Christian Cyclopedia

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Order of Poor Clerics Regular of the Mother of God of the Pious Schools; founded 1597 in Rome by Joseph Calasanctius (Jose Calasanzio; Joseph of Calasanza; 1556–1648; b. Peralta de la Sal [or Calasanza], Sp.) for educ. of the young.

Picherel, Peter

(Petrus Picherellus; b. perhaps ca. 1510; d. 1590). Learned monk in the abbey essomes; b. near Ferte-sous-Jouarre, Brie, Fr.; took part in Colloquy of Poissy.* Wrote In cosmopoeiam ex quinque primis Geneseos capitibus paraphrasis; opuscula theologica.

Pick, Bernhard

(December 19, 1842-April 10, 1917). B. Kempen, Prussia; educ. Breslau, Berlin, and Union theol. Sem., NYC Presb. pastor NYC 1868–69; N. Buffalo, New York, 1869–70; Syracuse, New York, 1870–74; Rochester, New York, 1874–81. Pastor Luth. chs. Allegheny, Pennsylvania, 1881–95; Albany, New York, 1895–1903. Occasional supply, NYC, 1903–05; pastor Newark, New Jersey, 1905. Works include Luther as a Hymnist; The Life of Jesus According to Extra-Canonical Sources; Hymns and Poetry of the Eastern Church; Jesus in the Talmud; Dr. Martin Luther's “Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott” in 21 Sprachen; Das Lutherlied Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott und seine Geschichte; Luther's Battle Song “Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott”: Its History and Translations.

Pickett, Clarence Evan

(1884–1965). B. Cissna Park, Illinois educ. Penn Coll., Oskaloosa, Iowa; Hartford (Connecticut) Theol. Sem.; Harvard Divinity School, Cambridge, Massachusetts Soc. of Friends pastor Toronto, Ont., Can., 1913–17; Oskaloosa, Iowa, 1917–19. prof. Earlham Coll., Richmond, Indiana, 1923–29. Mem. pres.'s Commission on Immigration and Naturalization 1952; mem. Quaker Team at UN Assem. 1950–55 and Peace Corps Nat. Advisory Council 1961. Works include For More Than Bread.

Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni

(1463–94). Humanist philos.; theol.; b. Mirandola, near Ferrara, It.; educ. It.; traveled in It. and Fr.; in Rome 1486 he issued 900 theses, some of which were regarded as heretical by Innocent VIII (see Popes, 17); absolved 1493 by Alexander VI (see Popes, 18). Works include Apologia; Heptaplus. See also Cabala; Renaissance.

Picpus Congregation

(Congregatio Sacrorum Cordium Jesu et Mariae necnon adorationis perpetuae Sacrosancti Sacramenti Altaris). Founded 1797/1800 by Pierre Marie-Joseph Coudrin (1768–1837; priest) and countess Henriette Aymer de la Chevalerie (1767–1834) at Poitiers; received papal sanction 1817; name derived from location of motherhouse on Rue de Picpus in Paris till 1966. Cultivates worship of the heart of Jesus and Mary, practice of love, perpetual prayer to the eucharist, discipleship, and missions.

Pictet, Bénédict

(1655–1724). Ref. theol.; b. Geneva, Switz.; pastor and prof. Geneva; tried to revive orthodoxy. Works include La Morale chretienne; Theologia christiana.

Piderit, Johann Rudolf Anton

(1720–91). B. Pyrmont, Ger.; prof. Marburg 1747, Kassel 1766; disciple of C. v. Wolff.* Opposed neology* and naturalism. Tried to demonstrate the integrity of the Biblical text, including vowel points. Envisioned reunion of Prots. and RCs.

Pieper, August Otto Wilhelm

(September 27, 1857–December 23, 1946). Brother of F. A. O. Pieper* and R. Pieper*; b. Carwitz, Pomerania, Ger.; after his father's death, his mother emigrated with the family to Am. 1870, settling at Watertown, Wisconsin; educ. Northwestern U., Watertown, Wisconsin, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor Kewaunee, Wisconsin, 1879–85, Menomonie, Wisconsin, 1885–90; ill; pastor Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1891–1902; prof. Wis. Syn. sem. Wauwatosa, near Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1902. Works include Biblische Hausandachten; Jesaias II. WJH

Pieper, Franz August Otto

(June 27, 1852-June 3, 1931). Brother of A. O. W. Pieper* and R. Pieper*; b. Carwitz, Pomerania, Ger.; educ. Northwestern U., Watertown, Wisconsin, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri. Wisconsin Syn. pastor Centerville, later called Hika, Wisconsin, 1875–76; Manitowoc, Wisconsin, 1876–78. prof. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1878–1931; pres. 1887–1931. Pres. Mo. Syn. 1899–1911.

F. A. O. Pieper's most outstanding theol. contributions were in the field of dogmatics; he presented doctrines in such a way as to appeal not only to the mind but also to the heart; the doctrines of grace and inspiration received special attention. His exceptional abilities were brought into play also as preacher and syn. pres.

Works include Christliche Dogmatik; Zur Einigung der amerikanisch-lutherischen Kirche in der Lehre von der Bekehrung und Gnadenwahl; Die Grunddifferenz in der Lehre von der Bekehrung and Gnadenwahl; Unsere Stellung in Lehre und Praxis. EL

See also Albrecht, Walter William Frederick; Engelder, Theodore Edward William.

L. Fuerbringer, “Dr. F. Pieper als Theolog,” CTM, II (1931), 721–729, 801–807; W. H. T. Dau, “Dr. Francis Pieper the Churchman,” CTM, II (1931). 729–736; T. Laetsch, “Dr. Pieper als Prediger,” CTM, II (1931), 761–771.

Pieper, Reinhold

(March 2, 1850-April 3, 1920). Brother of A. O. W. Pieper* and F. A. O. Pieper*; b. Carwitz, Pomerania, Ger.; educ. Northwestern U., Watertown, Wisconsin, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri. Wis. Syn. pastor Wrightstown, Wisconsin, 1876–78; Manitowoc, Wisconsin, 1878–91. Prof. Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, 1891–1914. Pastor Chatham, Illinois, 1914–18; Riverton, Illinois, till 1920. Works include sermons; lectures on the SC.

Piepkorn, Arthur Carl

(June 21, 1907-December 13, 1973.) B. Milwaukee, Wisconsin; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Studied at U. of Chicago (Illinois); Am. School of Oriental Research, Baghdad, Iraq; Western Reserve U., Cleveland, Ohio; The Chaplain School of the U. S. Army, Cambridge, Massachusetts; The Command and Gen. Staff School of the U. S. Army, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas; Washington U., St. Louis; St. Louis (Missouri) U.; U. of Geneva, Switz. Ordained Mo. Syn. 1930. Served congs. in St. Louis, Missouri; Chisholm, Minnesota; Cleveland, Ohio. Army chaplain 1940–51. Ed. 2d-4th eds. of F. E. Mayer, The Religious Bodies of America. Other works include The Historical Prism Inscriptions of Ashurbanipal; Education for Realities; What the Symbolical Books of the Lutheran Church Have to Say About Worship and the Sacraments; The Survival of the Historic Vestments in the Lutheran Church After 1555.


(d. ca. 312 AD). Presbyter Alexandria; disciple of Origen*; probably head of the catechetical school at Alexandria; teacher of Pamphilus* of Caesarea; confessor in Diocletian persecution. Works include homiletical and exegetical writings. MPG, 10, 241–246.

Pierson, Allard

(1831–96). B. Amsterdam, Neth. Preacher Louvain, Belg., 1854; Rotterdam, Neth., 1857; resigned 1865 because of unbelief; humanist; taught at Heidelberg, then at Amsterdam; doubted that Jesus and Paul ever lived.

Pierson, Arthur Tappan

(1837–1911). B. NYC; educ. Hamilton Coll., Clinton, New York, and Union Theol. Sem., NYC Presb. pastor Connecticut, New York, Michigan, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and London, England. Ed. Missionary Review of the World. Other works include Keys to the Word; Seed Thoughts for Public Speakers; George Müller of Bristol; Knowing the Scriptures.

Piers Plowman

(in full: The Vision of William Concerning Piers the Plowman). 14th–c. Eng. allegorical poem attributed to William Langland (Langley; ca. 1332–ca. 1400; a shadowy figure; supposedly a native of the W Midlands); criticizes corruption in ch. and state; tries to create love of truth and appreciation of the dignity of labor.


Representation (painting or sculpture) of Mary lamenting over the dead Christ (usually held on her knees); favorite subject of artists in the Middle Ages.

Pietilä, Antti Jaakko

(1878–1932). Fin. Luth. theol.; b. Oulu, Fin.; educ. Helsinki; instr. U. of Helsinki 1911; prof. Helsinki 1919. Ed. periodical Vartija; other works include writings on ethics and dogmatics.


17th–18th c. movement in Ger. Protestantism; it regarded prevailing orthodoxy as spiritually unproductive. Origin of the movement is gen. traced to P. J. Spener,* who urged pastors to become curates, theol. students educated, nobility true administrators, and the commonalty to avoid secular amusements. Others Pietists in Ger. included A. H. Francke,* G. Arnold,* J. J. Rambach,* J. J. Schütz,* E. G. Woltersdorf,* L. v. Zinzendorf.* Others affected by Pietism include H. M. Mühlenberg* and J. Wesley.* See also Baumgarten, Siegmund Jakob; Lutheran Theology After 1580, 6, 7. PJS

A. Ritschl, Geschichte des Pietismus (Bonn, 1880–86); J. G. Walch, Historische und theologische Einleitung in die Religions-Streitigkeiten (Jena, 1730–39); J. T. McNeil, Modern Christian Movements (Philadelphia, 1954).

Pighius, Albert

(Pighi; Pigge; ca. 1490–1542). B. Kampen, Holland; educ. Louvain and Cologne; called to Rome by the pope 1523; took part in Colloquy of Worms* and Regensburg* Conf. 1540–41; emphasized free will in opposition to J. Calvin* and M. Luther*; his formulation of the doctrine of justification, related to Luther's, was rejected at the Council of Trent.* See also Reformed Confessions, A 9.

Pike, James Albert

(1913–69). B. Oklahoma City, Okla. Educ. U. of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, California; U. Cal. at Los Angeles; U. of S California, Los Angeles; Yale U., New Haven, Connecticut; Virginia Theol. Sem., Lynchburg; Union Theol. Sem., NYC; Trin. Coll., Hartford, Connecticut; U. King's Coll., Halifax, N. S., Canada. Taught Cath. U. of Am., Washington, D. C., 1938–39; George Washington U., Washington, D. C., 1938–42. Ordained Prot. Episc. deacon 1944, priest 1946; held various positions in Washington, D. C., NYC, and Poughkeepsie, New York, 1944–49. Assoc. with Columbia U., NYC, 1949–58; dean Cathedral of St. John the Divine, NYC, 1952–58; bp. coadjutor diocese of California 1958; bp. California 1958–66; theol.-in-residence Center for Study of Democratic Institutions, Santa Barbara, California, 1966. Works include The Next Day; Beyond the Law; Doing the Truth; If This Be Heresy; If You Marry Outside Your Faith; You and the New Morality.


1. Pilgrimages are assoc. with many religions (see, e.g., Islam, 3). From earliest times Christians visited places assoc. with Christ's earthly life; such pilgrimages increased after Helena,* mother of Constantine* I, made an exploratory pilgrimage and built basilicas in Palestine. Motives for pilgrimages include penance, thanksgiving, and a desire to obtain supernatural help. In course of time Christian pilgrimages expanded to include such goals as Rome and graves of martyrs and various other holy places elsewhere. Legend and tradition helped build a complex structure connected with pilgrimages in the Middle Ages, including travel in organized companies under armed protection, hospices, esp. in the Alps, and special observance of jubilee yrs. Pilgrims came to be given special consideration by other Christians. Some made pilgrimage a way of life.

2. Outrages committed against pilgrims by Muslim led to Crusades* and military* religious orders.

3. The Luth. Reformation opposed abuses assoc. with pilgrimages (AC XX 3; XXV 5; Ap XII 14, 144; SA II ii 16, 18).

4. Pilgrimages revived in the 19th c., with new centers of attraction, e.g., at Loreto,* It.; Einsiedeln, Switz. (with a famous image of Mary; see also Meinrad); Fátima,* Port.; Lourdes,* Fr.; Auriesville, New York (where Fr. RC missionaries were killed in the 1640s by Iroquois).

The Library of the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, 13 vols. and index (London, [1885]–97); E. R. Barker, Rome of the Pilgrims and Martyrs (London, 1913); H. Lamb, The Crusades, 2 vols. (New York, 1930–31); S. H. Heath, Pilgrim Life in the Middle Ages (London, 1911); B. Kötting, Peregrinatio religiosa (Munich, 1950); E. A. Moore, The Ancient Churches of Old Jerusalem: The Evidence of the Pilgrims (London, 1961).


(Pionius; d. probably ca. 250 [or 1807] AD). Presbyter Smyrna; martyr.

Pirckheimer, Willibald

(Pirkheimer; 1470–1530). Humanist; b. Eichstätt, Bav., Ger.; educ. Padua and Pavia, It.; at first he favored M. Luther, later he completely abandoned him. Works include Eccius dedolatus. See also Religious Drama, 3.


(Pirminius; Permin; Primin?; d. ca. 755 AD). Ancestry obscure; perhaps a Visigoth from Aquitaine or Sp.; Benedictine; promoted monasticism in S Ger. and Alsace.

Pisa, Council of.

Councils were held at Pisa ca. 1135, 1409, and 1511. That of 1409, 1st of 3 reform councils (see Councils and Synods, 7), was the most important of the councils at Pisa. It was called to solve the papal schism that began 1378 (see Schism, 8), but failed. See also Gerson, Jean de.

Piscator, Johannes

(Fischer; 1546–1625). Ref. theol.; b. Strasbourg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; prof. Strasbourg 1573, Heidelberg 1574; rector Siegen 1577; prof. Neustadt 1578; rector Moers 1581; prof. Herborn 1584–1625. Denied redeeming power of Christ's active obedience. Works include Bible tr.; commentaries.


(from Lat. piscis, “fish”). Originally, an artificial reservoir for fish or swimming; by adaptation the term is used for a basin or niche in the sanctuary well near the altar, with drain, for liturgical ablutions and disposal of water used in ceremonies; some use it also for disposal of wine left in chalice after Communion.


1. See De Bakker, Jan 2. Johannes (d. 1583); father of 3; ev. theol.; supt. Alsfeld 1541; took part in Hagenau* Colloquy 1540, Colloquy of Worms* 1540–41, Regensburg* Conf. 1541 and 1546, and Consultation of Worms* 1557; supported reform efforts of Hermann* von Wied; defended AC as explained in Wittenberg* Concord; adherent of P. Melanchthon* and M. Bucer.* 3. Johann (1546–1608); son of 2; b. Nidda, Ger.; inclined to Calvinism; joined RC Ch. 1588; held religious colloquy with J. Andreä* and J. Heerbrand* at Baden 1589 and with J. Pappus* at Emmendingen 1590; works include polemical and hist. writings. 4. Hermann Alexander (1811–77); b. Walbeck, near Elsieben, Ger.; educ. Halle; Luth. pastor Süpplingen; opposed Prussian* Union and Lichtfreunde*; joined Breslau* Syn.; active in Wernigerode, Wollin, Breslau, and in Basedow, Mecklenburg.

Pithou, Pierre

(1539–96). B. Troyes, Fr.; Calvinist; RC 1573; defended Gallicanism. Ed. ancient and medieval hist. and legal source materials.

Pittsburgh Agreement

(Articles of Agreement). Agreement adopted 1940 by the ALC and the ULC; “I. That all persons affiliated with any of the societies or organizations designated in the Washington Declaration of the ULC(A) as 'organizations injurious to the Christian faith' should sever their connections with such society or organization and shall be so admonished; and members of our churches not now affiliated with such organizations shall be warned against such affiliation. Especially shall the shepherds of the flocks be admonished to refuse adherence and support to such organizations. II. That pastors and congregations shall not practice indiscriminate pulpit and altar fellowship with pastors and churches of other denominations, whereby doctrinal differences are ignored or virtually made matters of indifference. Especially shall no religious fellowship whatsoever be practiced with such individuals and groups as are not basically evangelical. III. 1. The Bible (that is, the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments) is primarily not a code of doctrines, still less a code of morals, but the history of God's revelation, for the salvation of mankind, and of man's reaction to it. It preserves for all generations and presents, ever anew, this revelation of God. which culminated and centers in Christ, the Crucified and Risen One. It is itself the Word of God, His permanent revelation, aside from which, until Christ's return in glory, no other is to be expected. 2. The Bible consists of a number of separate books, written at various times, on various occasions, and for various purposes. Their authors were living, thinking personalities, each endowed by the Creator with an individuality of his own and each having his peculiar style, his own manner of presentation, even at times using such sources of information as were at hand. Nevertheless, by virtue of the unique operation of the Holy Spirit (2 Tim. 3:16; 2 Peter 1:21), by which He supplied to the holy writers content and fitting word (2 Peter 1:21; 1 Cor. 2:12, 13), the separate books of the Bible are related to one another and, taken together, constitute a complete, errorless, unbreakable whole, of which Christ is the Center (John 10:35). They are rightly called the Word of God. This unique operation of the Holy Spirit upon the writers is named inspiration. We do not venture to define its mode, or manner, but accept it as a fact. 3. Believing, therefore, that the Bible came into existence by this unique co-operation of the Holy Spirit and the human writers, we accept it (as a whole and in all its parts) as the permanent divine revelation, as the Word of God, the only source, rule, and norm for faith and life, and as the ever fresh and inexhaustible fountain of all comfort, strength, wisdom, and guidance for mankind.” Both ALC and ULC had serious misgivings regarding the Pittsburgh Agreement. See also American Lutheran Church, V 1.

Documents of Lutheran Unity in America, ed. R. C. Wolf (Philadelphia, 1966), pp. 378–379; The Lutheran Church Quarterly, XIII (1940), 346–347; Doctrinal Declarations (St. Louis, 1957), pp. 69–70.

Pittsburgh Declaration.

Declaration adopted 1868 at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, by the General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (North) Am. defining positions on the Four* Points. See also Galesburg Rule.

S. E. Ochsenford, Documentary History of the General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America (Philadelphia, 1912), pp. 207–210; Documents of Lutheran Unity in America, ed. R. C. Wolf (Philadelphia, 1966), pp. 162–165.

Pittsburgh Theological Seminary.

Created 1959 by consolidation of Pittsburgh-Xenia Theol. Sem. (United Presb. Ch. of N. Am.) and Western Theol. Sem. (Presb. Ch., USA), following 1958 merger of the 2 bodies (see Presbyterian Churches, 4 a).

Pittsburgh-Xenia Theol. Sem. was formed 1930 by union of Pittsburgh and Xenia Sems. The Xenia branch was founded 1794 at Service, Pennsylvania; moved 1821 to Canonsburg, Pennsylvania; consolidated with another sem. 1830; moved 1855 to Xenia, Ohio; name changed 1858; absorbed Monmouth, formerly Oxford, Sem. 1874; charter received 1877; moved 1920 to St. Louis, Missouri The Pittsburgh branch was est. 1825 as Allegheny Theol. Sem., in Allegheny (now part of Pittsburgh); charter granted 1868. Both branches were later augmented by resources of Newburgh Sem., founded NYC 1805.

Western Theol. Sem., Allegheny, est. 1825 by the Gen. Assem. of the Presb. Ch., USA, began with classical academies founded 1785 and 1787 in Washington, Pennsylvania

Pius IV

(Giovanni Angelo Medici; 1499–1565). B. Milan, It.; cardinal 1549; pope 1559–65; reassembled and concluded the Council of Trent* 1562–63; confirmed its decrees, but granted the chalice to the laity in Ger., Austria, Hung., and several other countries 1564; forbade laymen to read Scripture except by special permission; not related to the famous Medici* of Florence. See also Counter Reformation, 9.

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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