ohio. Studied at Halle 185961; Göttingen, Tübingen, and Berlin 186566. Pastor Davenport, Iowa, 185859; Erie, Pennsylvania, 186162, 186365; Indianapolis, Indiana, 186768; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 186873. Chaplain in Civil War 186263. Prof. Wittenberg Coll. 187380. Pastor Am. Ch. in Berlin 188094; lectured in Am. 1892. To US 1894; made his home at North Cambridge, Massachusetts Works include The History of the Augsburg Confession, from Its Origin till the Adoption of the Formula of Concord; Christian Sociology; The Social Problem.
Nat. affiliate of World Student Christian Fed. (see Students, Spiritual Care of, A 5); sprang out of the Student* Volunteer Movement; formed 1893 in Eng. by combination of the Cambridge Inter-Collegiate Christian Union with several other university Christian organizations. See also Ecumenical Movement, 12.
(also known as Snick from its acronym SNCC). Formed 1960 to coordinate protests of students conducting sit-ins in behalf of African-American rights. Changed name 1969 to Student Nat. Coordinating Committee.
W. H. Burns, The Voices of Negro Protest in America (New York, 1963 ).
1. Prominent in the beginning of Am. higher educ. was a determination to integrate religion with higher educ. Hundreds of denominational colleges were est. (for examples see Ministry, Education of, VIVIII; Protestant Education in the United States). Rise of state univs., beginning with the U. of Virginia (founded 1819 at Charlottesville), and progressive secularization of higher educ. led some local congs. and voluntary agencies to provide spiritual service for student mems. at secular colleges and univs. before 1900.
2. Gen. denominational support of student work did not come till early in the 20th c..
3. Main religious student organizations have included Canterbury Clubs (Episc.); United Student Fellowship (United Ch. of Christ); Roger Williams Clubs (Northern Baps.); Bap. Student Unions (Southern Baps.); Meth. Student Movement (Wesley Foundations in state institutions and Meth. fellowships in Meth. and indep. colleges); Westminster Foundation (Presb.); Gamma Delta (see C 9); Luth. Student Assoc. of Am. (organized Toledo, Ohio, 1922); Beta Sigma Psi Luth. Fraternity (founded 1928 as Conc. Club); Newman Club (RC); Pax Ramana (RC internat. student movement founded 1921 Switz.); Hillel Foundations (founded 1923; supported by B'nai B'rith, a Jewish service organization founded 1843 NYC).
4. Christian student socs. in Am. began early in the 18th c. and antedate all other voluntary student organizations. The first student YMCAs were organized at the state univs. of Michigan and Virginia 1858.
5. Major interdenom, student movements: World Student Christian Fed. (founded 1895 in Swed. by representatives of Am. and Eur. SCMs [see Student Christian Movement]; the US section is the Nat. Student Christian Fed. [see Student Volunteer Movement, 4]); Student For. Missions Fellowship (formerly Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship; began in Eng. 1910 in the withdrawal of the Cambridge Inter-Collegiate Christian Union [see also Student Christian Movement] from the Brit. SCM; the name Student For. Missions Fellowship was first attached to the fellowship that arose 1936 among students in Christian colleges and Bible institutes in Am. and was absorbed 1945/46 as a dept. of the Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship, which later became the Student For. Missions Fellowship); Campus* Crusade for Christ Internat..
B. Lutheran in America.
1. The General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in N. Am. placed a pastor in Madison, Wisconsin, 1907 to serve Luth. students at the U. of Wisconsin.
2. The ULC developed and expanded the work begun in its merging bodies.
3. The Am. Luth. Conf. created a Student Service Commission.
4. The NLC organized a Student Service Commission 1945 (gave it divisional status 1949), took over the student work of its constituent bodies 1946. See also American Lutheran Conference, The, 4.
The Nat. Luth. Campus Ministry of The ALC and the LCA is administered by the Lutheran* Council in the USA
C. Mo. Syn.
1. Before 1923 (see 3), spiritual care of students depended on individual initiative. A. T. E. Haentzschel* began campus work at the U. of Wisconsin, Madison, 1920 under call issued by a joint bd. of the S. Wisconsin Dist. and the Wisconsin* Ev. Luth. Syn.; a bldg. containing chapel, parsonage, and soc. rooms for students, and located near the campus, was dedicated 1926.
2. Under impetus provided by the Student Welfare Committee (later names include Student Service Commission; Commission on Coll. and University Work; Campus Ministry) other Dists. began similar work.
3. 1923 and 1926 syn. resolutions expressed concern for spiritual care of students, but lack of financial means delayed action for yrs. Reuben W. Hahn, who had served as university pastor at the U. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, since 1929, served as Ex. Secy. for the work 194068. Secy. for Campus Ministry: W. J. Fields 197076; Edward A. Schmidt 1977.
4. The program: soul conservation, reclamation, and winning; training for Christian service; Christian impact on the campus through evangelism and establishment of Luth. chairs of religion.
5. Since May 1, 1968, campus ministry has been part of the Bd. for Missions.
6. In most cases campus work is done by pastors of coll. community congs.; full-time campus pastors are called where conditions warrant it. Formation of student assemblies (or congs.) offers opportunity for students to prepare for service in congs. they will join later.
7. The Luth. Collegiate Assoc. (defunct ca. 1970), conceived as an extension of the student service program, was formally organized 1945 as an assoc. of persons with coll. training, to enlist talents of educ. laypersons for ch. work.
8. Nat. and regional study assemblies for Luths. on coll. and university faculties and staffs have been held, partly to consider and meet spiritual needs of students.
9. Gamma Delta, Internat. Assoc. of Luth. Students, was founded 1934 Chicago, Illinois, by W. A. Maier* et al. The Gk. letters gamma and delta here stand for gnosis (knowledge) and diakonia (service) and reflect the origin of the assoc., which succeeded the Student Dist. of the Walther League (with its program of Christian knowledge and service; see also Young People's Organizations, Christian, II 3), which had been formed 1928. Aims: to foster thorough study of the Bible; to disseminate the Scriptural philosophy of life; to train Lutheran students for Christian service to God and their fellowmen; to maintain and increase Lutheran consciousness on the campus; to maintain and increase local and intercampus fellowship among students of our faith. Gamma Delta supports student-related for. miss. projects. RWH
1. Began at the 1st internat. conf. of Christian coll. students at Mount Hermon (now part of Northfield), Massachusetts, 1886; 100 participants in the conf. indicated desire to become for. missionaries; the Student Volunteer Movement for For. Missions was formed December 1886 to expedite the movement.
2. Purposes: (a) to awaken and maintain among all Christian students of the US and Can. intelligent and active interest in for. missions; (b) to enroll a sufficient number of properly qualified student volunteers to meet the successive demands of the various missionary bds. of N. Am.; (c) to help all such intending missionaries to prepare for their lifework and to enlist their cooperation in developing the missionary life of home chs.; (d) to lay an equal burden of responsibility on all students who are to remain as ministers and lay workers at home, that they may actively promote the missionary enterprise by intelligent advocacy, gifts, and prayer.
3. The SVM led to formation of the Student Volunteer Missionary Union in Eng. 1892 and spread to the Continent and Asia.
4. The SVM joined the NCC 1953, and in 1959, with the United Student Christian Council (see Young People's Organizations, Christian, I 6) and the Interseminary Committee (see National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America) formed the Nat. Student Christian Fed., of which the SVM became the Commission on World Mission (see also Students, Spiritual Care of, A 5).
See also Student Christian Movement.
(October 6, 1866May 24, 1935). B. Marietta, Pennsylvania; educ. Capital U., Columbus, Ohio, and Luth. Theol. Sem., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Pastor Pennsylvania and New Jersey 18871915. Prof. Chicago Luth. Theol. Sem., Maywood, 191520; Chicago Luth. Divinity School 192021; pres. and prof. Northwestern* Luth. Theol. Sem. 192135. Works include An Explanation of Luther's Small Catechism; The Christian Life; A Handbook of Christian Ethics; Life of Philip Melanchthon; The Christian Faith; A System of Christian Dogmatics. See also Ministry, Education of, X M.
(Sturmin; 16821730). Württembergische Tabea (Württemberg Tabitha; cf. Acts 9:36). B. Stuttgart, Ger.; became blind as a child; eyesight partly restored by an operation; said to have read the Bible from beginning to end 30 times; avid reader of M. Luther's works; known for helping poor. sick, and needy.
(Jakob Sturm v. Sturmeck; 14891553). Reformer, statesman, educator; b. Strasbourg; educ. Heidelberg, Freiburg, Liège, Paris; aided Prots. at diets of Speyer 1526 and 1529, Augsburg 1530. Helped draw up Tetrapolitan Confession (see Reformed Confessions, D 1); helped found a Gymnasium at Strasbourg which became a pattern for many similar schools. See also Higher Education, 7; Sturm, Johannes.
(150789). Educator; b. Schleiden, Ger.; educ. at school of the Brethren of the Common Life at Liege, Belg., and at Louvain; became Prot. under influence of M. Bucer*; helped found a Gymnasium at Strasbourg 1537/38 of which he was rector ca. 43 yrs. (see also Higher Education, 7; Sturm, Jakob). Emphasized classical culture and training in rhetoric and eloquence, based on humanism and ev. piety. Deprived of rectorship in tension with Luths..
(Carl; 181696). Cleric, poet; b. Köstritz, Ger.; educ. Jena; tutor and pastor at various places. Works include Fromme Lieder; Zwei Rosen, oder das Hohelied der Liebe; Israelitische Lieder.
(16691719). Mathematician, architect; b. Altdorf, Ger.; influenced Prot. ch. architecture.
Statement presented to representatives of the ch. at large at Stuttgart, Ger., 1945 by the council of EKD acknowledging guilt of ev. Christians in Ger.: 1. Confession of guilt for not confessing more courageously, praying more faithfully, believing more joyfully, and loving more fervently. 2. Resolution to make a new beginning. 3. Expression of gratitude for ecumenical fellowship.
4. Expression of hope that the spirit of power and revenge becoming evident everywhere will be curbed by the influence of the ch. 5. Plea for new beginning in all Christendom through the Holy Spirit.
(18681938). B. Zurich, Switz.; educ. Zurich and Berlin; taught at Berlin, Basel, Freiburg, Bonn, and again Berlin (from 1917). Expert on ch. law. Works include Geschichte des kirchlichen Benefizialwesens von seinen Anfängen bis auf die Zeit Alexanders III.
(from Gk. stylos, pillar). Hermits who lived on pillar tops, esp. in Syria, but also Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and elsewhere, 5th10th cents., with isolated cases down to modern times. Also called pillar saints. See also Simeon Stylites.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission
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