1. Mems. of the Oratory of Divine Love, founded ca. 1517. See also Counter Reformation, 4. 2. Mems. of the Oratory founded by F. de' Neri* and authorized 1575. See also Counter Reformation, 7. 3. Mems. of the Fr. Oratory (also called Oratory of Jesus), founded 1611 Paris, Fr.; dissolved in the Fr. Revolution (see France, 5); reest. 1852 by A. J. A. Gratry* et al.
Sacred or secular musical composition with libretto usually consisting of arias, recitatives, choruses, and orchestral music; sometimes includes spoken narration or dialog; action, costume, and scenery sometimes used till ca. 1730. The name oratorio seems derived from dramatic services of F. de' Neri* at an oratory in Rome.
A. Hammerschmidt* contributed to the early development of the oratorio. Oratorios in the more modern sense were written by A. Scarlatti,* A. Lotti,* J. A. Hasse,* and N. Jommelli. Lath. composers of oratorios include H. Schütz,* J. S. Bach* (whose Christmas Oratorio is a series of 6 cantatas integrated into a unit), and K. P. E. Bach.* Eng. composers of oratorios include G. F. Handel,* who influenced F. J. Haydn.* Oedipus Rex, a scenic oratorio by Igor Fedorovich Stravinsky (b. 1882 at Oranienbaum, near St. Petersburg, Russ.), has been accorded great acclaim.
See also Elgar, Edward; Franck, César Auguste; Gounod, Charles François; Hindemith, Paul; Honegger, Arthur; Liszt, Franz; Massenet, Jules Émile Frédéric; Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Jakob Ludwig Felix; Saint-Saens, Camille; Spohr, Ludwig.
A. Schering, Geschichte des Oratoriums (Leipzig, 1911); A. W. Patterson, The Story of Oratorio (London, 1915).
1. Place of prayer. In RC canon law: a structure, other than a parish ch., set aside for prayer and mass; may be public (open to all), semipublic (principally for mems. of the religious community in whose house it is erected), or private (domestic; for a private family). 2. See Oratorians.
(Grange; Nat. Grange; originally Nat. Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry). Agricultural trades union or soc. based on occupational interests; has many features of a lodge but is not a lodge in the strict sense. Purposes: industrial benefits and soc. improvement of mems. Exercises considerable influence, esp. in promoting cooperation among farmers. Politics are kept out. Has a ritual and 7 degrees. Uses signs, pledges, and allegorical ceremonies characteristic of secret socs. A typical injunction: Friends, your present condition is but an example of Faith, and emblematic of a higher confidence in a Supreme Being. We are constantly passing blindly along the pathway of life, events occurring that we do not understand, and often encountering difficulties and obstructions in our way; but we should press forward, having faith that God will ultimately bring us into the broad and pleasant fields of Paradise. In all degrees pledges are made to observe the precepts and injunctions and not to reveal the secrets. Initiation on application only, without ceremonial, has not been allowed. The order is more like a union than a secret fraternal order, but it has pan-religious and deistic features. The grange hall has an altar. Prayers are spoken. Officers of the Assem. of Demeter, which has charge of the secret work, are called priest or priestess. A burial service is provided. The ritual of the Nat. Grange is mandatory for all subordinate granges. But Grange law says: A member cannot be required to do anything in conflict with his religious convictions, and entire freedom of conscience is assured to all members in matters of prayer but so long as he holds a position in the Grange he must perform his duties thereof, in accordance with the laws and usages of the Order. TG, PHL
(18691929). Liberal Luth. theol.; b. Drammen, Norw.; educ. Christiania (Oslo); prof. systematic theol. Oslo 1906; his appointment as prof. was preceded by controversy and followed by the founding of a free faculty (see Norway, Lutheranism in, 12). Works include Den religiöse Erkjendelse, dens art og vished; Den kristelige tro; Teologien: En encyklopaedisk fremstilling; Kristelig ethik.
In the Middle Ages, one of a number of directories of ch. rites giving the order and arrangement of ceremonies but not the liturgical text. By the 13th c. the term ordo was replaced by ceremoniale. Ordo now denotes an annual publication in the basic form of a calendar listing offices and feasts of the RC Ch. for every day of the yr.
Founded 1901. Fields have included Jap., Korea, China, India, Colombia, Greece, Brazil, Formosa, Ecuador, Hong Kong, Haiti, Nigeria.
Placing chs. in such a way that the altar is in the E end, the main portal in the W end. The original basic concern may have been the direction in which the celebrant, rather than the people, faced; this would explain early chs. with the altar in the W end, but with the celebrant, officiating behind a freestanding altar, facing E. With the change to the altar in the E end (est. 5th8th c.), both celebrant and cong. face E.
Various reasons for facing E have been suggested, e.g., the orient was believed to be man's 1st home; Christ lived in the E and many believe that His final return will be from the E (cf. Mt 24:27); Christ is regarded as the Rising Sunday Imitation of pagan sun worship does not commend itself as a reason in light of Christian opposition to heathenism.
See also Church Architecture, 3.
(ca. 185ca. 254). Gk. ch. father; b. probably Alexandria, Egypt, of Christian parents; taught school and instructed catechumens in Alexandria 202; mystic and ascetic; mutilated himself on basis of a misunderstanding of Mt 19:12. Traveled to Rome, Arabia, Palestine, and Greece. His ordination in Palestine 230 was not regarded as valid in Alexandria; exiled; taught school at Caesarea in Palestine 231233; travelled to Arabia, Cappadocia, and Nicomedia; suffered in persecution under Decius (see Persecution of Christians, 4). Doctrines held by, or attributed to, him are called Origenism.
Works include Peri archon (On First Principles); Contra Celsum; OT textual studies (Hexapla; Tetrapla); exegetical writings; sermons. EK
E. R. Redepenning, Origenes: Eine Darstellung seines Lebens und seiner Lehre, 2 vols. (Bonn, 184146); J. Danielou, Origen, tr. W. Mitchell (New York, 1955); H. de Lubac, Histoire et esprit (Paris, 1950); R. P. C. Hanson, Allegory and Event (Richmond, Virginia, 1959).
Arose over the question of Origen's* orthodoxy; began when Methodius* (d. ca. 300/311) attacked Origen's teaching on preexistence of souls and denial of bodily resurrection; raged esp. in Egypt, Palestine, and Constantinople 394438; Pachomius* and his followers opposed the mysticism and spiritualism of Origen's followers; Jerome* and Theophilus* of Alexandria first supported, then opposed Origen; Epiphanius* was one of the most zealous opponents of Origen. Origen was anathematized 553 by the 5th ecumenical council (see Constantinople, Councils of, 2). See also Rufinus, Tyrranius.
A number of councils or syns. were held at Orléans, Fr. The 1st, called by Clovis* I, met 511. Matters treated in its 31 canons included inviolability of chs. as sanctuaries; ordination; jurisdiction of bps.; prohibition of remarriage of widows of priests or deacons; exclusion of monks who marry from orders; prescription of 40 days fast before Easter; use of income from ch. property; observation of Rogation Days. Councils in 533, 538, 541, and 549 gave considerable attention to soc. concerns. The council of 1022 was called against Manichaeism.* See also Simony.
(forename Paulus first occurs in 8th c.; perhaps ca. 380/390perhaps ca. 418). B. probably Sp. or Port., possibly Bracara Augusta (modern Braga), Galicia (or Tarragona); presbyter or priest; assoc. with Augustine* of Hippo beginning ca. 413/414; opposed Origenists (see Origen), Pelagius,* and Priscillianists.* Works include Historiarum adversus paganos libri vii.
(18441913). B. Glasgow, Scot.; educ. Glasgow; United Presb. pastor Hawick 187491; prof. ch. hist. Theol. Coll. of the United Presb. Ch. of Scot. 18911901; prof. apologetics and theol. Glasgow Coll. of the U. F. C. of Scot. 190113; lectured in the US and Can. 18951909; helped form U. F. C. of Scot. 1900. Works include Revelation and Inspiration; The Virgin Birth of Christ; The Problem of the Old Testament Considered with Reference to Recent Criticism; The Progress of Dogma; ed. The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia.
(November 11, 1843January 6, 1911). Luth. theol.; b. Lewistown, Pennsylvania; educ. Wittenberg Coll., Springfield, Ohio (see Wittenberg University); pastor Louisville, Kentucky, 187478, NYC 187880; prof. theol. Wittenberg Coll. 18801910, pres. 18821900; pres. The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA 1887.
Organized at St. John's Ch., Okabena, Minnesota, September 26, 1951, by a small group whose mems. then or soon withdrew from LCMS in protest against alleged doctrinal deviations. Invitations had been sent to all who had signed Confession of Faith Professed and Practiced by All True Lutherans, which had been adopted November 19, 1950, at Manchester, Missouri, by the St. Louis Study Club. The Conference accepted the Bible, the Luth. Confessions as contained in the Book* of Concord, and the Brief* Statement; it endorsed 12 points listed in Part II of its Confession; it took exception to LCMS action regarding the Common* Confession. The Orthodox Luth. Sem. opened September 1952 Minneapolis, Minnesota, with P. E. Kretzmann* pres. Monthly pub. The Orthodox Lutheran and The Orthodox Lutheran Theologian. Controversy led to schism. One group continued for a few yrs. under the original name, but split further; some mems. joined WELS 1963, some remained indep., some eventually became part of Lutheran* Chs. of the Reformation; the Orthodox Luth. Conference ceased to exist. The other group, which adopted the name Concordia Lutheran Conference, reorganized the sem. 1969 and pub. The Concordia Lutheran. WHM
Observed on the 1st Sunday in Lent since 842 in the E Ch. to celebrate the end of iconoclasm (see Iconoclastic Controversy); later it included, by some, commemoration of the 869870 Council of Constantinople (see Constantinople, Councils of, 4), which approved the use of icons, as the 8th ecumenical council.
(fl. early in the 13th c.). Founded an ascetic sect that emphasized the inner authority of the Spirit against the tenets of the ch.; rejected the hist. meaning of Scripture (e.g., Noah's ark, Christ's passion, and the Trinity were regarded only as symbols); his teaching was condemned by Innocent III (see Popes, 10).
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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