Christian Cyclopedia

About the Cyclopedia

Poach, Andreas

(1516–85). Gnesio-Lutheran*; b. Eilenburg, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; pastor Halle, Nordhausen, and Erfurt; deposed 1572 in antinomian* controversy; pastor Utenbach, near Apolda, 1573. Ed. sermons of M. Luther. See also Antinomian Controversy.


(Mataoha; Matoaka; ca. 1595–1617). Am. Indian princess; b. Virginia; daughter of Powhatan, Algonquian chief; allegedly saved life of John Smith (1580–1631; pres. Jamestown, Virginia, colony 1608–09); bap. name Rebecca; married John Rolfe 1614; d. Eng. See also Indians, American, 3.

Pococke, Edward

(1604–91). Orientalist; b. Oxford, Eng.; educ. Oxford; chaplain to the Eng. factory Aleppo, Syria, 1630–36; prof. Arabic Oxford 1636–40; rector Childrey, Berkshire, 1642–47; prof. Heb. Oxford 1648. Helped prepare B. Walton's* polyglot Bible; other works include commentaries.

Pohlman, Henry Newman

(March 8, 1800-January 20, 1874). B. Albany, New York; licensed by New York Ministerium 1819; served congs. at Saddle River, Ramapo, New Germantown, German Valley, Spruce Run, and Albany; pres. New York Ministerium, New York Syn., New York and New Jersey Syn., The Gen. Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA.


(from Gk.; “shepherd of men”). First Hermetic* book (named after Hermes Trismegistus [“Hermes the Thrice-Greatest”], later name of Egyptian god Thoth, believed to be father and protector of all knowledge); perhaps 2d c. AD


Study or application of pastoral* theol. See also Pastor as Counselor.

Poiret, Pierre

(1646–1719). Fr. Prot. mystic; pastor in The Palatinate; companion of A. Bourignon.* Works include Bibliotheca mysticorum; studies of mystics.

Poissy, Colloquy of

(Disputatio Pussicena). Religious colloquy, or conference, at Poissy, near Paris, Fr., 1561; called by Catherine de Médicis; dealt with differences, esp. on the Lord's Supper, bet. Ref. led by T. Beza* and RCs; D. Laynez,* Peter* Martyr, A. Marlorat,* and P. Picherel* were among those present. No dogmatic agreement was reached, but the way was paved for recognition of and greater freedom for Prots.

Polack, William Gustave

(December 7, 1890–June 5, 1950). B. Wausau, Wisconsin; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor Evansville, Indiana, 1914–25; prof. ch. hist., hymnology, and liturgics Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1925–50; minister Clear Lake Chapel, Clear Lake, Indiana, 1938–50; chm. Intersyn. Committee on Hymnology and Liturgics 1929–49; charter mem. Conc. Hist. Institute. Ed. Concordia Junior Messenger 1928–39, Concordia Historical Institute Quarterly 1928–50, and Martin Luther in English Poetry; assoc. ed. The Cresset 1937–50. Other works include Beauty for Ashes; Beside Still Waters; The Building of a Great Church; Choice Morsels; David Livingstone; Famous Hymns and Their Story; Fathers and Founders; Favorite Christian Hymns; The Handbook to the Lutheran Hymnal; Hymns from the Harps of God; Into All the World; John Eliot; The Story of C. F. W. Walther; The Story of Luther.


(Rep. of Poland). 1. Area: ca. 120, 750 sc. mi. Ethnic groups: Polish 98%, Germans, Ukrainians, Byelorussians. Language: Polish. Religion: mostly RC.

The beginnings of Christianity in Poland are traced to the 2d half of the 9th c. and are apparently connected with Boh. and/or Moravia (see Czechoslovakia, 2). The land soon came under RC influence but was receptive to anti-RC movements (e.g., that of the Hussites*).

2. The Luth. Reformation reached Poland early, esp. through Polish students at Wittenberg and through M. Luther's* writings (see also Reformation, Lutheran, 10, 12). Reformed movements included that of J. Laski.* Many Bohemian* Brethren under persecution fled to Poland. These 3 ev. groups effected a union of sorts in the Consensus of Sandomierz 1570 (see Reformed Confessions, E 5), which Luth. objections against its lack of precise definition, esp. in connection with the Lord's Supper, soon made ineffective.

3. In the 1573 Pax dissidentium (Peace of the Dissident) the Prot. nobles insisted that every new king vow equal protection for Prots. and RCs But the intended effect was not secured. Henry of Valois (1551–89; b. Fontainebleau, Fr.; king of Poland 1573–74; king Henry III of Fr. 1574–89) took the oath reluctantly. Stephen Báthory (István Báthory; 1533–86; king of Poland 1575–86) took the oath but supported the Counter* Reformation. Sigismund III (Sigismund Vasa; 1566–1632; king of Poland 1587–1632, of Swed. 1592–1604 [crowned 1594]), educ. by Jesuits, also supported the Counter Reformation.

4. The 1645 Colloquy (Conf., Syn.) of Thorn not only failed to restore unity bet. RCs and Prots. but divided Luths. and Calvinists. In 1717 the Prots. lost the right to build chs. In 1733 they were barred from civil offices and the diet. Ca. 1767, on insistence of Russ. and Prussia, Prots. and Gk. Orthodox Caths. regained equal rights with RCs 1772–95 Poland underwent 3 partitions, with territories going to Russ., Austria, and Prussia. Strictures against the RC Ch. were imposed in retaliation against the 1830–31 revolution and Russification began. The 2d Polish Revolution (1863–64) was followed by further strictures. With regard to the use of the Russ. language in the life and work of the ch. a compromise was agreed on in the early 1880s.

5. The const. of the rep. of Poland (indep. proclaimed 1918) gave preeminence to RCm, equal rights to all. Poland was torn in WW II by Ger. and Russia. Christians and Jews suffered severely. But a 1949 decree specified that no disadvantages accrue to anyone because of ch. membership, and the 1952 Const. of the Polish People's Rep. says that the ch. is separate from the state, that all citizens have liberty of conscience and faith, and that the ch. and other religious assocs. are free to engage in religious activities. Name changed 1989 to Rep. of Roland. JP, LP

See also Crusades, 9; Lutheran Confessions, A 5; Skarga, Piotr.

Polanus von Polansdorf, Amandus

(1561–1610). B. Troppau (Opava), Silesia; educ. Tübingen; became Ref. and went to Basel and Geneva 1583; prof. OT Basel 1596; with his father-in-law, J. J. Grynäus (see Grynäus, 3), led orthodox Calvinism in Basel. Tr. NT into Ger.; other works include Syntagma theologiae Christianae; commentaries on OT books. See also Dogmatics, B 5.

Pole, Reginald

(1500–58). RC theol.; b. Stourton Castle, Staffordshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford, Rome, Padua, Paris; Paul* III summoned him to confer on a gen. council, appointed him to a committee on reform, and made him cardinal 1536; opposed Henry* VIII's divorce proceedings against Catherine of Aragon; with G. Contarini* tried to conciliate the Prots.; one of 3 legates appointed to preside at the Council of Trent*; legate to Eng. 1553; abp. Canterbury 1557. See also Counter Reformation, 4, 5.


(from Gk. polemos, “battle”). Controversial discussions or arguments involving attack and/or refutation. See also Apologetics; Irenics; Theology.

Polish National Catholic Church of America.

Organized 1897 at Scranton, Pennsylvania, as a result of dissatisfaction with RC ideology and administration, coupled with desire for religious freedom; 1st syn. held 1904 Scranton, Pennsylvania See also Polish National Catholic Church of Canada.


Fr. pol. party that advocated religious toleration, esp. after Bartholomew's* Day Massacre; made alliance with Huguenots*; many supported Henry* IV of Fr.

Politus, Ambrosius Catharinus

(Lancellotto de'Politi; 1484–1553). B. Siena, It.; Dominican theol.; early opposed Reformation in It. Works include Apologia pro veritate catholicae et apostolicae fidei; Excusatio disputationis contra Lutherum.

Polity, Ecclesiastical.

1. Principles, form, or constitution for ch. organization, administration, and discipline.* The local ch., the cong. of believers locally circumscribed, is the seat of authority; e.g., it was the business of the cong. at Colossae to provide for ample preaching (Cl 3:16) and to admonish Archippus to be faithful (Cl 4:17); the admonitions of Rv 2–3 are addressed to local chs.; the various chs. in Galatia, Macedonia, and Achaia were asked to give toward the collection for needy (1 Co 16:1; 2 Co 8–9). There were elders or bps. (overseers) in the early ch.; at the election of Matthias (Acts 1) the whole cong. selected the candidates, and choice was made by lot; in Acts 6 the cong. elected 7 deacons; of Acts 20:28.

2. Ecclesiastical polity deals also with relations bet. congs. At first the apostles were the main external bond; the apostolate was undivided; every apostle belonged to each cong. Communication and common concerns helped knit the congs. together; cf. Acts 11:19–30; 15; 18:27; Ro 16:5; 2 Co 3:1; 8:19, 23.

3. Outward organization was gradually effected. Congs. united into dioceses,* dioceses grouped together under metropolitans.* This process of pyramiding centralization led finally to the papacy with its unwarranted claims of power and authority. The other extreme, that of complete fragmentation into cong. units, should also be avoided. Eph 4:3–6 indicates assoc. of those who are one in faith, e.g., in syns. that are not legislative but advisory in relation to mem. congs.; valid acts of any cong. should be honored by all others; erring congs. should be properly dealt with by other congs., within the syn. framework (1 Co 12:25–26).

4. The cong. system is different from others, e.g., papal, presb., and episc. see also Collegialism; Territorial System. Most syns. in Am. have the cong. system, in which, e.g., also the right to call, elect, and install ministers, teachers, and ch. officers rests with the local ch. See also Authority; Keys, Office of the; Lutheran Congregation.

5. On the monarchical, or papal, system see Bishop, 1–3, 5, 11; Hierarchy.

6. In the episc. system, bps. are regarded as successors of the apostles. Apostolic* succession is held in Anglicanism (esp. the High* Ch.), RCm, and others on the unwarranted assumption that episcopal consecration can he traced unbroken to the apostles. See also Episcopacy.

7. In the presb. system, ch. govt. is exercised by presbyters, or elders,* elected by the people. The Gen. Assem. covers the nation; the Syn. covers the state; the presbytery* covers the next division of territory assigned to it; the session* deals with the local cong.

See also Theology.

W. Elert, “Kirchenverfassung,” Morphologic des Luthertums, I (Munich, 1931; improved print., 1952), 320–335, tr. W. A. Hansen, “Church Government,” The Structure of Lutheranism, I (St. Louis, 1962), 367–385; C. S. Mundinger, Government in the Missouri Synod (St. Louis, 1947); J. L. Neve, Die Freikirche im Vergleich mit der Staatskirche (Burlington, Iowa, n. d.), tr. C. E. Hay, The Free Church System Compared with the German State Church (Burlington, Iowa, 1903); J. L. Schaver, The Polity of the Churches (Chicago, 1947); Episcopacy Ancient and Modern, ed. C. Jenkins and K. D. Mackenzie (London, 1930); A. Brunn, The Polity of a Lutheran Congregation (St. Louis, 1940).

Pollich, Martin von Mellrichstadt

(Mellerstadt [Lower Franconia, Upper Bav., Ger.]; d. 1513). “Dr. Mellerstadt”; Dr. of Medicine, Philos., and Theol.; physician of Frederick* III of Saxony; helped est. U. of Wittenberg, where he was the 1st rector and taught scholastic theol. and medicine; spoke disparagingly of theol., but is said to have had a presentiment of the coming importance of the monk M. Luther as reformer of the ch. Works include Laconismus.

Polyander à Kerckhoven, Johannes

(1568–1646). B. Metz; educ. Bremen, Heidelberg, and Geneva; pastor Walloon cong. Dordrecht, Neth., 1591; prof. U. of Leiden 1611; took part in 1618–19 Syn. of Dordrecht*; infralapsarian.

Polychrome Bible.

Ed. of parts of Scripture in which higher critical opinions were reflected in colors used to identify various sections; ed. P. Haupt*; 16 vols. of the Heb. text and 6 vols. of the Eng. tr. appeared from 1894. Also called rainbow Bible.


(d. ca. 430). Brother of Theodore* of Mopsuestia; bp. Apamea (Dinar), Syria (or Phrygia). Works include commentaries on OT books.

MPG, 93, 13–468.


(2d c. AD). Bp. Ephesus; Quartodeciman. See also Easter Controversy.


(from Gk.; “multiple marriage”). Forms of polygamy include polygyny (marriage of 2 or more women to the same man at the same time) and polyandry (marriage of 2 or more men to the same woman at the same time). The fact that polygamy was (e.g., in the OT) and is practiced does not justify it. Scripture does not present it as God's intent, or as God-pleasing, or as an example to follow. God made 1 man and 1 woman to live together in wedlock. That pattern is underscored by the singular “a man” and “his wife” (Gn 2:24) and by the reference to “the beginning” (cf. Mt 19:4–9). Man (Lamech, Gn 4:19) departed from God's pattern. Cf. Mk 10:2–12 (v. 8 “they twain”); Eph 5:22–33 (v. 31 “they two”); 1 Th 4:4; 1 Ti 3:2, 12; 5:9; 1 Ptr 3:1–7.

Polyglot Bibles.

The Tetrapla (texts of the LXX, Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion) and Hexapla (Heb., Heb. in Gk. characters, Aquila, Symmachus, LXX, Theodotion) of Origen were the earliest known polyglot Scriptures; extant in fragments of excerpts. One page of a projected polyglot was printed in the 15th or 16th c. by the Aldine press, founded by Aldus Manutius (1450–1515). The 1st complete printed polyglot was the Biblia Sacra Polyglotta, 600 copies printed in 1517 at Complutum (Alcalá de Henares), Sp. (hence called Complutensian Polyglot), under patronage of F. Jimenez* de Cisneros at cost of 50,000 ducats; pub. ca. 1522; see also Lexicons, B. The Antwerp Polyglot, 8 vols., 1569–72, also called Biblia Regia because it was printed under patronage of Philip II of Sp. (1527–98; king of Sp. 1556–98), contains the Complutensian texts, a Chaldee paraphrase, the Syriac version, and a Lat. tr. by B. Arias* Montano. The Paris Polyglot, 10 vols., was pub. 1645; additions to former polyglots include the Samaritan Pentateuch and an Arab. version of both Testaments. The London Polyglot, 6 vols., ed. B. Walton,* pub. 1657, is much more comprehensive than previous polyglots. The Leipzig Polyglot (Biblia Sacra Quadrilinguia, ed. C. Reineccius*), 3 vols. 1713–51, includes M. Luther's Ger. tr. The Heidelberg Polyglot (probably ed. Bonaventura Cornelius Bertram [1531–94; b. Thouars, Fr.; prof. Heb. Geneva, Switz.]), 3 vols., was pub. 1586; the Hamburg Polyglot (ed. D. Wolder*) 1596; the Nürnberg Polyglot of E. Hutter* (OT to Ruth, Ps, and NT) 1599–1602; Bagster's Polyglot 1831; the 4-vol. Polyglotten-Bibel, ed. E. R. Stier and K. G. W. Theile, was pub. from the mid-1840s to 1855; The Hexaglot Bible, Comprising the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments in the Original Tongues, Together with the Septuagint, the Syriac (of the New Testament), the Vulgate, the Authorized English, and German, and the Most Approved French Versions, 6 vols., 1876; Biblia Polyglotta Matritensia, Madrid, 1957–.

Historical Catalogue of the Printed Editions of Holy Scripture in the Library of the British and Foreign Bible Society, comp. T. H. Darlow and H. F. Moule, 2 vols. in 4 (New York, 1903–11).


Includes Hawaiian Is., New Zealand, and Easter Is., and the islands lying within the triangle formed by these (e.g., Samoa, Line Is., Cook Is., Phoenix Is., Ellice Is., Tonga, Tahiti, Marquesas Is., the Tuamotu Archipelago, Mangareva [Gambier] Is., Tubuai [Austral] Is.). Groups that have done miss. work in Polynesia include Australasian socs.; LMS; Assemblies of God; Paris Ev. Miss. Soc.; Seventhday Adv.; LCMS; Methodist; Missionary Ch. Assoc.; Pent. Holiness Ch., Inc.; S. Bap. Conv.


Belief in, or worship of, more than I god; may include deification of man and/or natural forces and phenomena; sometimes taken to include animism (see Primitive Religion); opposed to monotheism.* See also Confucianism; Hinduism; Shinto.

Pomponazzi, Pietro

(Petrus Pomponatius; ca. 1462/64–ca. 1524/25). Philos.; b. Mantua, It.; educ. Padua; taught at Padua, Ferrara, and Bologna; held that immortality of the soul is a matter of faith, not of reason. Works include De immortalitate animae.

Pond, Enoch

(1791–1882). Cong. cleric; b. Wrentham, Massachusetts; educ. Brown U., Providence, Rhode Island; pastor Ward (now called Auburn), Massachusetts 1815; opposed Unitarianism; prof. 1832, pres. 1858 Bangor (Maine) Theol. Sem. Works include The Mather Family; Lectures on Christian Theology.


Branch of theol. dealing with the doctrine of evil. See also Hamartiology.

Pontifex maximus

(Lat. “greatest priest”). Originally the title of the pagan chief priest at Rome; used satirically by Tertullian* of the pope; regular title of the pope from the 5th c.

Pontifical College.

Originally the close advisers of the pagan pontifex* maximus at Rome; in RCm, from the 16th c., the term designated any coll. or sem. founded by, or under direct jurisdiction of, the papacy; later it came to mean such institutions for training for. missionaries; since 1931 it refers to all RC colleges and univs. granting academic degrees.

Pontifical Mass

Mass celebrated by a bp. or higher prelate; if celebrated by the pope it is called papal pontifical mass.


Episcopal attire; specifically episcopal insignia including miter* and crosier* (CIC 337).


(d. ca. 260 AD). Deacon and biographer of Cyprian* of Carthage.

Pontoppidan, Erik

(the family name is perhaps a Latinization, by one of his ancestors, of the Ger. equivalent [Brückenstadt] for Brody, on the is. Fyn; 1698–1764). Luth. theol.; b. Aarhus, Jutland; royal chaplain 1735, prof. 1738 Copenhagen; bp. Bergen, Norw., 1748; vice-chancellor U. Copenhagen 1755. Works include Sandhed til gudfrygtighed (“Truth unto Piety”), an explanation of the SC (1737), written for use in school and confirmation instruction (see also Norway, Lutheranism in, 8).


(Elijah, or Robert, or Paul). See World Community of Al-Islam, The.

Poole, Matthew

(1624–79). B. York, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; Presb. rector London ca. 1648/49; nonconformist* 1662. Works include Synopsis; Vox clamantis in deserto; The Nullity of the Romish Faith.


(From Lat. papa, “father”). 1. Bp. of Rome as head of the RC Ch. Elected by Coll. of Cardinals.* During the election the cardinals are secluded. Election may be by acclamation, ballot, or compromise (election by a committee). Two-thirds majority is required for election. The winner announces what name he will bear as pope, is given a fisherman's ring,* is robed in papal vestments, and the cardinals adore him. The news is pub. If the new pope is not a bp., he must be consecrated such.

2. The medieval practice was to date a pontificate from enthronement. In modern times it has become more usual to date from election. Papal titles include Pontifex* maximus, Vicar* of Christ, Servant of the servants of God. Acceptable form of address: Your Holiness.

3. Nonliturgical (prelatial) vestments are simple and include white cassock, small humeral cape, oversleeves, sash, zucchetto, white stockings, pectoral cross; mozzetta, camauro, shoes, mantello, and hat are red except in Eastertide. Liturgical vestments are much more elaborate. Other traditional insignia include the falda (white flowing robe with a train), subcinctorium (in the form of a maniple [see Vestments, Clerical], pendent from the girdle on the right side), fanon (similar to a short cape), sedia gestatoria (portable chair), and tiara (triple crown; not a liturgical insignia). The Swiss Guard, whose principal function is to protect the pope, was est. 1505/06; other papal guard corps include the Noble Guard, est. 1801, and the Palatine Guard, est. 1850.

See also Curia; Papal Household; Vatican City.

Pope, Alexander

(1688–1744). Poet; b. London, Eng.; illness at 12 resulted in deformity; health undermined by overstudy. Works include Messiah; Essay on Man; Moral Essays; hymns include “Rise, Crowned with Light, Imperial Salem, Rise.”

Pope, William Burt

(1822–1903). Meth. theol.; b. Horton, N. S.; minister in several cities in Eng.; tutor Didsbury Coll., Manchester. Ed. London Quarterly Review; other works include A Compendium of Christian Theology.


Some others, not included in the following list, are entered under their names (e.g., see Linus).

1. Sylvester I (Silvester; d. 335). B. Perhaps Rome; pope 314–335; reputed recipient of Donation* of Constantine. See also Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals, 1 a, 2; Silvesterabend.

2. Leo I (ca. 390–461). B. probably Tuscany; pope 440–461; opposed Pelagianism,* Manichaeism,* and Priscillianists*; pressed claims to jurisdiction in Sp., Gaul, and Afr.; persuaded Attila to spare Rome 452; first bp. of Rome to achieve recognition of claim to supremacy as successor of Peter (hence regarded by many as the 1st pope in distinction from preceding bps. of Rome); Valentinian III (419–455; W Roman emp. 425–455) proclaimed his jurisdiction in the W; his definition of the person of Christ was adopted by the Council of Chalcedon.* See also Plenitudo potestatis.

3. Vigilius (b. before 500). B. Rome; pope 537(8?)–555; probably elected pope at instigation of Theodora (ca. 508–548; m. Justinian* I 523); changed position several times regarding the Three* Chapters, finally condemning them 554.

4. Gregory I (ca. 540–604). “The Great, father of medieval papacy”; b. Rome; pope 590–604; followed the teaching of Augustine* of Hippo; extended papal power into the realm of politics; sent Augustine, prior of St. Andrew's monastery, Rome, to Eng. 596; rejected title Papa universalis claimed by patriarch at Constantinople. Works are pervaded by superstitions, including mythological reflections about angels and demons. Writings include Moralia (exposition of Jb); Regula pastoralis; homilies. See also Augustine of Canterbury; Church Year, 17; Doctor of the Church; Fathers of the Church; Gregorian Music; Hymnody, Christian, 3.

5. Nicholas I (ca. 800–867). “The Great”; b. Rome; pope 858–867. See also Schism, 5.

6. Sylvester II (Silvester; Gerbert; ca. 940–1003). Pope 999–1003; b. near Aurillac, Auvergne, Fr.; educ. Aurillac, Barcelona, Rome, Reims; eminent scholar; taught at Reims; abp. Reims 991, Ravenna 998; dialectic philos. Works include writings on theol., mathematics, music, and the sciences.

7. Gregory VII (Hildebrand; ca. 1020–85). Pope 1073–85; b. perhaps near Siena, Tuscany, It.; regarded by many as the most noteworthy character of the Middle Ages after Charlemagne*; closely associated with previous popes from Leo* IX; instituted reforms directed against clerical concubinage, simony,* and lay* investiture; compelled emp. Henry* IV to humble penance at Canossa 1077; Henry besieged Gregory at Rome; Gregory was freed by R. Guiscard* but forced into exile. See also England, A 3.

8. Adrian IV (Hadrian; Nicholas Breakspear; ca. 1100–59). Pope 1154–59; b. near St. Albans, Eng.; the only Englishman to become pope; known for insistence on papal supremacy in conflict with emp. Frederick* I.

9. Alexander III (Orlando Bandinelli; ca. 1105–81). Pope 1159–81; b. Siena, It.; in conflict with emp. Frederick* I; opposed by 4 antipopes: Victor IV, Paschal III, Calixtus III, Innocent III (not to be confused with 10); successful in conflict with Henry* II of Eng. See also Becket, Thomas à.

10. Innocent III (Lothar of Segni; Giovanni Lotario de' Conti [di Segni]; 1161–1216). Pope 1198–1216; b. Anagni, It.; educ. Bologna and Paris; brought papacy to its pinnacle; Eng., Aragon, Port., and other kingdoms became papal fiefs; promoted the 4th Crusade (see Crusades, 5). See also England, A 3; Vicar of Christ.

11. Gregory IX (Hugo [lino]; Ugo[lino]; ca. 1170–1241). Pope 1227–41; b. Anagni, It.; excommunicated Frederick* II 1227 for abandoning the idea of a crusade, and again 1239; entrusted Inquisition* largely to Dominicans* 1232. Pub. decretals 1234 (see Decrees). See also Alexander IV; Raymond of Peñafort; Stedingers.

12. Boniface VIII (Benedetto Caetani; Benedict Gaetani; ca. 1235–1303). Pope 1294–1303; b. Anagni, It.; issued Sext 1298, which contains decretals (see Decrees) after those compiled by Gregory IX. See also Bull; Canon Law, 3; Church and State, 7; Two Swords.

13. John XXII (Jacques Duèse; other forms include Duèze, Dueza, Deuze, d'Euse, d'Euze; [of Cahors]; ca. 1245/49–1334). Pope 1316–34; b. Cahors, Fr.; had long conflict with the emp.; opposed Franciscan Spirituals* (see also Franciscans); enl. and reorganized the curia.* See also Babylonian Captivity, 2.

14. Gregory XI (Pierre Roger de Beaufort; ca. 1329/31–1378). Pope 1370–78; b. near Limoges, Fr.; condemned teachings of J. Wycliffe; ended the Babylonian Captivity (see Babylonian Captivity, 2) by returning to Rome 1377. See also Ambrosians.

15. Pius II (Enea Silvio [Aeneas Sylvius (Silvius)] Piccolomini; 1405–64). Pope 1458–64; b. near Siena, It.; bp. Siena 1449; took name Pins as pope in reference to Vergil's “pious Aeneas”; before he became pope he supported the conciliar* movement, but 1460 he condemned it in his bull Execrabilis (see Execrabilis, 2).

16. Sixtus IV (Francesco della Rovere; 1414–84). Pope 1471–84; b. Celle Ligure, near Savona, It.; Gen. of the Franciscans 1464; cardinal 1467; erected Sistine Chapel and Sistine Bridge, whose heavy cost helped make him unpopular; rearranged and enl. the Vatican library; promoted doctrine of the immaculate* conception; addicted to avarice, nepotism, and simony.* See also Indulgences, 4; Inquisition, 6.

17. Innocent VIII (Giovanni Battista Cibo; 1432–92). Pope 1484–92; b. Genoa, It.; educ. Rome and Padua; bp. Savona 1467; cardinal 1473; interfered in Eng. politics; appointed T. de Torquemada* grand inquisitor of Sp.

18. Alexander VI (Rodrigo Lanzol y Borja [Borgia]; father's surname: Lanzol or Llançol; mother's family name: Borgia or Borja, assumed by him on elevation of his maternal uncle to the papacy as Calixtus* III in 1455; ca. 1431–1503). Pope 1492–1503; b. Játiva [Xátiva], Valencia, Sp.; known for mental gifts and moral defects; opposed by G. Savonarola.* See also Holy Leagues and Alliances, 1.

19. Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere; 1443–1513). Pope 1503–13; b. Albisola Superiore, near Savona, It.; joined Sp., Fr., and Ger. in League of Cambrai against Venice 1508; joined Aragon and Venice against Fr. 1511 (see Holy Leagues and Alliances, 3); convened 5th Lateran* Council 1512; patron of art; pope at the time of M. Luther's visit (see Luther, Martin, 5). See also States of the Church, 3.

20. Leo X (Giovanni de' Medici; 1475–1521). Pope 1513–21; b. Florence, It.; cardinal 1488; used his influence in the interest of his family; est. a concordat with Francis I of Fr. (see France, 8); misunderstood the importance of M. Luther 1519, excommunicated him 1521 (see Luther, Martin, 13). See also Lateran Councils.

21. Pius V (Michele [Antonio?] Ghislieri; 1504–72). Pope 1566–72; b. Bosco Marengo, near Alessandria, It.; Dominican; tried to enforce reform decrees of the Council of Trent*; ordered pub. of Catechismus Romanus 1566 (see also Roman Catholic Confessions, A 3), Breviarium Romanum 1568 (see also Breviary), and Missale Romanum 1570 (see also Missal); excommunicated Elizabeth* I 1570. See also Counter Reformation, 9.

22. Sixtus V (Felice Peretti; ca. 1520/21–1590). Pope 1585–90; b. Grotammare, near Montalto, in the March of Ancona, It.; tried to enforce reforms of the Council of Trent*; ordered all bps. to report to Rome at stated intervals; fixed the number of cardinals* at 70 in 1586; aided Sp. in war against Eng. 1587–88; sanctioned the Sistine ed. of the Vulgate (see Bible Versions, J 2) in the bull Aeternus ille 1590 (the ed. was so poor that it was withdrawn after Sixtus' death). See also Curia, 2 b, d.

23. Innocent X (Giambattista [Gian Battista; Giovanni Battista] Pamfili [pamphili]; ca. 1572/74–1655). Pope 1644–55; b. Rome, It.; in a 1648 breve* he repeated previous protests against certain terms of the Peace of Westphalia*; condemned Jansenism.* See also Ambrosians.

24. Benedict XIV (Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini; 1675–1758). Pope 1740–58; b. Bologna, It.; educ. Rome; cardinal 1728; abp. Bologna 1731; settled the accommodation controversy (see Accommodation, 5) by bulls issued 1742 and 1744; promoted education, science, and literature; followed a liberal for. policy. See also Assumption, Feast of the.

25. Clement XIV (Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli; 1705–74). Pope 1769–74; b. Sant' Arcangelo di Romagna, near Rimini, It.; cardinal 1759; cultivated good relations with secular powers; suppressed Society* of Jesus 1773.

26. Pius VI (Giovanni Angelo Braschi; 1717–99). Pope 1775–99; b. Cesena, It.; opposed Febronianism,* Josephinism,* and Gallicanism*; took part in First Eur. Coalition against Fr. (formed 1792/93); defeated by Napoleon* I; d. a prisoner at Valence, Fr.

27. Pius VII (Luigi Barnaba Chiaramonti; 1742–1823). Pope 1800–23; b. Cesena, It., made concordat with Fr. 1801 (see Concordat, 5; France, 5); crowned Napoleon* I 1804; papacy declined; Holy* Roman Empire ended 1806; the Congress of Vienna 1814/15 restored much papal power. See also States of the Church, 3.

28. Pius IX (Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti; 1792–1878). Pope 1846–78; b. Senigallia, It.; lost papal states 1870 to Victor Emmanuel II (1820–78; 1st king of It. 1861–78), thus creating the “Roman Question” (settled under Pius XI [see 32]); defined the doctrine of the Immaculate* Conception 1854; convened Vatican* Council I, which promulgated the dogma of papal infallibility; created many new dioceses, notably also in the US See also Antonelli, Giacomo; Kulturkampf. See also States of the Church, 3; Syllabus of Errors.

29. Leo XIII (Gioacchino Vincenzo Pecci; 1810–1903). Pope 1878–1903; b. Carpineto, It.; cardinal 1853; statesman and scholar; favored renewal of Thomist scholasticism*; founded the Cath. U. of Am., Washington, D. C., 1889. See also Commission, Biblical; Kulturkampf.

30. Pius X (Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto; 1835–1914). Pope 1903–14; b. Riese, It.; bp. Mantua 1884; cardinal 1893; issued the decree Lamentabili and the encyclical Pascendi against Modernism (see Modernism, 1); reorganized the curia 1908 (see Curia, 2 b); est. the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome; est. Acta* apostolicae sedis. See also Roman Catholic Confessions, D.

31. Benedict XV (Giacomo della Chiesa; 1854–1922). Pope 1914–22; b. Pegli, near Genoa, It.; abp. Bologna 1907; cardinal 1914; known for peace efforts during WW I; opposed Modernism*; pub. CIC 1917.

32. Pius XI (Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti; 1857–1939). Pope 1922–39; b. Desio, near Milan, It.; known for many encyclicals (e.g., the marriage encyclical Casti connubii; see also Family Planning, 6); promoted art and science (e.g., with the apostolic* constitution Deus scientiarum Dominus 1931); gave specific content and worldwide significance to Catholic* Action; est. Roman Institute for Christian Archaeol. 1925, Russ. Coll. 1929, Rumanian Coll. 1930; made the Ethiopian Coll. a pontifical coll. 1930. See also Concordat, 7.

33. Pius XII (Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli; 1876–1958). Pope 1939–58; b. Rome, It.; abp. Sardi 1917; signed concordat with Bav. 1924, Prussia 1929; cardinal 1929; papal secy. of state 1930; concluded concordat with Baden 1932; traveled widely (also to US 1936); during WW II he favored peace, but not at any price; opposed communism. See also Assumption, Feast of the.

34. John XXIII (Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli; 1881–1963). Pope 1958–63; b. Sotto il Monte, near Bergamo, It.; cardinal 1953; raised the number of cardinals above 70 1958; convened Vatican* Council II; approved liturgical reforms; authorized use of vernacular in services; created a pontifical commission to revise CIC; made all E rite patriarchs mems. of the Cong. for the Oriental Ch.; initiated cordial relations with the patriarch of Constantinople; promoted missions and a better climate in interfaith relations; encyclicals include Mater et Magistra and Pacem in terris.

35. Paul VI (Giovanni Battista Montini; 1897—1978). Pope 1963—78; b. Concesio, Lombardy, It.; abp. Milan 1954; cardinal 1958; continued the program of John XXIII and Vatican* Council II; instituted the Pontifical Commission for the Media of Social Communication; est. Secretariat for Non-Christians and Secretariat for Non-Believers; fostered ecumenical relations; est. a commission to implement liturgical renewal; promoted world peace. See also Curia, 2 d. EL

36. John Paul I (Albino Luciani; 1912–78). Pope August 26–September 28 (death officially set at 11 p.m.), 1978; b. Forno di Canale (renamed Canale d' Agordo 1964), Veneto region, Belluno province, NE It.; studied at Bellune and Rome; ordained 1935; in 1937 curate first at Forno di Canale, then at Agerdo; vice-rector and prof. Belluno 1937–47; successively prochancellor, provicar gen., and vicar-gen. of the diocese; bp. Vittorio Veneto 1958; patriarch Venice 1969; cardinal 1973. Drew his name as pope from John XXIII, who consecrated him and whom he had succeeded in Venice, and Paul VI, who made him cardinal. Shortest reign since the 27 days of Leo XI in 1605; shortest of all: the 3 days of Stephen II in 752. Has little impact on policy or dogma.

37. John Paul II (Karol Wojtyla; 1920– ). Pope 1978–; b. Wadowice, Poland; studied at Cracow; ordained 1946; taught at Lublin from 1953; auxiliary bp. Cracow 1958, abp. 1964; cardinal 1967. First non-It. pope since Adrian VI (1459–1523; b. Utrecht, Holland; pope 1522–23). See also Canon Law, 4. LP

H. K. Mann, Lives of the Popes in the (Early) Middle Ages, 18 vols. in 19 (London, 1902–32); L. v. Pastor, Geschichte der Päpste seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters, Eng. title History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, various editors and translators, 40 vols. (London, 1891–1953); L. v. Ranke, The History of the Popes, tr. E. Foster, 3 vols. (London, 1896).

Poppen, Emmanuel Frederick

(Emanuel; October 14, 1874–February 13, 1961). B. New Dundee, Ont., Can.; educ. Capital U. and Luth. Sem., Columbus, Ohio. Pastor Versailles 1895–97, St. Marys 1897–1905, Sidney 1905–15, Grove City 1915–30, all in Ohio. Pres. ALC 1937–50; chm. Intersyn. Luth. Hymnal Committee 1922–30. Ed. Lutherische Kirchenzeitung; coed. American Lutheran Hymnal.

Poppen, Hermann Meinhardt

(1885–1956). Luth. musician and composer; b. Heidelberg, Ger.; educ. Berlin, Kiel, and Heidelberg; assoc. with P. Wolfrum* and M. Reger*; dir. music U. of Jena 1914; soldier in WW I; dir. music U. of Heidelberg and dir. Bach Soc. 1919; instigated founding of Heidelberg Institute of Ch. Music 1931.

Pordage, John

(1607–81). Angl. astrologer and mystic; b. London, Eng.; educ. Oxford; influenced by J. Böhme. Works include Theologia mystica. See also Philadelphian Society for the Advancement of Piety and Divine Philosophy, The.


(Porphyrius; original name Malchus; ca. 232/233–ca. 304). Neoplatonist; b. Syria; studied under Plotinus.* Works include Adversus Christianos (extant in fragments).

Porpora, Nicola Antonio

(Niccolò; 1686–ca. 1768). Baroque Neapolitan composer; b. Naples, It.; educ. Naples; music dir. to Port. ambassador at Naples; chamber virtuoso to the prince of Hesse-Darmstadt; conductor to the king of Poland; est. a school of singing at Naples ca. 1712. Works include oratorios, cantatas, masses, duets on the Passion* in Lat.

Porst, Johann

(1668–1728). B. Kotzau, near Bayreuth, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; tutor; pastor Malchow and Hohen-Schönhausen 1698, Berlin 1704; chaplain to the queen 1709; provost Berlin 1713; consistorial councillor 1716. Strongly influenced by P. J. Spener. Ed. Geistliche liebliche Lieder, marked by pietism and subjectivism.


(Port-Royal-des-Champs). Cistercian convent near Trappes, Versailles, and Paris, Fr.; est. 1204; mainstay of Jansenism*; suppressed 1709; destroyed 1711.

H. Reuchlin, Geschichte von Port-Royal, 2 vols. (Hamburg, 1839–44).

Porta, Konrad

(Conrad; 1541–85). B. Osterwieck, near Halberstadt, Ger.; rector Osterwieck 1566; conrector Eisleben 1567; deacon, finally pastor Eisleben. Issued Pastorale Lutheri 1582 (selection of passages from M. Luther on pastoral theol.).


Doorkeeper. See also Hierarchy.

Portugal, Republic of

(ancient Lusitania). W part of Iberian peninsula, W Eur.; Area: ca. 35,300 sc. mi. Indep. kingdom in 12th c.; Sp. dependency 1580–1640; dependent ally of Gt. Brit. in late 17th c.; occupied by Fr. 1807–14; rep. 1910; new const. adopted 1933, amended 1959; govt. overthrown by military coup 1974. More than 70% nominally RC; others have included Assemblies of God, Brethren, Baps., Presbs., Meths., Pent., Seventh-day Adventists. Effects of the Reformation were felt early in Port. Organized Luth. work began soon after the middle of the 20th c. LCMS granted its Brazil Dist. permission to regard miss. work in Port. as its project 1962.


Philos. system of A. Comte*; called positivism because it deals only with “positive” knowledge arrived at by experience and observation. Comte classified the sciences in a series beginning with consideration of attributes of objects that are most gen. and proceeding to other attributes combined in greater complexity: (1) mathematics, (2) astronomy, (3) physics, (4) chemistry, (5) biology, (6) sociology; from the 2d on, each is more special than the one before it and depends on the facts of all that precede it. Later he tried to construct a “religion of humanity,” in which humanity takes the place of God as the object of worship. See also Alembert, Jean Le Rond d'; Dewey, John; Dühring, Karl Eugen; Durkheim, Emile; Lévy-Bruhl, Lucien; Naturalism.

Positivism Sociological.

Type of sociological realism held, e.g., by É Durkheim; held that society is a reality and the group-mind a fact.

Possevino, Antonio

(1534—1611). B. Mantua, It., educ. Rome; Jesuit 1599; to Swed. 1577, Poland and Russ. 1581, and other countries. Works include Moscovia sive de rebus moscoviticis; Apparatus sacer ad scriptores veteris et novi Testamenti, ecrum interpres, synodos. et patres.


(ca. 370–ca. 440). Bp. Calama, in Numidia, 397. Works include a life of Augustine* of Hippo.

MPL, XXXII, 31–66.

Post-Nicene Fathers.

Patristic writers after the 325 Council of Nicaea. See also Patristics.

Post-Pentecost Season.

Some chs. use this term and calculation instead of post-Trinity. Trin. Sunday is the 1st Sunday after Pent., and 1st Sunday after Trin. is the 2d Sunday after Pent., etc.

Postel, Guillaume

(1510–81). Humanist; mystic; b. near Barenton, Fr.; studied oriental languages; sought union of all religions in a universal ch. based on a Christian-catholic world mission; Jesuit 1544, expelled 1546; rejected by Prots. and RCs Works include De orbis terrae concordia.


(from Lat. postilla, probably from post ilia [verba textus], “after those words of the text”). Explanation of a Biblical text; originally perhaps a gloss, later a homily, then a collection of homilies.


(Lat. postludium; Ger. Nachspiel). Music played at the end of a worship service. Should be in the spirit of the service.


1. In RC terminology, an applicant for admission to an order; the period of time in which a postulant prepares for the novitiate (see Novice) is called postulancy. 2. In Episc. terminology, an applicant for ordination.


(ca. 87–ca. 177/178). Bp. Lyons, Fr.; probably b. Asia Minor; probably pupil of Polycarp*; martyr. See also Persecution of Christians, 3.

Poullain, Valérand

(Valerandus Polanus; ca. 1520–57). Ordained by M. Luther* 1540; influenced by M. Bucer* and J. Calvin*; served Fr. cong. Strasbourg; after Interim* went with Bucer to Eng.; supt. Walloons in Glastonbury 1552; emigrated with them to Frankfurt am Main; opposed Gnesio-Lutherans,* T. Beza,* and G. Farel.*

Powell, Thomas Edward

(1823–1901). B. Hampstead, Middlesex, Eng.; educ. Oxford; curate Cook-ham-Dean, near Maidenhead, 1846; vicar Bisham 1848; hymnist. Issued a book of hymns, anthems, etc. for pub. worship. Hymns include “Bow Down Thine Ear, Almighty Lord.”

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

Internet Version Produced by
The Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod

Original Editions ©Copyright 1954, 1975, 2000
Concordia Publishing House
All rights reserved.

Content Reproduced with Permission

Stay Connected! Join the LCMS Network:

Contact Us Online
(Staff Switchboard)
(Church Info Center)
1333 S Kirkwood Rd
Saint Louis, MO 63122-7226 | Directions


Featured Publication

The Lutheran Witness

LCMS Communications

Interpreting the contemporary world from a Lutheran Christian perspective.
Visit TLW Online