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Public Aid to Church-Related Elementary and Secondary Schools.

The question whether or not ch.-related elementary and secondary schools in the US should receive govt. aid became an issue in the late 1950s–1960s. The US Congress, many state legislatures, and courts wrestled with constitutional and practical problems. The 1965 Elementary and Secondary Educ. Act provides minimal aid to children in nonpublic schools under certain conditions. Under the child benefit theory, which holds that aid to the child is permissible but aid to the institution is not, the aid under this Act normally flows to the child through pub.-school channels. Benefits were broadened 1972.

The fed. lunch program was made available to all schools 1946; children and teachers in ch.-related schools have benefited also from other services.

In 1970, sixteen states provided bus transportation for children in nonpublic schools; 13 others authorized such transportation under various restrictions. A number of states provided textbook loans, and med., dental, psychiatric, testing, speech correction, reading and/or other services.

In the 1960s the “purchase of services” concept gained momentum. Several states authorized purchase of services from nonpublic schools, including ch.-related schools, in specified curriculum areas. Pennsylvania pioneered in introd. this concept and several other states followed suit.

The debate about aid to ch.-related schools deals partly with constitutionality, on which the courts will have to rule, partly with “pub. service” performed by nonpublic schools. The US Supreme Court has ruled that incidental aid to a ch.-related school is not unconstitutional so long as the education serves the “secular purpose” of the state; further rulings are necessary in the interest of constitutional clarity.

Aid for direct religious instruction, for worship activities, and for special efforts in training for ch. membership is clearly out of the question. Perhaps more attention will be given to the “permeation issue”: whether or not a ch.-related school may in its gen. educ. program accept aid and still refer to God or use religious motivation in so-called secular subjects for which aid is provided. A distinction bet. “secular purpose” and “secular instruction” will have to be made.

Various organizations of interested citizens and ch.-related groups seek aid to ch.-related schools on state and nat. levels. Citizens for Educational Freedom was perhaps the 1st. The Nat. Cath. Educational Assoc. and the Nat. Union of Christian Schools favor it. LCMS favors aid so long as it does not interfere with the distinctive purpose of ch.-related schools; it encourages its officials to help shape acceptable legislation.

Organized opponents of aid to ch.-related schools include the Am. Civil Liberties Union, Americans United for Separation of Ch. and State, the Am. Jewish Congress, and various groups representing pub. schools.

Important issues for chs. maintaining schools: (1) who will control their educ. enterprise; (2) how to maintain willing support for their schools by their mems. if the secular govt. contributes much to meet nonpublic school costs. These issues involve risks. WAK

See also Church and State, 14; Schools, Church Related.

Publication Houses, Lutheran.

By the time M. Luther* posted his 95 Theses* 1517 (see Christian Church, History of the, III 1) printing was widespread; Luther made extensive use of it. See also Gutenberg, Johann(es).

In the US, Luth. immigrants immediately printed periodicals and other literature, some before organizing into ch. bodies. Luth. pub. houses in Am. include:

Augsburg Publishing House. Minneapolis, Minnesota Beginning traced to 1873, when a periodical committee was elected by the Conference (see Norwegian-Danish Augustana Synod in America, The). In 1890 the Conf., helped form The United* Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am., which est. Augsburg Pub. House 1891. The business changed quarters several times.

When The Norw. Luth. Ch. of Am. was formed 1917, Augsburg Pub. House absorbed the pub. business of Hauge's Norw. Ev. Luth. Syn. in Am. (see Eielsen Synod) and the Norw. Syn. (see Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 8–13); The Norw. Luth. Ch. of Am. changed name to The Ev. Luth. Ch. 1946. A new bldg. was erected 1953 for gen. offices and some production operations.

When the ELC, ALC, and UELC formed The ALC 1960/61, the pub. operations of the 3 uniting bodies (Augsburg Pub. House, Minneapolis; Lutheran Pub. House, Blair, Nebraska [UELC]; Wartburg Press, Columbus, Ohio [ALC]) were merged under the Bd. of Publication of The ALC, with the name Augsburg Pub. House. Main offices were est. Minneapolis, branch offices Columbus, Ohio; Omaha, Nebraska; Seattle, Washington; Calgary, Alta., Can. The Messenger Press (see below) of the LFC, which merged with The ALC 1963, was inc. into Augsburg Pub. House.

Augustana Book Concern. Publishing activities of the Augustana Syn. began 1851 when L. P. Esbjörn* issued a tract for immigrants. T. N. Hasselquist* set up a printing press in his home in Galesburg, Illinois, 1855 and issued various books, pamphlets, and periodicals.

The Swed. Luth. Publication Soc. was organized 1858 to take over the periodicals and conduct a printing business in the basement of Immanuel Ch., Chicago, Illinois The Augustana Syn. took over this business 1860. When the est. was lost in the 1871 Chicago Fire, Augustana Coll. (see Augustana Theological Seminary) was asked to take up the work. The school sold the business 1874 to Engberg-Hohnberg & Lindell, Chicago, who served the syn. 15 yrs. Then a new publication soc., Ungdomens Vänner, was est. at Augustana Coll. This soc. was later reorganized as Augustana Tract Soc. and secured interest in the printing plant of Thulin and Anderson, Moline, Illinois Another reorganization took place 1884, when the Augustana Book Concern was est. “for the benefit of Augustana Coll.,” Rock Island, Illinois This was a venture without syn. sanction; there were other publishing ventures; gen. confusion resulted.

The Augustana Syn. resolved 1889 to est. a Bd. of Publication, which took over the affairs of the Augustana Book Concern and formed a new corporation, Luth. Augustana Book Concern, which also absorbed other ventures and was in turn absorbed in The Bd. of Publication of the LCA (see below).

Concordia Publishing House. In 1844 mems. of Trin. Luth. Ch., St. Louis, Missouri, acted on their conviction that their leaders should reach out through the printed word to more people. C. F. W. Walther* became mgr. of printing activities and ed. Funds came from individual contributions and from appropriations by the cong. In 1849 the Mo. Syn. created a publication society. From 1854 the basement of Trin. Luth. Ch. was used by August Wiebusch and Son as a syn. printery (Synodal-Druckerei). Several yrs. later the syn. elected a publication committee.

In the late 1860s a successful effort was made under leadership of Louis Lange (1829–93; b. Hesse, Ger.; to Am. ca. 1846; worked in printeries in NYC, Detroit, and St. Louis; became pub. of Die Abendschule [previously pub. Buffalo, New York] 1857) to est. a Synodal-Druckerei that was approved by the Mo. Syn. and came to be housed on the campus of Conc. Sem., with the composing room in operation by December 27, 1869, and the plant dedicated February 28, 1870. The name “Lutherischer Concordia-Verlag” was adopted 1878; the Eng. counterpart, “Concordia Publishing House,” carne into use at least as early as 1882.

New property was acquired on the NW corner of the intersection of Miami and Indiana 1872, the new bldg. completed 1874; units were added 1887 and 1892/93 (the latter on Jefferson); other bldgs. were added 1911, 1925, and 1941; pressroom and bindery were enlarged 1948; another large bldg. was added 1951; a 4th floor for offices was added to the 1925 bldg. 1955; the 1874 bldg. was replaced by a 5-story structure 1963/64.

M. C. Barthel was made Gen. Agent in charge of production and sales 1874; Martin Tirmenstein replaced him as Manager 1891 and was succeeded by J. E. Seuel* 1907; O. A. Dorn succeeded Seuel as Gen. Manager 1944 and was succeeded 1971 by Ralph L. Reinke as pres. (resigned 1985), succeeded 1985 by John W. Gerber as pres. and chief ex. officer 1986. Served until 1995 when replaced by Stephen J. Carter.

One of the early major projects was Der Lutheraner. 1st issue dated September 7, 1844. Another project was Evangelisch-Lutherisches Schulblatt (1865–1920; Lutheran School Journal 1921–47; Lutheran Education from September 1947). Lehre und Wehre (1855–1929), Magazin für ev.-luth. Homiletik (1877–1929), and Theological Monthly (1921–29; successor of Theological Quarterly 1897–1920) merged into Concordia Theological Monthly (1930–72), which became CTM (January 1973–January 1974) and was followed by the Concordia Journal (January 1975– ). CPH pub. The Lutheran Witness (formerly organ of the [Eng.] Ev. Luth. Syn. of Missouri and Other States) from 1912. This Day, a Christian family magazine, was pub. 1949 to January 1971, Spirit, a magazine for Christian teen-agers, October 1963 to August 1971.

Dr. Martin Luthers Sämmtliche Schriften, 23 vols. in 25, including index, was pub. 1880–1910. A 56-vol. Am. ed. of Luther's works in Eng. (joint project with Fortress Press [see below]) was begun 1955. Various eds. of Luther's SC have been pub.

F. A. O. Pieper,* Christliche Dogmatik, 3 vols. plus index vol., was pub. 1917–28, an Eng. version 1950–57. Concordia Triglotta was pub. 1921.

The Concordia Cyclopedia was pub. 1927, Lutheran Cyclopedia 1954, rev. 1975, 2000. Future editions will Exist as Electronic text.

Publications cover a wide range of vocal and instrumental music. The audiovisual dept. produces and distributes many religious films and filmstrips and acquired Family Films 1959. There is a large ecclesiastical arts dept.

Lutheran Publishing House. Pub. activities of the UELC are traced back to the 1st issue of Dansk luthersk Kirkeblad August 1877 (see Danish Lutherans in America, 5). A committee was appointed 1884 to plan establishment of a pub. plant. Pub. activity was taken over officially by the ch. 1891, to be dir. by a publication committee. In 1893 it was resolved to est. Dan. Luth. Publishing House at Blair, Nebraska At first nearly all publications were Danish, but use of Eng. increased to meet growing demands. The organization was controlled by a bd. elected by the convention of the church. LPH merged into Augsburg Publishing House (see above) 1961.

The Messenger Press. Beginning may be traced to Folkebladet Publishing Co. (organized 1877 by S. Oftedal*), which merged 1922 with the Free Ch. Book Concern (formed 1896 by Friends of Augsburg [see Lutheran Free Church]); a new corporation, the Luth. Free Ch. Publishing Co., was formed; name changed 1946 to The Messenger Press; merged with Augsburg Pub. House (see above) 1963.

Northwestern Publishing House. The Wisconsin* Syn. resolved 1876 to est., a syn. bookstore; it opened in Milwaukee 1876. In 1891 the syn. resolved to est. a bookstore-printshop; the venture was inc. 1891 as Northwestern Pub. House. Early publications included Evangelisch-Lutherisches Gemeinde-Blatt (est. 1865). Church Hymnal for Lutheran Services appeared 1910. The Northwestern Lutheran first appeared 1914, The Junior Northwestern 1919. The plant was housed successively in 4 downtown locations (1891–97, 1897–1902, 1902–14, 1914–48) before moving late 1948 into its present W North Ave. home, dedicated 1949.

The United Lutheran Publication House. The Bd. of Publication of the ULC, chartered 1919, resulted from merger of the corresponding bds. of the bodies that merged to form the ULC Beginning traced to organization 1855 of the Publication Soc. of The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA Trade name: Muhlenberg Press. Merged into The Bd. of Publication of the LCA (see below).

The Bd. of Publication of the LCA resulted 1963 from merger of pub. activities of the AELC, the Augustana Ev. Luth. Ch., the Fin. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. (Suomi Syn.), and the ULC; property and business of the Fin. Book Concern were sold by the Bd. later in 1963. Printing plants are in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Rock Island, Illinois Publications include The Lutheran; curricular materials; books on theol.; devotional material; fiction. Trade name: Fortress Press; London, Eng., subsidiary: Lutheran Books Ltd. Operations include an ecclesiastical arts dept.

The Wartburg Press traced its beginning to an 1880 resolution of a committee of the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States; operations were est. 1881 in Columbus, Ohio, under the name Lutheran Book Concern. Became HQ of ALC pub. activities 1930. Wartburg Publishing House, Chicago, Illinois (see Iowa and Other States, Evangelical Lutheran Synod of), was closed 1944 and the name Wartburg Press given to the Luth. Book Concern; a branch store and office opened in Omaha, Nebraska Merged into Augsburg Pub. House 1961 (see above). OAD GT

Publicity, Church.

Christ's miss. command Mt 28:19–20 calls for all-out efforts, including publicity, in the interest of worldwide missions; cf. Lk 14:23.

Publicity was part of early NT ch. work (Acts 2:1–11; 8:4; Ro 1:8). Paul was untiring in efforts to make the Gospel known far and wide.

Ch. publicity was mainly by the spoken and written word for many cents. The Reformation used the printing press as an instrument for publicity.

A Ger. Bible was printed 1743 Germantown, Pennsylvania, by Christopher Saur (Sauer; Sower; 1693–1758; b. Laasphe, Wittgenstein, Westphalia, Ger.; educ. Marburg and Halle; joined Ger. Bap. Brethren*; to Pennsylvania 1724; tailor, then farmer, then printer [1738]).

Luths. in Am. made early use of printing. The Henkel Press was est. at New Market, Virginia, ca. 1805 (see also Henkels, The, 2, 3). The Saxon forebears of the Mo. Syn. began issuing Der Lutheranzer 1844. See also Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, The, V, 2; Publication Houses, Lutheran.

Other types of publicity include ch. bulletin bds.; highway bulletin bds. and other kinds of signs; banners; flags; emblems;-statues; distinctive dress; special events; posters; window displays; radio; TV Practically all denominations have made effective use of publicity. EWG

See also American Lutheran Publicity Bureau; Radio and Television Evangelism, network; Religious Press in America; Religious Tract Movement.

Public Relations.

1. Christians have pub. relations as a matter of fact and principle. Christianity and isolationism are a contradiction in terms. The ties that bind believers to Christ connect them to one another. Christians are not of this world, yet in this world; they are to be salt and light and by good works to invite unbelievers to give glory to the believers' Father who is in heaven.

2. In pub. relations the ch. tries to let the world know what the ch. is and does; sometimes that calls for correction of distorted information and impressions.

3. The ch. speaks as God's agent to the world. It echoes His judgment on sin and proclaims the mercy by which He forgives sin. The ch. also acts for Him in ministering His love and concern for men suffering under the burden which sin's curse brings.

4. In pub. relations terminology: the ch. by word and work creates a climate designed to make unbelievers receptive to the message and ministry of God. In doing so, reflecting in its own life the blessings of God, the ch. carries out God's plan. When Christians identify themselves with Christ and His Gospel, they by word and act convey God's judgment and forgiveness.

5. There are 2 audiences in the church's public. One is its own membership. Through internal pub. relations the ch. strives for the goals outlined Eph. 4:13: “to attain to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to mature manhood, to the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ.” To this end, congs. need to keep lines of communication open. Bonds of Christian fellowship can be strengthened, e.g., by personal contact, telephone calls, mail, various publications.

6. The other audience in the church's pub. is on the outside: all who are without Christ. The individual Christian touches part of this audience. The cong., denomination, and Christendom touch millions more.

7. The many channels through which the ch. can reach out to its audience at large include radio, TV, and the printed page. The overriding concern is for insistence reflecting God's saving purposes with integrity and dignity.

8. Christian stewardship requires time and effort devoted to programs for effective witness through all available means. Workshops, conferences, manuals, and professional books help all who lend themselves to meet the challenges and opportunities of the pub. relations of the church. AAW

Pufendorf, Samuel von

(1632–94). B. Dorf-Chemnitz, Saxony, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Jena; prof. natural and internat. law Heidelberg 1661, Lund, Swed., 1670; held that natural law rests on the instinct of soc., moral law is revealed, civil law enacted by govt.

Pullus, Robert

(Robertus; Bullen; Polanus; Pulby; Pulein; Puley; Pullan[us]; Pullein; Pullen; Pulley; Pulleyn; Pully; ca. 1080–ca. 1146/50). B. SW Eng.; taught at Oxford and Paris; cardinal 1144; helped develop doctrine of repentance; held that forgiveness of sin depends on a sacramental system. Works include 8 books of Sentences.

Purcell, Henry

(ca. 1658/59–1695). Organist; composer; b. probably London (Westminster?), Eng.; organist Westminster Abbey 1679, Chapel Royal 1682. Works include 2 settings for “Thou Knowest, Lord, the Secrets of Our Hearts”; Te Deum; Magnificat; Nunc Dimittis; Jubilate. The popular Trumpet Tune commonly ascribed to him was composed by Jeremiah Clarke (c. 1674–1707). See also Blow, John.


Catechismus Romanus, I, vi, 3: “Besides [hell] there is a purging fire, by which the souls of the pious, tormented for a set time, are purified, so that they might enter the eternal fatherland, into which nothing defiled enters.” Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, Sess. XXV, Decree Concerning Purgatory: “There is a purgatory, and … the souls there detained are aided by the suffrages of the faithful and chiefly by the acceptable sacrifice of the altar… The more difficult and subtle questions … are to be excluded from popular instructions to uneducated people. Likewise, things that are uncertain or have the appearance of falsehood they shall not permit to be made known publicly and discussed.” RCm refers to 2 Mac 12:43–45.

C. N. Callinicos, The Greek Orthodox Catechism (New York, 1960), p. 48: “Scripture … has never expressed anything whatever concerning a third state, such as a temporary Purgatory.”

The idea of purgatory entered the Ch. of Eng. through the Oxford* Movement (see also England, C 7) in the form of an intermediate* state but without developing into a gen. accepted teaching. Common opinion makes it less a process of purification than of development and growth, ending only at the Last Judgment.

Luths. regard purgatory as unscriptural, insulting to Christ, indefensible, mercenary. WA 7, 452; 30 III, 309; 44, 812; WA-T 3, 539.

See also Florence, Council of, 2; Indulgences.


White cloth (usually linen, ca. 11 in. to 13 in. square) used to remove impurities from chalice and paten during Communion.


Term in use since ca. the middle 1560s; designates a faction in the Angl. Ch. (see also England, B 7) that sought continued purification of the ch. to the point of perfection. The movement began with J. Hooper* and the Vestiarian* controversy 1550. When the Angl. Ch. renewed emphasis on vestments 1559, the movement responded by objecting to episcopacy and opted for Presbyterianism. But assemblies could not operate effectively under est. nat. policy. In the 1580s some Puritans advocated independency or congregationalism (see also Conventicle; Dissenter; Nonconformist; United Church of Christ, I A 1). Finally royal supremacy in the ch. came under attack, intensified by pol. enemies of the royal policy of the “divine* right of kings.” Puritanism became practically a pol. party; for a time Puritans were in majority in the House of Commons.

Puritans did not want to separate from the est. ch. But oppression under James* I and Charles I (see Presbyterian Confessions, 1) led many to flee, esp. to Holland, whence the Pilgrim Fathers (see United Church of Christ, I A 1 and 2) came to Am. 1620 (see also United States, Religious History of the, 4). TH

See also Calamy, Edmund.

W. Haller, The Rise of Puritanism (New York, 1938); M. M. Knappen, Tudor Puritanism (Chicago, 1939); D. C. Neal, The History of the Puritans, 5 vols. (Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 1816–17); The Presbyterian Movement in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, ed. R. G. Usher (London, 1905); R. G. Usher, The Reconstruction of the English Church, I (New York, 1910); T. Hoyer, “The Historical Background of the Westminster Assembly,” CTM, XVIII (1947), 572–591.

Purnell, Benjamin

(1861–1927). B. Kentucky; married 1877; deserted his wife; appeared before a justice of the peace in Ohio and acknowledged that he and Mary Stollard were husband and wife; lived as broom maker with Mary at Richmond, Indiana; joined a Southcottian (see Southcottians) colony at Detroit, Michigan; one of the Four Pillars of that colony 1892; expelled ca. 1895 for claiming to be the angel of Rv 10:7 (practical treason to the founder of the colony); roving evangelist and street preacher in various states; settled 1903 with a small group of friends from Ohio at Benton Harbor, Michigan; founded House* of David; charged with dishonesty and immorality; died at the height of the scandal.


Term denoting any of various theories of animal and human behavior or of nature that regard purpose or conscious intent as a basal fact. See also Educational Psychology, D 6.

Purvey, John

(ca. 1353/54–ca. 1427/28). Educ. probably Oxford; assoc. with J. Wycliffe*; rev. Bible tr. of Wycliffe and Nicholas* of Hereford; imprisoned 1390; recanted under pressure but continued to spread Wycliffite views. See also Bible Versions, L. 1.

Pusey, Edward Bouverie

(1800–82). B. Pusey, near Oxford, Eng.; educ. Oxford; assoc. with J. Keble* and J. H. Newman*; studied in Ger.; prof. Heb. and canon Christ Ch., Oxford; resolved to reform Angl. Ch. and unite Eng. and Roman chs.; head of Oxford* Movement after Newman's defection to RCm; suspended from preaching 1843 for 2 yrs. for a moderately RC sermon on the Eucharist; because of his prominence in the movement, Tractarianism* is also called Puseyism. Coed. A Library of Fathers of the Holy Catholic Church; other works include Eirenikon and 8 Tracts for the Times (18, 66–69, 76, 77, 81).

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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