Christian Cyclopedia

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Osiander, Andreas

(the Elder; 1498–1552). Father of L. Osiander* the Elder; father-in-law of A. Aurifaber*; b. Gunzenhausen, Middle Franconia, W Bav., Ger.; educ. lngolstadt; priest Nürnberg 1520; introd. the Reformation and opposed fanatics and Anabaps. there; sided with M. Luther* against H. Zwingli* at Marburg 1529 (see Lutheran Confessions, A 2) and with Luther in distinction from P. Melanchthon* at Augsburg 1530; helped crystallize a Brandenburg-Nürnberg ch. order 1530–32; present at the 1537 meeting of the Schmalkaldic League (see Lutheran Confessions, B 2), at the Hagenau* Colloquy 1540, and at the Colloquy of Worms* 1540–41; reformed the principality Pfalz-Neuburg 1542–43; opposed the Augsburg Interim*; prof. Königsberg 1549. Works include a gospel harmony (Gk. and Lat.); a polemic against J. Eck*; an edition of N. Copernicus,* De revolutionibus orbium caelestium; Conjecturae de ultimis temporibus, ac de fine mundi, ex Sacris literis (in which he calculated the end of the world for ca. 1656 and identified the papacy as the Antichrist). See also Albert of Prussia; Osiandrian Controversy. W. Möller, Andreas Osiander, in Leben und ausgewählte Schriften der Vätor und Begränder der lutherischen Kirche, ed. J. Hartmann et al., V, in vol. 2 (Elberfeld, 1870).

Osiander, Andreas

(the Younger; 1562–1617). Son of L. Osiander* the Elder; brother of L. Osiander* the Younger; uncle of J. A. Osiander*; b. Blaubeuren, N Württemberg, Ger.; pastor Güglingen 1587; court preacher 1590; abbot Adelberg 1598; prof. theol. and chancellor Tübingen 1605; defended FC; attended Colloquy of Montbéliard* 1586; hymnist. Works include a manual for communicants.

Osiander, Johann Adam

(1622–97). Nephew of A. Osiander* the Younger and L. Osiander* the Younger; father of J. Osiander*; b. Vaihingen, N Württemberg, Ger.; prof. 1656, chancellor 1680 Tübingen; friend of P. J. Spener.*

Osiander, Johann(es)

(1657–1724). Son of J. A. Osiander*; b. Tübingen, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; prof. Tübingen 1686; abbot Königsbronn 1697, Hirsau 1699; dir. consistorium 1708; introd., confirmation 1721–23.

Osiander, Lukas

(the Elder; 1534–1604). Son of A. Osiander* the Elder; father of A. Osiander* the Younger and L. Osiander* the Younger; b. Nürnberg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; supt. Blaubeuren and Stuttgart; court preacher and consistorial councillor; abbot Adelberg 1596; deposed and banished but permitted to return to Stuttgart; hymnist. With B. Bidembach* wrote the Maulbronn Formula (see Lutheran Confessions, C 2).

Osiander, Lukas

(the Younger; 1571–1638). Son of L. Osiander* the Elder; brother of A. Osiander* the Younger; uncle of J. A. Osiander*; b. Stuttgart, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; held various ch. positions; prof. theol. 1619, provost and chancellor 1620 Tübingen; staunch Luth.

Osiandrian Controversy.

Begun 1549 by A. Osiander* the Elder. Reacting against what he regarded as overemphasis on forensic justification, he taught that God does not declare the sinner just, but makes him just; does not impute Christ's obedience and righteousness to the sinner, but has Christ Himself dwell in the sinner for his justification; does not act as a judge but as a physician. N. v. Amsdorf,* M. Chemnitz,* M. Flacius* Illyricus, P. Melanchthon,* J. Mörlin,* et al. opposed him. Osiander also held that Christ is our righteousness only acc. to His divine nature (see also Stancarus, Franciscus). FC SD III 4: “Christ is our righteousness, not according to the divine nature alone or according to the human nature alone but according to both natures.”


Egyptian god of the underworld. See also Sarapis.

Osler, Edward

(1798–1863). B. Falmouth, Cornwall, SW Eng.; educ. for the med. profession at Falmouth and London; later devoted himself to literary pursuits; hymnist Ed. Royal Cornwall Gazette; hymns include “Lord of the Church, We Humbly Pray” and “May We Thy Precepts, Lord, Fulfil.”

Ostervald, Jean Frédéric

(Johann Friedrich Osterwald; 1663–1747). Ref. theol.; b. Neuchâtel (Neuenburg), Switz. deacon and pastor Neuchâtel; emphasized the Bible and personal piety. Works include a catechism; Bible tr. and commentary.


Doorkeeper. See also Hierarchy.

Ostorodt, Christoph

(Ostorod, Ostorodus; Osterodus; Latinized: Paschasius; ca. 1550–1611). B. Goslar, Ger.; Anabap. Unitarian; rector Sluchow, Pomerania (deposed 1585 for Anabaptism and Socinianism); preacher Rakow, Poland (left because of doctrinal dissension); to Holland (banished for religious reasons); preacher Buscow. Works include a book of instruction on the chief parts of the Christian religion and another on the deity of Christ and of the Holy Spirit.

Ostwald, Wilhelm

(1853–1932). Philos. and chemist; b. Riga, Latvia*; educ. Dorpat (now Tartu), Estonia*; preferred energy to atoms as explanation for all physical phenomena; pres. German Monists' League 1911. Works include Lehrbuch der allgemeinen Chemie; Grosse Männer. See also Dynamism.

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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