Christian Cyclopedia

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Nobili, Robert(o) de

(1577–1656). B. Montepulciano. Siena province, Tuscany, (or in Rome?), It.; Jesuit 1597; sent as miss. to India 1604, arrived Goa 1605; worked esp. in Madura; an exponent of missionary adaptation (see Accommodation, 5), be dressed and lived like a sannyasi (Hindu ascetic). Works include hymns; 2 catechisms; a book on doctrine; a life of Mary in Skt. verse. See also India, 9.


(fl. ca. 180–ca. 200). B. probably Smyrna (modern Izmir), W Turkey in Asia; Monarchian; teachings known chiefly from writings of Hippolytus*; allegedly taught patripassianism*; denied doctrine of Logos*; interpreted prologue of John's Gospel allegorically; condemned by syn. of presbyters at Smyrna ca. 200. Followers called Noetians.

Nohrborg, Anders

(1725–67). B. Swed.; educ. Västeraas and Uppsala; ordained 1754; pastor Stockholm 1754; court preacher Stockholm 1765; confessional Luth. influenced by Pietism.* Works include Den fallna människans salighetsordning. See also Sweden, Lutheranism in, 4.

Nollau, Louis Eduard

(1810–69). B. Prussia; educ. Barmen sem. (see Missionary Institutes); sent to Am. 1837 by Rhenish* Miss. Soc. to join other missionaries to Indians; assigned to work near St. Louis, Missouri; Indian project abandoned; served a cong. in Gravois Settlement, near St. Louis; to Afr. via Ger. 1846; returned to Gravois Settlement 1849/50; helped organize German* Ev. Ch. Soc. of the West.


As opposed to realism* and idealism,* it holds that only individual objects have real existence, that “universals” (gen. or abstract ideas) are but names (Lat. nomina); e.g., the gen. idea “tree” does not really exist in itself, only individual trees exist; all trees resemble each other; the mind can consider points of resemblance apart from points of difference, but the idea obtained by abstraction of all common points is only a name and has no indep. existence. Exponents of nominalism include P. Abelard,* G. Durandus* de Sancto Porciano, W. of Ockham,* and Roscellinus.* See also Philosophy.


Ethical or religious principle acc. to which moral conduct is based on observance of law.

Nommensen, Ludwig Ingwer

(February 6, 1834–May 23, 1918). “Apostle of the Batak.” B. of poor parents on is. of Nordstrand, NW Ger.; at 12 vowed on sickbed to become miss.; educ. sem. of Rhenish* Miss. Soc.; to Sumatra 1861; trained missionaries, lay brothers, deaconesses; est. institutions for training teachers and pastors; developed ch. order suited for Asiatics. Works include tr. OT stories and the NT into the language of the natives. See also Bataks.


In the E Ch., a collection of ecclesiastical canons and cicil laws.

Nonchalcedonian Churches.

1. Chs. that reject the Christological definition of the Council of Chalcedon*; sometimes called Oriental Orthodox in distinction from E Orthodox. See also Monophysitism.

2. The Syrian Orthodox Ch. of Antioch (with an archdiocese of the US and Can. and 20 archdioceses in the Middle E) acknowledges the authority of the Orthodox patriarch of Antioch who resides at Damascus. It traces its beginning to 5th-c. Christians in Syria. After the 7th-c. Muslim conquest of Syria it engaged in extensive for. miss. work, as far as China. It reached its zenith in the 12th and 13th c. At the Council of Florence* it was united for several yrs. (1444–53) with the W Ch.

A Syrian Jacobite (see Jacobites, 1) bp. of Jerusalem came to the Malabar Coast of India 1665 and brought the Syrian Christians that had seceded from Rome (see India, 6) under the authority of the patriarch of Antioch. The Mar* Thoma Ch. separated from the Malabar Jacobite group beginning in the 1870s (final appellate court judgment 1889). The Malankarese Uniat Ch. was est. 1930 (see also Malabar Christians). In Syria a rival RC Syrian patriarchate was est. 1783.

In doctrine the Syrian Ch. is similar to the E Orthodox Ch. It accepts the dogmas of the 1st 3 ecumenical councils (see Councils and Synods, 4); believes in 9 choirs of angels, perpetual virginity of Mary, procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father, grace as a quality in the soul, 7 sacraments, baptism by triple immersion; divides the Decalog into 4 and 6 commandments. The honor paid saints is not regarded as worship.

3. The Syrian Orthodox Ch. of Malabar in the US; a small group, mainly in the E states.

4. Tradition links the Armenian Ch. (see Armenia) with the apostles, esp. Thaddaeus-Lebbaeus (Mt 10:3) and Bartholomew. Mass conversion of Armenia took place probably late in the 3d c. Armenian Christians reject Nestorianism,* accept the dogmas of the 1st 3 ecumenical councils and the Henoticon.* RC and E Orthodox efforts to absorb the Armenian Ch. proved futile. The mother see is at Echmiadzin, cen. Armenian SSR Armenian Christians suffered cents. of persecution by Persians, Arabs, and Turks. Their creed reflects the E form of the Niceno-Constantinopolitan; the Holy Spirit proceeds only from the Father. 6 sacraments are recognized: baptism, chrismation, eucharist, penance, marriage, orders; anointing of sick has fallen into disuse, though retained in service books.

Armenian chs. in Am.: Diocese of the Armenian Ch. of N Am. (under jurisdiction of the see of Echmiadzin); Armenian Apostolic Ch. of Am. (under jurisdiction of the see of Cilicia, Lebanon).

5. Coptic* Ch. immigrants organized the Coptic Assoc. of Am. in NYC 1962. The Diocese of N Am. of the Coptic Orthodox Ch. was est. 1965; HQ Toronto, Ont., Can.

6. The Ethiopian Orthodox Ch. in the USA was est. 1959. See also Ethiopic Church. ACP, EL


In gen., one who does not conform to norms, esp. of an est. ch. See also Dissenter. Other terms: separatist, indep., Congregationalist. More specifically, 1 of many clerics who left the Ch. of Eng. rather than submit to the 1662 Act of Uniformity (see Presbyterian Churches, 2). Nonconformists of one kind or another include J. Bunyan,* O. Cromwell,* R. W. Dale,* P. T. Forsyth,* G. Fox,* J. Greenwood,* M. Henry,* J. Milton,* C. H. Spurgeon,* I. Watts,* C. Wesley,* J. Wesley,* G. Whitefield,* M. Poole.* See also Recusant.


One of the canonical hours*; the 9th hour (3 p.m. acc. to old reckoning, but often observed several hours earlier in the Middle Ages, possibly giving rise to the word “noon”).

Non expedit

(Lat. “it is not expedient”). 1868 papal decree named after its first words (cf. 1 Co 10:23); forbade It. RCs to vote in certain elections or hold office under the Kingdom of It., which was hostile to the papacy; modified considerably 1904/05.


More than 400 mems. of the Ch. of Eng. (including H. Dodwell Sr. [see Dodwell, 1], T. Hearne,* G. Hickes,* T. Ken,* W. Law,* C. Leslie,* R. Nelson*) who refused to swear allegiance to William III and Mary II 1689 (see England, C 2) or their successors, because they (the nonjurors) refused to break their oath to James II. See alson Jennens, Charles; Scotland, Reformation in, 3.

Nonnus of Panopolis

(Nonnos; perhaps ca. 400–after 450). B. Panopolis (modern Akhmim [Ekhmim]), Upper Egypt. Regarded as author of Dionysiaka (legends about Dionysus [Dionysos]; see Greek Religion, 3) and of a paraphrase of John's Gospel. MPG 43, 749–920, 1227–84.


(ca. 1080/85–1134). B. Xanten, Duchy of Cleves, Ger.; after worldly life, converted and became priest 1115; itinerant preacher France; founded Premonstratensians* 1120; abp. Magdeburg 1126, all Poland (1133?); chancellor for It. 1133 (1132?).

Norelius, Eric

(October 26, 1833–March 15, 1916). B. Hassela, Helsingland, Swed.; to Am. 1850; educ. Capital U., Columbus, Ohio; ordained 1856 by the Ev. Luth. Syn. of N Illinois*; spent most of his ministry in Minnesota (1859–60 Attica, Indiana); helped found Augustaria* Ev. Luth. Ch. 1860 and was its pres. 1874–81, 1899–1911; founded Minnesota Elementar Läroverk in Red Wing 1862 (later moved to Carver, Minnesota, as Ansgar Academy; relocated 1875 in St. Peter, Minnesota, as Gustavus Adolphus Coll.); founded orphanage Vasa, Minnesota, 1865 and served it 11 yrs. Founded and ed. Minnesota Posten 1857; ed. Augustana; other works include T. N. Hasselquist and De svenska luterska församlingarnas och svenskarnes historia i Amerika

E. Johnson, Eric Norelius (Rock Island, Illinois, 1954).

Norfolk, Thomas Howard,

3d duke of (1473–1554). 3d duke of Norfolk in the Howard line 1524; opposed T. Wolsey*; became Henry* VIII's most trusted adviser; favored divorce of Henry VIII from Catherine of Aragon; opposed Protestantism.

Norlie, Olaf Morgan

(January 11, 1876–June 22, 1962). B. Sioux City, Iowa. Educ. St. Olaf Coll., Northfield, Minnesota; Milwaukee (Wisconsin) State Normal; U. of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin; United Norw. Luth. Ch. Sem., St. Paul, Minnesota U. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota Prof. Luther Coll., Decorah, Iowa, 1919–28, 1933–41; Hartwick Coll., Oneonta, New York, 1928–32. Dean Grad. School, Hartwick Sem., NYC 1932–33. Codifier The Evangelical* Luth. Ch. 1951–54. Hist.; statistician. Ed. The Translated Bible 1534–1934; other works include The Academy for Princes; An Elementary Christian Psychology; The Bible in a Thousand Tongues; Simplified New Testament.

Norma normans

(Lat. “the ruling rule”). Term applied to Scripture because it is the absolute norm of faith (norma primaria, norma decisionis), decisive by its own right. Scripture as the decisive norm is absolutely necessary, being the norm which decides whether doctrines are true or false. See also Norma normata.

Norma normata

(Lat. “the ruled rule”). Term applied to a Confession, or body of Confessions, as secondary norm (norma secundum quid; norma secondaria; norma discretionis), determined by the norma* normans. The norma normata is only relatively necessary. It decides whether a person has clearly understood the true doctrines of Scripture.

Norris, John

(1657–1711). B. Collingbourne-Kingston, Wiltshire, Eng.; educ. Winchester and Oxford. Rector Newton St. Loe, Somersetshire, 1689; Bemerton, near Salisburg, Wiltshire, 1691. Cambridge* Platonist; advocated theories of N. de Malebranche.* Works include An Essay Towards the Theory of the Ideal or Intelligible World.

North, Liturgical.

Left, as one faces the altar in a ch.; Gospel* side. See also Orientation of Churches.

North Africa Mission.

Est. London, Eng., 1881 for work in N Afr.; embraces mems. of all denominations; emphasizes evangelism; HQ Upper Darby, Pennsylvania; mem. IFMA See also Africa, D 3, 4, E 7.

Northern Ireland.

6 of the 9 counties of the former province of Ulster, N Ireland (Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry, Tyrone). Area: ca. 5,500 sq. mi. A 1920 Govt. of Ireland Act offered home rule to both N and S Ireland. N. Ireland is part of the United Kingdom of Gt. Brit. and N. Ireland and has a semi-autonomous govt. ca. two-thirds of the pop. is Prot., the rest RC Violence marred the hist. of the country beginning 1966 and arising out of RC reaction against alleged discrimination and Prot. fear that RCs might attain local majority.

Beginning in the mid-1950s, Luths. in N Ireland were served by the pastor at Dublin (see Ireland, 7). The ULC provided a pastor for a ch. at Belfast 1960; he returned to the US 1962.

North German Mission Society in Bremen

(Norddeutsche Missionsgesellschaft in Bremen). Also called Bremen Mission. Organized 1836 by merger of 7 miss. unions. A miss. school was est. 1837 Hamburg. The soc. was unionistic. Stricter Luth. elements withdrew in course of time. Missionaries were sent to India and New Zealand 1842, W Afr. 1847, Jap. 1953.

Northwestern College,

Watertown, Wisconsin Est. 1865 by the Wisconsin* Syn.; connected with Wisconsin* Luth. Sem.; the 1st pub. announcement of its opening called it “The Lutheran College in Watertown.” The 2d announcement, 3 mo. later, called it “Wisconsin University and Grammar School.” The name “Wisconsin University” was adopted, but the 1867 charter called it “Northwestern University.” Called Northwestern Coll. since 1910. See also Ministry, Education of, VIII B.

Northwestern Lutheran Theological Seminary,

St. Paul, Minnesota Founded 1920 Chicago, Illinois, by the Eng. Ev. Luth. Syn. of the Northwest (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 17) as Chicago Luth. Divinity Schooll. Moved to Fargo, North Dakota, and name changed to Northwestern Luth. Theol. Sem. 1921. Moved to Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1922, to St. Paul, Minnesota, 1967. LCA See also Luther Northwestern Theological Seminary; Lutheran Church in America, V.

Norton, John

(1606–63). Puritan cleric; b. Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; to Am. 1635; preached at Plymouth; teacher, then pastor, Cong. ch. Ipswich 1636–56; pastor Boston 1656–63; took part in persecution of Massachusetts Quakers. Works include Responsio ad totam quaestionum syllogen (Lat. treatise on New Eng. ch. govt.).

Norway, Early Christianity in.

Norw. heard of Christianity through the Vikings (see also Iceland, 1), who made piratical raids on Eng., Scot., Ireland, Fr., and elsewhere and whose captives included Christians. Haakon I (“the Good”; ca. 914–961; king of Norw. 935–961), brought up as a Christian by Athelstan (Aethelstan; 895–940; king of West Saxons and Mercians ca. 924, of Eng. ca. 937), brought Christian influences to Norw. but failed in the attempt to persuade his people to embrace Christianity. Olaf* I and Thangbrand* used violence in trying to Christianize Norway. Olaf* II continued the task, which was completed toward the end of the 11th c. But king and hierarchy fought till late in the 13th c. Decay set in early in the 14th c. Much of the clergy perished in the Black Death 1349. Morals declined in the 15th and early 16th c.

Norway, Kingdom of.

Area: ca. 125, 100 sc. mi. United with Den. 1381–1814, with Swed. 1814–1905; indep. 1905. Ethnic groups: Germanic (Nordic, Alpine, Baltic), minority Lapps. Official language: Norw.; other: Lapp Religion: Luth. 97%.

Norway, Lutheranism in.

1. The Luth. Reformation* reached Norw. through Denmark. Anton(ius), a Ger. monk, is said to have preached ev. doctrines in Bergen in the late 1520s. Two others followed, but without great success. Frederick* I is said to have counseled tolerance for both Luths. and RCs.

2. Christian* III attended the Diet of Worms*; enforced the Reformation in Norw. beginning 1537, against considerable opposition. For a long time there was no Norw. but only a Dan. Bible, hymnal, and liturgy; the 1st Norw. Bible to achieve common use appeared ca. 1819. Torbjörn Olafssön Bratt (d. 1548), 1st Luth. bp. Trondheim (Drontheim) 1542, studied 2 yrs. in Wittenberg and lived in M. Luther's* house for a time. J. Erikssön gave great impetus to the Reformation. See also Pederssön, Gjeble; Nilssön, Jens. By 1600 Lutheranism was est. and organized in Norw.

3. More and more Norw. pastors studied in Ger. The 1607 “Ordinance,” or Directory of Worship, required theol. candidates to spend some time at a for. university. A 1629 ordinance required theol. examination of every Norw. candidate at the U. of Copenhagen.

4. Luth. orthodoxy (see Lutheran Theology After 1580, 3–5) came to Norw. from Ger.

5. Orthodoxy est. theol. on the Bible and built a lasting reverence for the Word; its emphasis on catechetical instruction produced a notable literature.

6. In the 17th c. proper orthodoxy fell victim to cold insistence on doctrinal correctness, without Gospel warmth and spiritual fervor in Christian life and love.

7. The next wave was Pietism,* which combined with remnants of proper orthodoxy esp. among the laity and such influences as the spiritual hymns and songs of P. Dass* to avert the death of orthodoxy.

8. Ger. Pietism came into Norw. from Halle (see Francke, August Hermann). But it began in Norw. as a fanatical and separatistic sectarianism hostile to ch. and ministry, spiteful toward the sacraments, and extremely legalistic. Proper orthodoxy was rescued by such healthy elements as the “Syvstjernen,” a pleiad of 7 pastors under leadership of T. v. Westen* in Romsdals Amt, near Molde and Kristiansund (Christiansund), W Norw. Confirmation was instituted 1736. See also Pontoppidan, Erik. By ca. 1750 Pietism had run its course and dissipated into subjectivism and recurrence of its early fanaticism.

9. Next came rationalism* tinged with the spirit of J. J. Rousseau* and Voltaire* and strongly impregnated with elements of the Enlightenment.* Revelation gave way to reason. God, virtue, immortality were the passwords. Science, culture, and art became the main concern.

10. Johan Norda(h) 1 Brun (1745–1816; bp. Bergen 1804; poet) opposed the theol. of the Enlightenment. H. N. Hauge* played a significant role in directing the ch. back to proper orthodoxy, but with possible overemphasis on sanctification, with resultant legalism.

11. Prominent theologians at the U. of Christiania (Oslo) include C. P. Caspari,* S. B. Hersleb,* G. C. Johnson,* S. J. Stenersen.* With resurgent orthodoxy arose an interest in missions (see Missionary Institutes; Norwegian Foreign Missions), but with a division of interest as bet. ch.-related socs. and schismatic groups. See also Laestadius, Lars Levi.

12. Modernism* and higher* criticism also came to Norw. from Ger. In response, a “free faculty,” organized 1908, est. an indep. theol. sem. 1925/26 Oslo. Conservative profs. include Leiv Aalen (b. 1906 Rennesöy, Norw.), Sverre Aalen (b. 1909 Rennesöy, Norw.; educ. Tübingen, Halle, Marburg, Leipzig, Copenhagen, Lund), O. K. Hallesby,* Olaf Eedvard Moe (1876–1963; b. Modum, Norw.), Olay Guttorm Myklebust (b. 1905 Bergen, Norw.), John Nome (b. 1904 Öyslebö, Norw.), Sigurd Vilhelm Odland (1857–1937; b. Bergen, Norw.; cofounder “free faculty”; resigned 1916), Andreas Seierstad (b. 1890), Ivar P. Seierstad (b. 1901 Hedrum, Norw.).

The ch. suffered in WW II under Ger. occupation of Norw. (See Berggray, Eivind). Its relation to the state was redefined, but it still is a state ch.

13. Norw. Lutheranism was transplanted to Am. by immigration in the middle of the 19th c. HAP

See also Anglican Scandinavian Conferences.

A. C. Bang, Den norske kirkes historie (Christiania, Norw., 1912); P. G. Lindhardt, Den nordiske kirkes historie (Copenhagen, Den., 1945); H. C. Christie, Den norske kirke i kamp, 2d ed. (Oslo, Norw., 1945); R. T. Nissen, De nordiske kirkers historie (Christiania [Oslo], Norw. 1884).

Norwegian-Danish Augustana Synod in America, The

(“Danish” and “in America” dropped 1878). Norwegians (O. J. Hatlestad* et al.) withdrew from the Scand. Ev. Luth. Augustana Syn. in Am. (see Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, 9–10) at Andover, Illinois, June 1870. What followed is not entirely clear; it involves the question whether the action which the Norwegians immediately took toward organization was temporary. In this action, June 1870, Hatlestad was elected pres. of the “Norwegian-Danish Augustana Synod.” But a const. was to be adopted later. In August 1870 a conf. was held at St. Ansgar, Iowa, with Hatlestad chm., to discuss with C. L. Clausen* the possibility of having the latter and those assoc. with him join the new group. At this meeting the matter of a const. was also discussed; Hatlestad's const. (on which action had been postponed in June and which specified the whole Book* of Concord as confessional base) was rejected; a const. prepared by Clausen (which specified only the traditional Dan.-Norw. confessions [3 ecumenical* creeds, UAC SC] as doctrinal base) was adopted with only minor changes, and with it the name The Conf. for the Norw.-Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. (often shortened to Norw.-Dan. Conf., or simply the Conf.); it was also proposed to dissolve the Norw.-Dan. Augustana Syn.; Hatlestad objected and went home; in his absence the conf. resolved to dissolve the Norw.-Dan. Augustana Syn. so that its mems. might join The Conf. for the Norw.-Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in America. Hatlestad reacted by meeting with his followers October 1870 at Jefferson Prairie (near Clinton), Wisconsin; at this meeting the “dissolution” action of the August 1870 conf. was declared null and void. Continuity of organization was declared by (1) claiming validity for the const. of the Scand. Ev. Luth. Augustana Syn. till a new const. be approved; (2) adopting (a) the const. which Hatlestad had presented at Andover, Illinois, June 1870, and at St. Ansgar, Iowa, August 1870, and (b) the name The Norw.-Dan. Augustana Syn. in Am. Name changed 1878 to The Norw. Augustana Syn. See also Beloit Seminary (Iowa); Danish Lutherans in America. 3; United Norwegian Lutheran Church in America, The.

Norwegian Foreign Missions.

These include (1) The Norw. Mission Soc. (Det Norske Misjonsselskap), founded 1842 Stavanger. Union of socs. that sprang up in Norw. beginning with one in Stavanger 1826; till 1842 they cooperated with the Basel* Miss. Soc. and the Rhenish* Miss. Society. The state ch. and clergy remained almost entirely aloof from it; this led to The Norw. Ch. Mission by Schreuder (see 4). A miss. school, founded 1843 Stavanger, closed 1847, reopened 1858 (see also Missionary Institutes). Fields have included Zululand, Madagascar, China, Cameraon, Jap., Hang Kong, Taiwan. (2) The Norw. Miss. to Israel (Den Norske Israelmisjon). Continuation of Israels Venner (The Friends of Israel), a Luth. organization founded 1844 Stavanger. Fields have included Romania, Hung., Israel. (3) Santal Miss. of the Northern Chs. (Nordiske Santalmision). Founded 1867 NE India as a self-supporting venture by H. P. Börresen* and L. O. Skrefsrud* (both left the Gossner* Miss. Soc. in the 1860s) as Indian Home Mission to the Santals; also known as Benegaria Miss. (Benagaria; Bengarhia; so called after the place in Bihar that was prominent in the beginning of the work). Received regular support from groups in Norw., Den., and Gt. Brit. beginning 1876, in course of time also from Swed., and since 1892 from the US Reorganized 1958/59 as Northern Ev. Luth. Ch. After the 1947 division of India the E. Pakistan Ev. Luth. Ch. was organized. See also Asia, B 2; Bodding, Paul Olaf. (4) The Ch. of Norw. Miss. by Schreuder (Den Norske Kirkes Misjon ved Schreuder). Also known as Schreudermisjonen (Schreuder Miss.). Founded 1873 by H. P. S. Schreuder* as a mission of the Norw. state ch. (see 1) with Zululand, NE Natal, S Afr., as its field. The Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am. (ELC 1946; part of The ALC end of 1960) took over the miss. 1927, with Norway providing funds and manpower. Helped form the Ev. Luth. Ch. in S. Afr.SE Region (or Syn.) 1960 (see also Africa, B 5). (5) The Ev. Luth. Free Ch. Miss. (Den evangelisk-lutherske Frikirkes Misjon). Fields have included China, Taiwan, and Jap. (6) Norw. Luth. Miss. (Norsk Luthersk Misjonssamband). Founded 1891. Fields have included China, N Manchuria, Jap., Taiwan, Hong Kong, Ethiopia, Tanganyika, Sumatra. (7) The Scand. Christian Miss. to Buddhists (Den Nordiske Kristne Buddhistmisjon). Founded in the 1920s. Supported by groups in Norw., Swed., and Den. Fields have included China and Jap. (8) The Norw. Miss. to Tibet (Den Norske Tibetmisjon). Founded 1938. Fields have included Tibet and Nepal. (9) The Norw. Miss. Among Muslims (Den Norske Muhammedanermisjon). Founded 1940. Fields have included India and W. Pakistan.

Norwegian Lutheran Free Church, The

(The Ev. Luth. Free Ch. of Norw.). In 1877 and 1878 a number of Congs. seceded from the state ch. of Norw. to gain greater autonomy and doctrinal discipline. They formed an organization that operates several schools, including a Bible school and miss. school. Fields have included Jap. and Formosa (Taiwan). Pub.: Budbaereren; Nuorttanaste.

Nösgen, Karl Friedrich

(1835–1913). Luth. scholar; b. Halberstadt, Ger.; educ. Halle and Berlin; vicar Schloppe, W Prussia, 1859; prison chaplain Graudenz, W Prussia, 1861; pastor Klein Furra, near Nordhausen, Saxony, Ger., 1873; prof. NT exegesis Rostock 1883. Works include Geschichte der neutestamentlichen Offenbarung.

Nösselt, Johann August

(1734–1807). B. Halle, Ger.; educ. Halle; prof. theol. Halle; as exegete he followed the strict hist.-philol. method of J. A. Ernesti.*

Noth, Martin

(1902–68). B. Dresden, Ger.; educ. Erlangen, Rostock, Leipzig; lecturer Greifswald and Leipzig; prof. Königsberg 1930, Bonn 1945. Works include Geschichte Israels; Die Gesetze im Pentateuch; Die Welt des Alten Testaments.


(ca. 840–912). “Balbulus” (“the Stammerer,” from Lat. balbus, “stammering”). B. Heiligau (now Elgg), near Zurich, or Jonschwil (near St. Gall), Switz.; monk at monastery of St. Gall (see Gall); known esp. for sequences (see Sequence).

E. Wellesz, Eastern Elements in Western Chant (Boston, 1947).


(ca. 940–1008). Swabian; perhaps educ. at St. Gall (see Gall); bp. Liège 972 (969?); built many fine bldgs.; improved moral and intellectual standards.


(ca. 950–1022). “Labeo” (Lat. “one who has large lips,” from labia, “lip”); “Teutonicus” (“the German”); b. Thurgau, Switz.; monk at monastery of St. Gall (see Gall). Tr. Lat. classics and other writings into Ger.; helped fix the form of the Ger. language.

Notre Dame Cathedral of Paris, France.

Example of early Fr. Gothic style; begun 1163; consecrated 1182; W front added 1200–20; desecrated in Fr. Revolution (see Church and State, 15; France, 5); reopened for Christian worship 1795; in restoration since 1845. See also Church Architecture, 10.

Nott, Henry

(1774–May 2, 1844). B. Eng.; LMS miss. to Tahiti, Eimeo (Mooréa), and Huahiné 1796. Tr. Bible into Tahitian.

Nott, Samuel

(1788—June 1, 1869). B. Franklin, Connecticut; educ. Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; ordained Cong. 1812; ABCFM miss. to India 1812; returned to US 1816; taught in New York till 1822; pastor Galway, New York, 1823; active in Wreham, Massachusetts, 1829–50. Works include Slavery and the Remedy.

Nottrott, Alfred

(1837–1924). Gossner* Miss. Soc. miss. to India 1867; pres. Gossner Miss. Soc. 1887–1913. Tr. the Herford Luth. Catechism of 1690 into Hindi; other works include a Mundari grammar and Bible tr.

Notz, Eugen Adolf

(October 7, 1847–February 5, 1903). Brother of F. W. A. Notz*; b. Haberschlacht, Württemberg, Ger. educ. sem. at Blaubeuren, Ger.; Northwestern U., Watertown, Wisconsin; Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Instructor Northwestern U. 1874–75; ordained 1877; pastor Menomonie, Wis.; prof. Heb. and OT exegesis Wis. Syn. sem. Milwaukee 1878–1903.

Notz, Friedrich Wilhelm August

(Frederick William Augustus; February 2, 1841–December 16, 1922). Brother of E. A. Notz*; b. Lehren-Steinsfeld, near Weinsberg, Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Maulbronn and Tübingen; private tutor; to Am. 1866; tutor Georgia 1866–68; prof. (Gettysburg) Pennsylvania Coll. 1868, Muhlenberg Coll., Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1869–72; prof. Gk. and Heb., Northwestern U., Watertown, Wisconsin, 1872–1912 (inspector 1874–81). Secy. Ger. Am. Press Assoc. 1870; pres. Ger. School Assoc. of Pennsylvania 1871. Tr. J. K. Dietrich, Institutiones catecheticae, into Ger.; ed. Schul-Zeitung 1876–94 (title changed March 1879 to Lutherische Schul-Zeitang).


(Lat.: Novatianus; b. probably ca. 200 AD). B. perhaps It., possibly Phrygia; priest in Rome; differences with Cornelius* regarding treatment of the lapsed (see Lapsi) led to his election as antipope (bp. of Rome) 251; excommunicated; followers called Novatians; martyr ca. 257/258. Works include De Trinitate (MPL 3, 911–982; opposed Monarchianism*); De cibis Judaicis.


Named after Novatian,* who held that the lapsed (see Lapsi) should not be readmitted to the ch., which is to be a community of none but saints. The schism spread from Spain to Syria; disappeared by the end of the 7th c.


(Lat. Novatores). Name given by J. A. Quenstedt* to the theologins of Helmstedt and their followers, e.g., C. Dreier,* at the time of G. Calixtus.*


(3d c.). Presbyter of Carthage, N Afr.; ordained Felicissimus* deacon; fled to Rome to escape the wrath of Cyprian* of Carthage; assoc. of Novatian.*


In RCm 9 days' devotion to obtain special graces or favors.


1. One who is preparing in a formal period of probation for membership in a religious institute; the period of time is called novitiate and it usually follows a period of postulancy (see Postulant). 2. See Neophyte.

Nowell, Alexander

(Nowel; Noel; ca. 1507–1602). Angl. cleric; b. Whalley, Lancashire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; dean St. Paul's, London, 1560. Works include Large Catechism; Middle Catechism; Small Catechism (very similar to that of the 1549 Book* of Common Prayer).

Noyes, John Humphrey

(1811–86). B. Brattleboro, Vermont; educ. Dartmouth Coll. (Hanover, N. H.), Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem., and Yale Coll. Theol. Dept., New Haven, Connecticut; held perfectionism*; advocated free love and “Bible communism,” which he promoted in the community he est. in the 1830s at Putney, Vermont; arrested 1846; fled to cen. New York State, where he est. the Oneida* Community 1848; fled to Can. 1880 to escape prosecution for adultery. See also Communistic Societies.

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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