Christian Cyclopedia

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Seabury, Samuel

(1729–96). B. Groton, Connecticut; educ. Yale coll., New Haven, Connecticut; ordained Prot. Episc. deacon 1753; miss. New Brunswick, Can., 1754–57; held various positions in New York; guide to Brit. army 1776; consecrated 1st Prot. Episc. bp. in Am. by nonjuring Scot. prelates 1784. See also Protestant Episcopal Church, 3.

Seal of Confession.

Seal of silence placed on one who hears private confession; places him under obligation not to reveal any sin confessed to him.

Seamen's Homes.

Since seamen spend much time away from home, exposed to many temptations, institutions have been est. to provide for them a home away from home; in connection with these homes various Luth. chs. do miss. work in various ports.


Legendary hermit and preacher near Nürnberg, Ger.; variously dated 8th–11th c.; patron saint Nürnberg; St. Sebald, Iowa, where the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Iowa* and Other States was organized, was named after him. See also Church Architecture, 11.


Acc. to tradition, a martyr, pierced by arrows, perhaps then beaten to death, under Diocletian* probably near the end of the 3d c.; b. perhaps Milan, It.; said to have been an army officer.

Sebastiani, Johann

(1622–83). Luth. composer; b. Weimar, Ger.; in Königsberg from 1650. Works include Das Leyden und Sterben unsers Herrn und Heylandes Jesu Christi nach dem heiligen Matthaeo, which used chorale stanzas assigned to solo voice accompanied by strings. See also Passion, The.

Seckendorf, Veit Ludwig von

(1626–92). The name Seckendorf is taken from the village of Seckendorf, bet. Nürnberg and Langenzenn. B. Herzogenaurach, near Erlangen, Ger.; educ. Strasbourg; held various positions, esp. in the service of Ernest* I; chancellor U. of Halle 1692; friend of P. J. Spener,* but himself not a Pietist; reconciled Pietists and Halle clergy 1692; hymnist. Works include Commentarius historicus et apologeticus de Lutheranismo, essentially a refutation of L. Maimbourg,* Histoire du Luthéranisme.

L. W. Spitz, “Veit Ludwig von Seckendorf: Statesman and Scholar,” CTM, XVI (1945), 672–684.

Secker, Thomas

(1693–1768). B. Sibthorpe, Nottinghamshire, Eng.; studied medicine London, Paris, Leiden; won from Dissent (see Dissenter) for the Ch. of Eng. by J. Butler* 1720; studied theol. Oxford; pastor at various places; bp. Bristol 1735, Oxford 1737; dean St. Paul's, London; abp. Canterbury 1758.

Second Advent of Christ.

More properly called last, or final, coming, or advent of Christ, since He is spoken of as coming to us also in Word and Sacrament. See also Last Things.

Second Blessing.

Teaching of holiness* chs. that the Holy Spirit bestows entire sanctification (pure love of God, and a desire to do holy works, filling a clean heart) instantaneously. Justification, by which sins are forgiven, is regarded as the 1st blessing.

Second Order.

Order of nuns with common founder and spirit, and similar rules, of a corresponding order of men. See also Dominicans.

Second World.

The Communist states. In gen. hostile to Christianity. See also First World; Third World; Fourth World.


(derived more probably from Lat. sequi, “to follow,” than from secare, “to cut”). The following of some leader. In a narrow sense, a group that has separated from an older group by following another leader; or a group within a group (in this sense the Pharisees and Sadducees are called sects within Judaism; Acts 5:17; 26:5). In a wide sense, all religious bodies are sometimes referred to as sects.


That which is characteristic of sects (see Sect). Usually defined as exclusive or narrow-minded adherence to a sect, denomination, party, or school of thought.

Secular Clergy.

Mems. of the RC clergy* who live in the world (Lat. saeculum), in distinction from those who have withdrawn from the world, live under a rule (Lat. regula), and are called regular clergy; take precedence of regular clergy of equal rank; sometimes also called diocesan and parochial clergy.


(from Lat. saeculum, “race; generation; age; spirit of the age; world”). View based on the premise that this-worldly concepts are a sufficient framework and that religion and religious considerations may be ignored. Secularism is found in ancient (e.g., Lucretius*) and modern (e.g., F. Bacon*) philosophers and in various movements (e.g., Enlightenment,* naturalism,* romanticism,* modern technology, nationalism). When D. Bonhoeffer* spoke of a world that has come of age (“ 'mündig' gewordene Welt”) he doubtless had in mind the fact that modern methods and insights have solved many problems formerly assigned to religious areas. The secularist feels that he no longer needs God, or at least lives as though there were no God.

Cleavage bet. secular and sacred leads to partial secularism. People worship God at fixed times and in fixed ways but live in their business, professional, educ., nat., and soc. world as though there were no God.

The term “secularism” is also applied to a system of ethics which holds that norms should be determined exclusively with reference to this world, i. e., atheistically. EL

See also Bradlaugh, Charles; Holyoake, George Jacob; Ultramontanism.


Pastor's seat by side of and facing altar in chancel.

Sedes doctrinae

(Lat. “seat [or base] of doctrine”). Term applied to clear passages of Scripture that treat individual doctrines and hence are proof passages (Lat. dicta probantia) for that doctrine. The view that doctrine is to be based on such individual passages is often opposed to the view that doctrine is to be determined by the entirety of Scripture (Ger. Schriftganze).

Sedulius, Coelius

(Caelius; 5th c.). B. probably Rome, It.; probably teacher of heathen literature; Christian late in life. Works include Carmen paschale; Hymnus de Christo, from which the hymns A solis ortus cardine and Hostis Herodes impie have been drawn.


The seat (i. e., center of power or authority) of a bp.; the jurisdiction (e.g., province or diocese) of a bp. See also Apostolic See.

Seeberg, Erich

(1888–1945). Son of R. Seeberg*; ev. theol.; b. Dorpat (Tartu); educ. Tübingen and Berlin; taught Greifswald 1913; army chaplain 1914–18. Prof. Breslau 1919, 1924; Königsberg 1920; Halle 1926; Berlin 1927. Works include Luthers Theologie: Motive und Ideen; Luthers Theologie in ihren Grundzügen; Gottfried Arnold: die Wissenschaft und die Mystik seiner Zeit.

Seeberg, Oskar Theodor Alfred

(1863–1915). Brother of R. Seeberg*; ev. theol.; b. Pedua, Estonia; educ. Dorpat (Tartu), Erlangen, Leipzig; prof. Dorpat, Rostock, Kiel.

Seeberg, Reinhold

(1859–1935). Father of E. Seeberg*; b. Pörrafer, near Pernau, Livonia; educ. Dorpat (Tartu) and Erlangen; taught Dorpat 1884, Erlangen 1889, Berlin 1898. Works include Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte. See also Lutheran Theology After 1580, 14.

Seehofer, Arsacius

(d. 1545). B. Munich, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; renounced Lutheranism; taught Ingolstadt; accused of using notes on P. Melanchthon's lectures in lectures on Paul's epistles; forced to retract 17 statements in his writings; imprisoned; excluded from the U.; A. v. Grumbach* et al., including M. Luther, protested the punishment; Seehofer escaped from prison, went to Wittenberg, was active for the Reformation in Prussia, taught in Augsburg, and became pastor in Württemberg, where he helped introd. the Reformation. Works were put on the Index* of Prohibited Books.


Cure of souls. See also Pastor as Counselor.

Segura y Sáenz, Pedro

(1880–1957). B. Carazo, Burgos, Sp.; priest 1906; bp. Coria 1920; abp. Burgos 1926; abp. Toledo, cardinal, and primate Sp. 1927; driven out by the govt. of the 2d rep. 1931; abp. Seville 1937; in conflict with pope and state; opposed 1953 concordat (see Concordat, 9); opposed tolerance toward Prots. advocated by US RCs

Seiffert, Max

(1868–1948). Musicologist; b. Beeskow, on the Spree, Ger.; studied at U. of Berlin under J. A. P. Spitta; prof. Berlin 1909. Ed. works of G. F. Handel,* J. P. Sweelinck,* et al.; Sammelbände der Internationalen Musikgesellschaft. Helped prepare Denkmäler deutscher Tonkunst. Comp. Organum, a collection of old music. Other works include Geschichte der Klavier-Musik.

Seiss, Joseph Augustus

(March 18, 1823–June 20, 1904). B. in (or near) Graceham, Frederick Co., Maryland, of Moravian parents; studied at Pennsylvania Coll. (later called Gettysburg Coll.), Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 1839–41, without graduating; studied theol. privately; licensed Ev. Luth. Syn. of Virginia 1842. Pastor Martinsburg and Shepherdstown, Virginia, ca. 1843/44; Cumberland, Maryland, 1847; Baltimore, Maryland, 1852; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1858–1904. Pres. Pennsylvania Ministerium. Helped found Gen. Council* of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (N.) Am. Ed. The Lutheran. Other works include Ecclesia Lutherana; Lectures on the Gospels for the Sundays and Chief Festivals of the Church Year; Lectures on the Epistles for Sundays and the Chief Festivals; The Last Times and the Great Consummation; The Apocalypse. See also Fraternal Address.

Seklucjan, Jan

(Seklucyan; Johann Seklucian; Seclucianus; ca. 1500/10–ca. 1570/78). B. Siekluki, Radom Co., Poland; educ. Leipzig, Ger.; book dealer and customs collector Poznan; won for Reformation and championed it at Poznan 1541–44; forced to flee; pastor Königsberg-Steindamm; tr. arts. and books into Polish: pub. devotional Polish literature: helped pub. Polish NT

Selective Fellowship.

Principle whereby the exercise of Christian fellowship* (e.g., pulpit, altar, prayer) is determined by an individual or by a local ch. See also Altar Fellowship; American Lutheran Church, V. 1.

Seleucia, Council of.

Convened 359 by Constantius (see Arianism, 3) to settle the Arian controversy. Adopted an Arian creed proposed by Acacius* of Caesarea and others.


To have fellowship with Christ involves denying oneself, crucifying the flesh, taking up the cross, and following Jesus in complete self-surrender (Lk 9:23; 14:27; Ro 8:13; Gl 5:24). It means, not to follow one's own will, but to do the will of Christ (1 Co 6:20), give up everything that is sinful, forego one's own comfort and pleasure in order to serve God and promote the welfare of others (Ph 3:7–8; 4:11–13). It is the opposite of self-will and self-indulgence. See also Asceticism.


Concern for one's own welfare at the expense of or with disregard for that of others. Scripture admonishes against selfishness (e.g., Pr 11:26; Hg 1:4–6; Zch 7:6; Lk 6:32) and exhorts to care for others (e.g., Is 58:7; Ph 2:4; Ja 2:15–16; 1 Jn 3:17).

Selle, Christian August Thomas

(February 21, 1819–April 3, 1898). B. Gelting, Angeln province, Schleswig, Ger.; teacher at 14; to Am. 1837; printer's apprentice and factory worker; studied theol. privately; licensed by what later was called The Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States. Pastor West Newton (then sometimes also called Robstown), Westmoreland Co., Pennsylvania; New Lisbon, Columbiana Co., Ohio; withdrew from Ohio Syn. 1845 (see Document of Separation). Pastor Chicago, Illinois, 1846. Charter mem. of the Mo. Syn. Pastor Crete, Illinois, 1851; Rock Island, Illinois, 1858. Prof. teachers sem., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Addison, Illinois, 1861–93. Coed. Evangelisch-Lutherisches Schulblatt.

Selle, Thomas

(1599–1663). Composer; b. Zörbig, near Bitterfeld, Saxony, Ger.; entered U. of Leipzig 1622; taught at Heide, Holstein, 1624; rector and dir. ch. music Wesselburen 1625; cantor Itzehoe 1634; cantor at the Johanneum,* Hamburg, 1641 (also worked at 5 chs.). Works include Passions, motets, ch. concertos, madrigals. See also Madrigal; Motet; Passion, The.

Sellin, Ernst Friedrich Max

(1867–December 31, 1945 [January l, 1946?]). B. Altschwerin, Mecklenburg, Ger.; taught at Erlangen, Vienna, Rostock, Kiel, Berlin. Conservative exegete. Works include Der alttestamentliche Prophetismus; Jericho; Mose und seine Bedeutung für die israelitisch-jüdische Religionsgeschichte; Das Problem des Hiobbuches; Geschichte des israelitisch-jüdischen Volkes; Alttestamentliche Theologie auf religionsgeschichtlicher Grundlage; Einleitung in das Alte Testament.

Selnecker, Nikolaus

(Selneccer; Schellenecker; Selneccerus; Seleneccer; ca. 1528/30–1592). B. Hersbruck, near Nürnberg, Ger.; organist Nürnberg at ca. 12; studied in Wittenberg from ca. 1549 under P. Melanchthon; lectured on philol., philos., and theol.; court preacher Dresden ca. 1558; prof. theol. Jena 1565; prof. and pastor Leipzig 1568; court preacher Wolfenbüttel 1570; later active at Halle, Magdeburg, and Hildesheim, changing theol. circumstances largely determining his movements. Helped develop Thomas Choir, Leipzig. Helped prepare and promote FC (see Lutheran Confessions, C 2) and Apologia oder Verantwortung des christlichen Concordienbuchs 1582 (see also Chemnitz, Martin; Kirchner. Timotheus). Other works include Christliche Psalmen, Lieder, und Kirchengesenge; Lat. verse; theol. works in Lat. and Ger. See also Neostadiensium admonitio; Passion, The.

Selwyn, George Augustus

(1809–78). Angl. churchman and miss.; b. Church Row, Hampstead, London. Eng.; educ. Eton and Cambridge; ordained deacon 1833; priest 1834; curate Windsor 1839; bp. New Zealand 1841. Est. a coll. to train candidates for the ministry 1843; a site for it near Auckland was selected 1844. Extended miss. work to the South Seas. Bp. Lichfield, Staffordshire, Eng., 1868. See also Patteson, John Coleridge.

Semantics, General.

Discipline intended to train men in efficient methods of evaluation and better use of words and other symbols; formulated by A. H. S. Korzybski.*

Though described as non-Aristotelian, the system preserves the aims of Aristotle,* trying to update scientific methods of his day which, it claims, are reflected in the structure of Indo-European languages and have thus been retained in human evaluations, leading to serious results, many of which are said to be derived from an absolutistic, 2-valued, either-or orientation. It opposes ethical statements that classify behavior as only either good or bad. either right or wrong. Gen. semantics evaluates behavior on basis of a scale of many degrees bet. extremes by considering time, place, and context of actions. Its morality (a matter of self-control) aims at accumulating knowledge and making progress in civilization. Cooperation and freedom in the use of language for these purposes would demand elimination of assumptions, premises, creeds, prejudices, etc., that do not correspond to known scientific facts, in the estimation of gen. semanticists cause inadequate evaluations and lead to insanity, and otherwise impede progress.

Gen. semanticists reject belief in beings, events, or places whose reality or existence cannot be, or has not been, scientifically observed or determined. Statements involving a deity or “hereafter” are considered non-sense statements, which cannot be checked to determine correspondence to, or conflict with, scientific facts.

Gen. semantics is based on distinction bet. the chemistry-binding class of life (plants, which take in and use energies of sun, soil, water, and air), the space-binding class of life (animals, which appropriate basic energies and move about in space), and the time-binding class of life (man, who binds energies and space and, through the mechanism of recorded and spoken symbols, can start where the previous generation left off and continue accumulating knowledge for proper evaluation and guidance of his actions).

Gen. semanticists apply the scientific method (see Science) to all areas of human endeavor because it is considered to be the most accurate of all evaluative and predictive systems that have been used. Its use is regarded as essential to sane living in the present stage of man's development. AHN

A. H. S. Korzybski, Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-Aristotelian Systems and General Semantics, 3d ed. (Lakeville, Connecticut, 1948) and Manhood of Humanity (New York, 1921); C. Keyser, “Korzybski's Concept of Man,” Mathematical Philosophy, Lecture 20 (New York, 1922), pp. 422–451; W. Johnson, People in Quandaries: The Semantics of Personal Adjustment (New York, 1946); I. J. Lee, Language Habits in Human Affairs: An Introduction to General Semantics (New York, 1941); G. A. Lundberg, Can Science Save Us? (New York, 1947); S. I. Hayakawa, “The Non-Aristotelian Revision of Morality,” ETC: A Review of General Semantics, III, 3 (Spring, 1946), 161–173, and Language in Thought and Action (New York, 1949).


Semi-Pelagians rejected Pelagianism (see Pelagian Controversy, 4–5) but did not deny freedom of the will and what they regarded as irresistible grace and predestination. They coordinated the human will and divine grace as factors in the work of salvation, holding that the reason why some are saved, others not, lies in an inner condition and receptivity in man, some making proper use of the will, others not; free will is only partially impaired but needs the help of divine grace; salvation is dependent on grace and the right use of natural powers. J. Cassianus* of Massilia (Marseilles) was an early leader of semi-Pelagians, who were first called Massilians.

Semler, Johann Salomo

(1725–91). Sometimes called “Father of Ger. rationalism”; b. Saalfeld, Thuringia, Ger.; raised under Pietistic influence; educ. Halle, where he came under rationalistic influence; prof. theol. Halle 1752–79. Tried to free science by distinguishing bet. “religion” and “theol.” Prophecies and appeal to miracles are explained as accommodation to needs of the times. Rejected “natural” religion; regarded Christianity as originating in divine revelation. See also Lutheran Theology After 1580, 8.

Seneca, Lucius Annaeus

(ca. 4 BC–65 AD). Roman rhetorician, eclectic Stoic philos., statesman, poet; b. Córdoba, Sp.; studied at Rome; entered legal profession; exiled to Corsica 41–49; returned to tutor young Nero*; later councillor of Nero, who turned against him; suicide by Nero's order. Held ethical goal to be life in harmony with nature; life is preparation for death. Seneca's apocryphal correspondence with Paul was known to Jerome.* Works include De consolatione; De brevitate vitae; De constantia sapientis; De providentia; dramatic writings. See also Apocrypha, C 4.

Senestrey, Ignaz von

(1818–1906). RC theol.; b. Bärnau, Upper Palatinate, NE Bav., Ger.; priest 1842; taught at sem. in Eichstätt; bp. Regensburg 1858; cardinal 1892. Advocate of doctrine of papal infallibility; worked for RC interests in Kulturkampf.*

Senfl, Ludwig

(Senfel; Senffl; ca. 1486/92 [most probably 1486]-probably ca. 1542/43 [1555?]). RC composer; b. Basel [or Zurich?], Switz.; pupil of H. Isaak* and succeeded him at the court of Maximilian* I from ca. 1512/17; court conductor Munich ca. 1530–40. M. Luther thought highly of his music; some believe Senfl was a Luth. at heart. Compositions based on chorales used only pre-Reformation, not Luth., chorales. Works include masses, motets, Magnificats.

Sennert, Andreas

(1606–89). B. Wittenberg, Ger.; prof. oriental languages Wittenberg. Works include Hypotyposis harmonica linguarum orientalium; Grammatica orientalis eademque harmonica; De articulis fidei fundamentalibus exercitio theologica.


(sensualism). Theory that all knowledge or ideas originate in sense perceptions. Philosophically it leads to empiricism,* ethically to hedonism.*


Free indulgence in the lust* of the flesh.


(Lat. sententiae). In the theol. cense, accepted propositions or statements of theol. conclusions. See also Adam Wodham; Peter the Lombard.

Sepp, Johann Nepomuk

(Johannes; 1816–1909). RC hist.; b. Tölz, Upper Bav., Ger.; educ. Munich; traveled extensively; prof. Munich; deposed and expelled from the city 1847 for pol. reasons; reinstated 1850; retired 1867; opposed the doctrine of papal infallibility*; defended Old* Caths. Wrote Das Leben Christi in reply to D. F. Strauss,* Das Leben Jesu, adding a vol. on Acts; other works include writings on Christian archaeology and on the hist. of Bav.


In music, immediate repetition of a phrase at another pitch. In liturgies, additions that follow immediately after the Hallelujah.* Sequence texts are lengthy poems whose musical setting is usually syllabic. Sequences may have originated at least as early as the 8th c. The term “sequence” was apparently first used in the 9th c. Sequences include Dies* irea; Veni, Sancte Spiritus; Victimae paschali laudes. To be distinguished from trope.* See also Canon, 1; Notker (ca. 840–912); “Stabat mater; Worship, Parts of, 8.

Serampore Trio.

Name applied to W. Carey,* J. Marshman,* and W. Ward* because of their assoc. with Serampore, Dan. India, where they est. a coll., library, schools, and a press, printed books and tracts, assembled translators from many parts of India, and pub. Bible versions. See also India, 10.


(Sarapion; d. after 362). Bp. Thmuis, in the Nile delta, from before 339; friend of Athanasius* and supported him in his opposition against Arianism.*


One of Serapis. See Sarapis. republics in Yugoslavia*; E of the Drina R.; Christianity was first introd. by the RC Ch. in the 7th c. under Heraclius,* who sent missionaries, who baptized some Serbs; but this led to no lasting results. In the 2d half of the 9th c. Basil I see Schism, 5) defeated the Serbian pirates and imposed Christianity by compulsion. The leading ch. is Serbian Orthodox, which 1879, as a result of Serbian revolt against the Turk, became free from the Ecumenical Patriarch under Turkish control. For current information see CIA World Factbook.

Sergeant, John

(Sargent; 1710–July 27, 1749). B. Newark, New Jersey; educ. Yale coll. (called Yale U. since 1887), New Haven, Connecticut; tutor Yale 1731-ca. 1734; ordained Cong. 1735; worked among Indians in the Housatonic Valley, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, till 1749 (see also Indians, Lutheran Missions to North American). Tr. prayers, portions of the Bible. and I. Watts's* shorter catechism into Indian.


(d. 638). Patriarch Constantinople 610–638; adviser of emp. Heraclius*; helped lead successful defense of Constantinople against Avars (a nation of Mongolian or Turkish origin) 626. Wrote Ecthesis.* See also Acathistus.


(Stragorodski; 1867–1944). Partriarch Moscow and all Russ.; b. Arsamas [Arzamas], near Nizhni Novgorod, Russ.; educ. Saint Petersburg; taught Moscow and Saint Petersburg; bp. Jamburg (Yamburg; called Kingisepp from 1922) 1901; abp. Fin. and Vyborg 1905; metropolitan Novgorod 1917; patriarch 1943. Tried to est. working relationship bet. ch. and state in Russ.

Sergius I

(d. 701). B. Palermo, Sicily; pope 687–701; rejected the reforming decrees of the Quinisext* Syn.; interested in Eng. missions.

Serle, Ambrose

(1742–1812). Commissioner in the Brit. Govt. Transport Office; hymnist. Works include Horae solitariae; hymns include “Thy Ways, O Lord, with Wise Design.”

Serra, Junípero

(Jose Miguel; Miguel Jose; 1713–84). B. Petra, Majorca, Sp.; Franciscan 1730; to Mexico City 1749; miss. to Indians NE of Querétaro 1750–58[59?]; then in coll. administration Mexico City; miss. in Dioceses of Mexico, Puebla, Oaxaca, Valladolid, and Guadalajara; to Lower Calif. 1767. Est. 9 missions, including San Diego 1769, San Francisco 1776, Santa Clara 1777.


(Servan; St. Serf; ca. 460–ca. 543). Miss. in Scot.; est. training center at Culross, Fife Co., on the N bank of the Firth of Forth; instructed Kentigern (see Celtic Church, 6, 9).

Servetus, Michael

(Miguel Serveto; probably 1511–53). Theol. and physician; b. probably Tudela, Navarre, N Sp. (or Villaneuva de Sigena, Huesca, NE Sp., in Aragon?); educ. Toulouse, Fr.; attended coronation of Charles* V at Bologna, It., 1530; anti-Trinitarian; arrested Vienne, Fr., 1553; escaped; arrested Geneva, It.; condemned; burned. Works include De trinitatis erroribus; Christianismi restitutio. See also Calvin, John, 6; Socinianism, 1; Unitarianism.

Service Books.

Books containing forms of worship. Before the Reformation there were many such books, including, e.g., breviaries (see Breviary), cantionales (see Cantionale), missals (see Missal), sacramentaries (see Sacramentary), troparia.* In Luth. chs., agenda* and lectionaries (see Lectionary) are common, in addition to books containing liturgies and hymnals with directives for conducting services. Antiphonaries (see Antiphonary) and other books containing musical settings are also used.


(Order of Friar Servants of St. Mary). Religious family of friars (priests and brothers), contemplative nuns, and conventual and secular tertiaries* founded 1233 when some cloth merchants of Florence, It., left their city and families to retire to an area near Florence for a life of poverty and penance. Miss. fields have included Arab., Philippines, Afr., Chile, and Brazil. See also Annunciation, Orders of the, 5; Mendicant Friars.


(Sethites). See Gnosticism, 7 i.


In soc. work, institutions est. in congested city areas to supply educ., recreational, med., and other services.

Seuel, Johann Edmund

(April 21, 1865–May 9, 1951). B. Vincennes, Indiana; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; ordained 1886; pastor Ogallala, Nebraska, and miss. at large 1886–88; prof. Walther* Coll., St. Louis, 1888–1907; mgr. CPH, St. Louis, 1907–44; treas. to Mo. Syn. 1914–42; helped found Luth. Laymen's League (see Lutheran Laymen's League International).

Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit.

Term often used in connection with Is. 11:2–3. Opinions vary as to the validity of “7.” Some hold that the passage speaks of the Spirit as bestowing 6 gifts: wisdom, understanding, counsel, might, knowledge, fear of the Lord. Some arrive at the figure 7 in v. 2 by including the Spirit Himself as a gift bestowed. Some do not include the Spirit in the gifts, but find the 7th in v. 3a, where the LXX and Vulgate use a different term for “fear of the Lord” than in v. 2 at the end (though the Heb. is the same in both verses). The basic question persists: Must we find a list of 7 in this passage? See also Gifts of the Spirit. LP

Seven Hours

(canonical). See Hours, Canonical.

Seven Joys of Mary.

In RCm, the Annunciation, Visitation, Nativity of Christ, Adoration of the Magi, Finding the Child Jesus in the Temple, Appearance of the Risen Christ to Mary, Assumption and Coronation of Mary. Commemorated with a 7-decade rosary* called Franciscan Crown.

Seven Penitential Psalms, The.

Ps. 6, 32, 38, 51, 102, 130, 143. Used liturgically from ancient times, esp. in connection with penitential* days and seasons.

Seven Sleepers of Ephesus.

Seven Christian youths who, acc. to a legend that originated perhaps in the 6th c., were walled up in a cave during the Decian persecution (see Persecution of Christians, 3, 4), fell asleep, awoke and were released ca. 175/197 yrs. later. The legend varies considerably in details.

Seven Sorrows of Mary.

In RCm, the Prophecy of Simeon, Flight into Egypt, Loss of the Child Jesus, Meeting Christ on the Way to Calvary, Standing at the Foot of the Cross, Taking Christ Down from the Cross, Burial of Christ. Commemorated on Friday after Passion Sunday (Judica; 5th Sunday in Lent) and September 15.

Seventh Day Baptist World Federation.

Organized 1965 the Seventh Day Bap. Gen. Conf. in USA (see Baptist Churches, 16) and other confs. elsewhere in the world.

Severinghaus, John Dietrich

(July 22, 1834–October 14, 1905). B. near Severinghausen, Hannover, Ger.; to Am. ca. 1850; educ. Wittenberg Sem. (theol. dept. of Wittenberg Coll. [see Wittenberg University]); ordained Miami Syn. 1862, later joined Wartburg Syn.; pastor Ohio, Indiana, New York, Illinois; est. connection with C. Jensen* 1878 and arranged for students from Breklum, Ger., to enter the field of the Wartburg and Ger. Nebraska Synods. Pres. Wartburg Synod. Prof. German* Theol. Sem. of The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA, Chicago, Illinois Ed. Lutherischer Hausfreund; Lutherischer Kirchenfreund; Chicago Banner. See also Breklum Missionary Society.


(d. 482). Abbot and apostle Noricum; miss. on banks of Danube and Inn rivers in modern Bav. Founded monastery at Boiotro (near Passau) and another at Faviana.

Severus, Lucius Septimius

(146–211). B. near Leptis, Afr.; Roman emp. 193–211. See also Persecution of Christians, 3.


(from Lat. for “6th”). One of the canonical hours,* at the 6th hour of the day acc. to old Roman reckoning.


(corruption of “sacristan*”). Originally an attendant on the clergy; now one in charge of ch. and parish bldgs. and their equipment and of related minor duties (often including bell ringing) as a custodian or janitor.

Seychelles, Republic of.

A nation of ca. 90 islands (ca. 30 inhabited) in the Indian Ocean, ca. 1,000 mi. E of Kenya, ca. 700 mi. NE of Madagascar, and just S of the Equator; area: ca. 171 sq. mi. Uninhabited till settled by French ca. 1768 for spice plantations; Eng. control asserted 1794, 1806, and 1810; ruled as a dependency as part of Mauritius from 1814; separate colony 1903; indep. mem. Commonwealth of Nations and mem. UN 1976. Ethnic groups: Creole (mixed Fr. and black descent) ca. 94%; other Europeans and Asians; some Indians and Chinese. Official languages: Eng. and French. Religion: ca. 90% RC; ca. 8% Angl.; others include Seventh-day Adv., Hindus, Muslims, Buddhists, Parsis, and pagans; some follow witchcraft and voodoo. RCm introd. in the 18th c.

Seyffarth, Gustavus

(July 13, 1796–November 17, 1885). B. Übigau, Saxony, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; prof. archaeol. Leipzig; resigned; to Am. in the mid-1850s; prof. Mo. Syn. Gymnasium and Conc. Sem., Saint Louis, Missouri, 1856–59; returned to archaeol. studies, this time in NYC.

The Literary Life of Gustavus Seyffarth …: An Autobiographical Sketch (New York, 1886).

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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The Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod

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