(181866). Angl. hymnist; b. London, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; warden Sackville Coll., E. Grinstead, 184666. Works include Essays on Liturgiology and Church History. Hymns include Around the Throne of God a Band; Blessed Savior, Who Hast Taught Me; Art Thou Weary, Art Thou Troubled; O Lord of Hosts, Whose Glory Fills; translations of Lat. and Gk. hymns. See also Anglican and Eastern Churches Association.
A. G. Lough, The Influence of John Mason Neale (London, 1962); E. A. Towle, John Mason Neale (New York, 1906)
(grecized from Neumann, Niemann, or Nigemann by his grandfather; 165080). Ref. hymnist, composer; b. Bremen, Ger.; rector Lat. school Düsseldorf 1675; pietist. Neanderthal named after him. Hymns (collected in Glaub- und Liebes-Übung) include Lobe den Herren, den mächtigen König der Ehren; Wunderbarer König. Hymn tunes include Neander (sometimes called Unser Herrscher, Magdeburg, or Ephesus).
(original name David Mendel; 17891850). Prot. ch. hist.; b. Göttingen, Ger., of Jewish descent; influenced by F. D. E. Schleiermacher; changed name when he became Christian 1806; prof. ch. hist. Berlin 1812/13; exponent of Pektoraltheologie.* Works include Allgemeine Geschichte der christlichen Religion und Kirche. See also Berlin Missionary Society I.
(originally Neumann; 152595). Educator; b. Sorau (now Zary), Brandenburg, Ger. (now Poland); pupil of P. Melanchthon*; teacher, then rector, Ilfeld; ed. classical texts; wrote on principles of teaching; emphasized humanistic studies; also gave attention to natural sciences; antinomian. Works include Graecae linguae erotemata (preface by Melanchthon); Theologia Christiana. See also Antinomian Controversy.
Organized 1927 as mem. council of the International Missionary Council; mem. WCC 1961; called Near East Christian Council till 1964; has also been known as Council for W Asia and N Afr.
See United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 3, 25.
Johann M. Höckendorf (Hoeckendorf; Hökendorf; d. ca. 1877), former officer in the Prussian army and mem. of C. L. Geyer's* cong. at Lebanon, near Watertown, Wisconsin, was a delegate to the meeting at which the Mo. Syn. was organized. He took exception to I, 1 of the Const., which gave as a reason for forming a syn. organization the example of the apostolic ch. (Acts 15:131). Eventually he divided his home cong. and became pastor of ca. 100 adherents, est. a cong. at Ixonia, Wisconsin, ca. 3 mi. S of Lebanon. In 1866 a number of them moved to the site of the later city of Norfolk, Nebraska Höckendorf, their pastor till he died, was succeeded by Michael H. Pankow (May 26, 1852July 11, 1936; b. Lebanon, Dodge Co., Wisconsin; educ. Northwestern U. [later called Northwestern Coll.], Watertown, Wisconsin, and Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois; pastor Norfolk, Nebraska, 187891, then in Wis. till 1917, when he retired), who joined the Wisconsin* Syn. 1881 and organized other congs. In course of time other pastors and congs. in Nebraska joined the Wis. Syn. In 1901 a Nebraska Dist. of the Wis. Syn. was tentatively organized; it was released from district membership in the Wis. Syn. and became the Ger. Ev. Luth. Dist. Syn. of Nebraska 1904; it joined The Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, and other states 1905/06 and the Synodical* Conf. 1906/10; it became the Nebraska Dist. of the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, and Other States 1917. See also Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, 2, 3.
List of persons that have died; sometimes used in connection with prayers for the dead.
(from Gk. nekros, corpse, and manteia, divination). Consulting the spirits of the dead (cf. 1 Sm 28:320); forbidden Lv 19:31; Dt 18:1011; Is 8:1920. Cf. LC, Part I, 12.
(Nektarios). 1. of Jerusalem (ca. 1602ca. 1675). Patriarch of Jerusalem ca. 166169; opposed W theol.; supported confession of P. Mogila*; took part in 1672 Syn. of Jerusalem.* 2. of Constantinople (d. 397). Bp. (or patriarch) Constantinople 381; presided at 2d ecumenical council (see Councils and Synods). MPG 39, 182140.
(Neeshima; Niishima; originally Neesima Shimeta; February 12 [January 14 Jap. old style], 1843January 23, 1890). B. Yedo (Tokyo), Jap.; by chance became acquainted with the Bible as a boy; contrived 1864 to get to Hakodate and smuggled himself on board a schooner to Shanghai, China; to US on a ship (the captain called him Joe) owned by Alpheus Hardy, of Boston, Massachusetts, who sent him to Amherst (Massachusetts) Coll. and Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; pardoned for leaving Jap. illegally and became interpreter of Jap. embassy to US 1871; ABCFM miss. to Jap. 1874; founded Doshisha coll. and theol. school (now a U.) at Kyoto 1875; taught there till 1890.
J. D. Davis, A Sketch of the Life of Rev. Joseph Hardy Neesima (New York, 1894); A. S. Hardy, Life and Letters of Joseph Hardy Neesima (Boston, 1891); W. F. McDowell et al., Effective Workers in Needy Fields (New York, 1902), pp. 153183.
(1797 [1798?]1829). B. near Geneva, Switz.; Swiss army officer; resigned 1819; catechist (or parish miss.) in Switz. and at Grenoble, Fr.; ordained London, Eng., 1823; revival preacher in Swiss and Fr. Alps.
1. Chap. 125 of Egyptian Book* of the Dead. 2. See Presbyterian Confessions, 1.
(September 8, 1875May 22, 1951). B. Gnevin, Pomerania, Ger.; educ. Conc. Coll., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; miss. Oklahoma 18991901. Pastor Kansas City, Kansas, 190113; Summit, Illinois, 191318. Prof. Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, 191851. Secy. Mo. Syn. Wartime Bureau 1918; chm. Mo. Syn. Catechism Committee.
(18491918). B. near Hameln, Ger.; educ. Halle and Tübingen; pastor Harem 1886; prof. Münster 1916. Founded Evangelischer Kirchengesang-Verein für Westfalen. Works include Geschichte des deutschen evangelischen Kirchenliedes; Unsere Kirchenliederdichter.
(16561715). B. London, Eng.; pupil of G. Bull*; educ. Cambridge; nonjuring layman (see Nonjurors); supported charitable and miss. endeavors, including SPCK and SPG; returned to est. ch. 1710. Works include A Companion for the Festivals and Fasts of the Church of England.
(4th or 5th c. AD). Bp. Emesa (Homs; Hims), Syria; Gk. Christian philos. Wrote Peri physeos anthropou (Lat. title De natura hominis), in which he tries to build on Platonic basis a doctrine of the soul agreeable to Christian revelation. MPG, 40, 479844.
An awakening and restatement of Calvinism.*
Revival of Luth. confessionalism. See also Luther Renaissance; Lutheran Theology After 1580, 1115.
Search for and cultivation of the Pentecostal experience and gifts* of the Spirit in mainstream chs.; not formally connected with Pentecostalism*; promoted, e.g., by Full* Gospel Business Men's Fellowship International.
Revival of scholasticism* in RCm beginning ca. the middle of the 19th c.
Neo-scholasticism* concerned with teachings of Thomas* Aquinas. Often described as moderate realism. Distinguishes bet. act or actuality and potency or potentiality (all except God, who is pure act, is made up of act and potency); existence and essence; substance and accident; form and matter. Includes a doctrine of causes (material, formal, efficient, and final). Prominent neo-Thomists include P. Coffey* and D. F. F. J. Mercier.* See also Popes, 29.
R. G. Bandas, Contemporary Philosophy and Thomistic Principles (New York, 1932); E. H. Gilson, Christianity and Philosophy, tr. R. MacDonald (New York, 1939); J. Maritain, On the Philosophy of History, ed. J. W. Evans (New York, 1957); P. M. Bretscher, Neo-Thomism Once More, CTM, XXII (1951), 357364; W. Siegel, The Revival of Thomist Pholosophy, The Augustana Quarterly, XIX (January 1940), 3845. See also references under Thomas Aquinas and writings of neo-Thomists mentioned above. EL
Cappadocian Council; probably early 4th c. AD, perhaps bet. 314 and 325; adopted canons on discipline and marriage that became canon law for E and W
In religion, a new doctrine, or new method of theol. interpretation; hence also called Modern Theol., or Transitional Theol. (Übergangstheologie). Hist. critical movement in theol. of 18th c.; embraced a number of theol. tendencies and such concepts as cosmic pluralism in opposition to a closed Ptolemaic universe, hierarchy of being from inanimate objects to angels, moral miracles (e.g., the redeemed life is a miraculous gift of grace), new Biblicism opposed to scholastic orthodox dogma, and emphasis on the incarnation and the cross.
Movement in 20th-c. Prot. theol. that opposed modernism.* Proponents include S. A. Kierkegaard,* K. Barth,* and H. E. Brunner.* Reinhold Niebuhr's* dialectical concept of God (both transcendent and immanent), man, and hist. aroused widespread interest in Am. See also Dialectical Theology; Switzerland, Contemporary Theology in.
R. Niebuhr, The Nature and Destiny of Man, 2 vols. (New York, 194143), reviewed in CTM, XIII (1942), 156158; XV (1944), 640644.
(Gk. newly planted; novice, 1 Ti 3:6). Term applied in the early ch. to newly converted or newly bap. Christians, esp. during the 8 days following baptism, when they wore white garments, and in some cases longer, up to a yr. after baptism. In RCm the neophyte status was considered an irregularity, or at least impediment, for the reception of orders; by extension the term came to describe one newly admitted to the clerical or monastic life.
Philos. school reputedly founded by Ammonius* Saccas; chief exponents included Plotinus,* Porphyry,* and Iamblichus.* Tried to develop new thoughts from Platonic ideas (see Plato). Speaks of the One (source of all being), of the Over-Mind (mind, spirit, intelligence; Gk. nous) which emanates from the One, and of the Over-Soul (or World-Soul; Gk. psyche), which emanates from the Over-Mind. The Over-Soul makes, produces, or generates individual souls and matter (the concrete, corporeal, or phenomenal world), which is evil. Man is part spirit, part matter; his soul is part of the World-Soul; he should strive to free himself as far as possible from the body and from sin and achieve communion with the One by avoiding what is sensual, but without excessive asceticism. The most important Neoplatonic contribution to Eur. thought and culture was the influence of a diluted and transformed Neoplatonism in such traditional Christian theol. as that of Augustine* of Hippo (cf. esp. his Confessions, Book VIII).
See also Aeneas of Gaza; Cambridge Platonists; Emanation; Ficino, Marsilio; Gemistos Pletho(n), Georgios; Proclus (ca. 410485); Renaissance; Theosophy; Transmigration of Souls.
(Admonitio Neostadiana; Admonitio Neostadiensis). Short name for De libro Concordiae quem vocant, a quibusdam Theologis, nomine quorundam Ordinum Augustanae Confessionis, edito, Admonitio Christiana, issued 1581, written chiefly by Z. Ursinus* in the name of the Ref. group at Neustadt an der Hardt, Ger., in defense of their beliefs against Luth. doctrines; tried to refute FC, AC, and M. Luther*; discussed distinctive Ref. beliefs regarding Christology, communion, and predestination. T. Kirchner,* M. Chemnitz,* and N. Selnecker* drafted the Erfurtsche Buch in reply.
(3d c.). Bp. Arsinoe, in Cyrenaica, E Libya; his literal interpretation of Rv is chiliastic; his followers severed connection with the Alexandrian ch.; refuted by Dionysius* of Alexandria. See also Millennium, 3.
Eusebius of Caesarea, HE, VII, xxiv.
(Philip Neri; 151595). B. Florence, It.; tutor Rome 1533; studied philos. and theol.; said to have experienced ecstasy; cofounder Confraternitá di SS. Trinità 1548; ordained priest 1551; founded an Oratory (see also Oratorians, 2) that developed out of confessiona and spiritual conferences beginning 1564 and was perhaps called Oratory after the oratory (place of prayer; chapel) where the meetings were held.
(Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus; originally Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus; 3768). Roman emp. 5468; b. Antium (Anzio), Latium, S cen. It.; accused of starting the fire that burned much of Rome 64, he in turn accused the Christians and persecuted them; suicide. He is the emperor referred to in Acts 25:1112, 21, 25; 26:32; Ph 4:22. See also Persecution of Christians, 3.
(ca. 310ca. 373). The Great. 6th catholicos* of Armenian Ch.; b. probably Vagarshapat, near Echmiadzin, Cappadocia (Armenian SSR); tried to reform the ch.; founded hosps. and orphanages; poisoned for censuring the immorality of the king.
(ca. 110273). The Gracious [Snorhali]. Catholicos* of the Armenian Ch. 116673; b. Cilicia; tried to unite Armenian and Gk. chs. against Monophysitism*; exegete, hist., poet.
(1863ca. 1920). Russ. religious philos.; prof. at Kazan; tried to prove existence of God on basis of man's awareness of tension bet. his own free personality and his subservience to physical nature.
(Christof; 18511913). Luth. Bible scholar; b. Stuttgart, Ger.; educ. Blaubeuren, Tübingen, and Leipzig; prof. Ulm, Tübingen, and Maulbronn; mediating theol. (see Mediating Theology). Ed. Gk. NT; other works include Einführung in das griechische Neue Testament.
1. Heresy* named after Nestorius.* Held that there is no communion of natures in the person of Christ (see also Christology; Christ Jesus, I), that Mary is not theotokos* but Christotokos (mother of Christ), and that acc. to His human nature Christ is in effect the Son of God only by adoption. Condemned by the 431 Council of Ephesus,* but adherents spread its doctrine far and wide.
2. Nestorianism spread into Persia (see Middle East, I), Mesopotamia (see Edessa; Nisibis; Middle East, H), Arabia (see Middle East, L), China (see China, 5), and India (see India, 5, 6).
A. R. Vine, The Nestorian Churches: A Concise History of Nestorian Christianity in Asia from the Persian Schism to the Modern Assyrians (London, 1927); J. Joseph. The Nestorians and Their Muslim Neighbors: A Study of Western Influence on Their Relations (Princeton, 1961); J. P. Junglas, Die Irrlehre des Nestorius (Trier, 1912); F. Loofs, Nestorius and His Place in the History of Christian Doctrine (New York, 1914); R. V. Sellers, Two Ancient Christologies (London, 1940); M. Chemnitz, De duabus naturis, tr. J. A. O. Preus, The Two Natures in Christ (St. Louis, 1971).
(d. ca. AD 451). B. Germanicia (modern Maras[h]; now in Turkey), Syria; studied at Antioch; monk; patriarch Constantinople 428; condemned by 431 Council of Ephesus* for false teaching in Christology and deposed; sent back to monastery at Antioch; banished to Upper Egypt 436. Wrote Tragoedia in defense of his views. See also Acacius of Beroea; Nestorianism.
The Council of Trent* decreed: Those who will try to contract marriage in another way than in the presence of a parish priest or of another priest authorized by that priest or by an ordinary, and with two or three witnesses, the holy synod declares altogether unable so to marry and decrees such contracts null and void, as by the present decree it makes them invalid and annuls them (Sess. XXIV, Decree Concerning the Reform of Matrimony [called Tametsi decree after its 1st Lat. word], chap. I). The Ne temere decree of 1907 (named after its 1st Lat. words), effective 1908, exempted from this rule non-Catholics who marry among themselves and made certain other provisions. The chief points of this decree, with minor modifications, were later included in the Code of Canon Law, further rev. 1948/49.
1. Matthias (161886). Brother of 2; Ref. pietistic theol.; b. Süchteln, Ger.; educ. Neth. at Harderwijk, Deventer, and Utrecht; pastor; prof. Utrecht 1654; deposed 1662 because of polemics against S. Maresius*; prof. Herborn 1669; influenced by W. Ames* and G. Voet*; opposed Arminianism,* Cartesianism,* RCm 2. Samuel (1628ca. 1700). Brother of 1; Ref. theol.; b. Rees, Ger.; pastor; won for ch. reform by puritanical writings and Voetians (see Voet, Gisbert); active in efforts at Christian instruction and edification.
1. Area: ca. 16,500 sq. mi. Ethnic composition: Dutch. Language: Dutch. Religions: RC 40%, Dutch Ref. 23.5%. Conversion, dated from ca. 630 under Dagobert I (see France, 1), was continued by Willibrord,* and completed under Charlemagne* toward the end of the 8th c. Protestantism came to prevail in the N, RCm in the S, with both well represented in the center.
Doctrines and polity of the Ref. Ch., represented also in refugee groups in London, Eng., and Emden, Ger., took form at the 1619 Syn. of Dordrecht.* William I (17721844; b. The Hague, Neth.; driven into exile by French 1795; returned and was proclaimed prince sovereign 1813; assumed title of king of the Neth. 1814; Congress of Vienna 1815 provided for formation of the kingdom of the Neth. [former Rep. of Holland and the Austrian Neth. (Belg.)]) gave the ch. a const. modified to suit his views 1816, and assurance was given that the old confession (Three Forms of Unity) would be maintained; this const. gave shape to the 1852 Gen. Regulations of the Ref. Ch. In 1954 the ch. became fully indep. of the state.
Under influence of liberals and Romanists the govt. banished religious instruction from schools 1857; 1876 it changed theol. faculties in univs. into faculties of comparative religion. But when rationalists secured these professorships, the orthodox party est. a Free Ref. U. at Amsterdam 1880 and secured free schools in which ev. religion is taught. Pub. schools are nonconfessional, but hundreds of parochial schools are supported by Prots. or RCs Important assocs. were formed 1860 and 1877 to support and extend such schools.
2. A change in the form of subscription to confessions, introd. 1816 (see 1), which in effect substituted quatenus for quia (see also Lutheran Confessions, D 3), led to controversy, as did the larger and more gen. feeling of some that the doctrine and polity of the 1619 Syn. of Dordrecht were falling into neglect.
In 1834 a group under H. De Cock* seceded and organized the Christian Ref. Ch. (on common ground with the Ref. Ch. of Am. and the Christian Ref. Ch. [see Reformed Churches, 4 b and c]), which est. a theol. school at Kampen 1854 and united 1892 with a group called Doleantie (or doleerende) that had formed 1886 under A. Kuyper*; the united bodies call themselves The Ref. Chs. in the Neth.
3. The Luth. Ch. gained only minor importance (see also Lutheran Confessions, A 5). The 1st cong., est. at Woerden, adopted the AC 1566. A small union of congs. formed 1605 developed into a Fraternity (or Brotherhood) 1614. The last Luth. syn. under the Rep. met 1696. At first all ministers were educ. in Ger.; a Luth. sem. was founded in Amsterdam 1816. In 1818 William I gave the Ev. Luth. Ch. a new organization, modified twice in the 1850s to make the ch. indep. of the state. Reaction had begun ca. 1791 against rationalism in the ch. and led to formation of the Restored Luth. Ch. (or Old Luth. Ch.), with legal standing 1835, legal confirmation in the 1860s. An attempt at reunion in the 1870s was unsuccessful, but differences bet. the 2 bodies subsided in course of time; common ground for agreement and unity was found in the theol. statements of the 1947 LWF Assem.; in 1952 the Ev. Luth. Ch. and the Restored Luth. Ch. reunited to form The Ev. Luth. Ch. in the Kingdom of the Neth..
4. Mennonites (see Mennonite Churches) est. a sem. in Amsterdam 1735. A Gen. Soc. was formed 1811 to encourage theol. educ. and support the ministry among poorer congs. All congs. are free in calling ministers and indep. in govt.
5. Remonstrants* object to some of the doctrines of the 1619 Syn. of Dordrecht, hold fast to freedom and toleration. Contacts with the Dutch Ref. Ch. are being restored.
6. Since separation of ch. and state 1796, RCm tried to regain lost control. The hierarchy was reest. 1853 with a great increase of priests, the Neth. forming 1 province divided into 7 dioceses comprising ca. 40% of the pop.
7. Little miss. work was done by the Dutch in the 17th c. among natives of their colonies. Miss. work was regarded as a function of the E India Co., rather than as a concern of the ch., until separation of ch. and state 1796. Important miss. socs. organized toward the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th c. include the Netherlands* Miss. Soc. WJK
See also Holy Communion, Consensus on the; Reformed Churches, 2; William I (153384).
J. S. Bartstra and W. Banning, Nederland tussen de natien, 2 vols. (Amsterdam, 194648); J. Reitsma, Geschiedenis van de Hervorming en de Hervormde Kerk der Nederlanden, 5th ed. J. Lindeboom (The Hague, 1949); J. Loosjes, Geschiedenis der Luthersche Kerk in de Nederlanden (The Hague, 1921).
(Nederlandsch Luthers Genootschap voor in- en uitwendige Zending). Founded 1852; reorganized 1880; began work in Batoe (or Batu: Indonesian is. group) 1882.
(Nederlandsche Zendings-Raad). Also known as Missionary Study Council (Zendings Studieraad). Founded 1929 as a dept. of the International* Miss. Council. Has a number of Dutch miss. bds. as mems.
(Nederlandsch Zendeling-Genootschap). Est. 1797 Rotterdam, S. Holland, W Neth., through influence of J. T. Vanderkemp*; est. a school for training missionaries; collaborated with LMS early in 19th c.; fields included Ceylon, Java, Celebes, China, India, S Am.; became part of the Netherlands* Ref. Ch., Bd. of For. Miss., 1951.
(Nederlandsche Zendings-Vereeniging). Founded 1858 Rotterdam, S. Holland, W Neth.; became affiliated with the Dutch Ref. Ch.; fields included W Java and Celebes (Sulawesi).
(Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk, Raad voor de Zending). Founded 1951 by combination of various agencies including Netherlands* Miss. Soc.; fields include N Sumatra, Java, Bali, Celebes, Timor, and Afr. See also Utrecht Missionary Society.
(Dutch Ref. Miss. Assoc.). Organized Amsterdam, Neth., 1861; worked in Java.
(Waldensis; ca. 13751430). B. Saffron Walden, Essex, Eng.; Carmelite; educ. Oxford; took part in Council of Pisa* and Constance*; confessor and privy councillor to Henry V (13871422; father of Henry VI; king of Eng. 141322), confessor and advisor to Henry VI (142171; son of Henry V; king of Eng. 142261, 147071). Works include Doctrinale antiquitatum fidei catholicae ecclesiae against J. Wycliffe* and the Hussites.*
(15931656). B. Jena, Ger.; Ref. theol.; educ. Jena; court preacher Güstrow 1623, Kassel 1628; took part in Leipzig* Colloquy. Works include devotional books; sermons; treatise on the Lord's Supper.
Free ch. organized 1873 under G. Farel* in Neuchâtel canton, Switz.; indep. of the state.
(180766). B. Gotha, Ger.; educ. Jena; private scholar Gotha 183242; teacher, then conrector, Knabenbürgerschule at Gotha; 2d rector of the garrison and Erfurt Vorstadtschule 1855; dir. Gotha Bürgerschule 1860. Works include writings on the hist. of the Reformation.
(Bav. For. Miss. Soc.). Est. as Gesellschaft für innere Mission im Sinne der lutherischen Kirche in Bayern 1849 (const. 1850) by J. K. W. Löhe.* Concerns included work among Ger. immigrants in Am.; in connection with this, a miss. to Am. Indians was carried on until the mid-1860s. In 1888 the Ger. name of the soc. became Gesellschaft für innere und äussere Mission im Sinne der lutherischen Kirche. Work among natives in Australia was begun in the 1870s, in New Guinea 1886 (see also Flierl, Johan[nes]; Keysser, Christian); for further developments in the latter field see Australia, C 1; New Guinea. Other fields included Brazil 1897.
(17781858). Composer; organist; pianist; b. Salzburg, Austria; pupil of F. J. Haydn*; friend of Cherubini.* Works include 7 oratorios (e.g., Mount Sinai and David), 15 masses, and cantatas (Miriam; The Prophecy of Babylon; Absalom).
(Caspar; 16481715). B. Breslau, Ger.; educ. Jena; court preacher Altenburg 1676; diaconus 1678, pastor 1689 Breslau; prof. Breslau 1697; hymnist. Hymns include Gott, du hast in deinem Sohn; Herr, es ist von meinem Leben.
(162181). B. Langensalza, Thuringia, Ger.; studied law and poetry at Königsberg; court poet, librarian, and registrar at Weimar; musician; hymnist. Hymns include Wer nur den lieben Gott lässt walten. Composed the tune Wer nur den lieben Gott.
(16711756). B. Üchteritz, near Weissenfels, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; pastor Bibra and supt. Eckartsberge dist. 1698; court diaconus Weissenfels 1704; supt. Sorau 1706; pastor Hamburg 1715; opposed millennialism, unionism, and pietism; assoc. of J. S. Bach,* who set some of his texts to music; poet. Works include texts for cantatas; hymns include Jesus nimmt die Sünder an; Ich weiss, an wen ich glaube.
(d. 1576). B. Gunzenhausen, Middle Franconia, W Bav., Ger.; Luth. pastor Heidelberg; imprisoned for treason and unitarianism; fled to Constantinople; embraced Islam.
(June 7, 1865August 12, 1943). B. Silesia, Ger.; educ. Breklum and Kiel; to Am. 1887; ordained Luth. 1888; prof. ch. hist. German* Theol. Sem. of the General* Synod188792; pastor Bremen, near Chester, Illinois, and ed. Zionsbote 189298; prof. ch. hist. and symbolics Western Theol. Sem., Atchison, Kansas, 18981909; prof. symbolics and hist. of doctrine Hamma Divinity School, Springfield, Ohio, 190943. Coauthor A History of Christian Thought. Other works include Churches and Sects of Christendom; History of the Lutheran Church in America; The Lutherans in the Movements for Church Union; Story and Significance of the Augsburg Confession on Its Four Hundredth Anniversary.
(180386). Ref. theol.; b. in or near Strasburg, Pennsylvania; educ. Princeton (New Jersey) Theol. Sem. Prof. Western Theol. Sem., Allegheny (near Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania, 183040; (Ger. Ref.) Theol. Sem., Mercersburg, Pennsylvania, 184053; acting pres. Marshall Coll., Mercersburg, 184153; prof. hist. and aesthetics Franklin and Marshall Coll., Lancaster, 186166; pres. Franklin and Marshall Coll. 186676; helped found Mercersburg* Theol. Ed. Mercersburg Review 184953. Other works include The Anxious Bench; The Mystical Presence: A Vindication of the Reformed or Calvinistic Doctrine of the Holy Eucharist; History and Genius of the Heidelberg Catechism.
T. Appel, The Life and Work of John Williamson Nevin (Philadelphia, 1889).
(March 4, 1829October 19, 1893). Presb. miss to China; b. near Ovid, New York; educ. Union Coll., Schenectady, New York, and Princeton (New Jersey) Theol. Sem.; worked at Ningpo (now Ninghsien) 185459, Hangchow 1859, in Shantung Province 186164, 187193; in Japan 185961, in Am. 186468; developed Nevius* Methods. Works include China and the Chinese; The Planting and Development of Missionary Churches.
H. S. C. Nevius, The Life of John Livingston Nevius (New York, 1895).
Plan for miss. work developed by J. L. Nevius*; successfully used first in Korea; aims to est. self-propagating, self-supporting, self-governing indigenous chs. from the beginning. The methods have been summarized:
1. Let everyone stay in his calling and be an individual worker for Christ in his neighborhood, supporting himself by his trade.
2. Develop organization only as far as the native ch. can handle it.
3. Use the best qualified natives for evangelistic work.
4. Natives provide their own ch. bldg. in harmony with native architecture and economic standards.
Nevius emphasized extensive travel by missionaries, personal evangelism by all ch. mems., systematic Bible studies, strict discipline, cooperation and union with other chs., noninterference in lawsuits. WK
C. A. Clark, The Nevius Plan for Mission Work, Illustrated in Korea (Seoul, Korea, 1937); W. J. Kang, The Nevius Methods: A Study and an Appraisal of Indigenous Mission Methods, CTM, XXXIV (1963), 335342.
Newberry, South Carolina See Lutheran Church in America, V; Ministry, Education of, VIII B 20; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 27.
(17491830). B. Lancaster Co., Pennsylvania, of Mennonite parents; helped found Ch. of the United* Brethren in Christ; active in miss. work W of the Alleghenies.
(July 25[24?], 1785[1784?]May 30, 1821). B. Durham, Maine; educ. Harvard Coll., Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; ABCFM miss. to Calcutta, India, 1812; forbidden to disembark there, he went to Mauritius, then to Ceylon; joined G. Hall* and S. Nott* at Bombay, India, 1814. See also Haystack Group.
1. Federal* theol. helped form the thought of New Eng. Puritanism. In 1648 the Cambridge (Massachusetts) Syn. (164648) approved in substance the doctrinal parts, but not the arts. on discipline, of the Westminster Confession, replaced in Massachusetts 1680, Connecticut 1708, by a modified Savoy Declaration. See also Democratic Declarations of Faith, 2.
2. New Eng. Theol., which dominated New Eng. Congregationalism till ca. the middle of the 19th c. and may be dated from a 1734 sermon of J. Edwards* the Elder, developed in opposition against a decline in doctrine and morals.
3. J. Edwards* the Elder opposed Arminianism* with a modified Calvinism* that emphasized the unworthiness of man and his complete dependence on God.
4. Successors of J. Edwards* the Elder include J. Edwards* the Younger, who developed the New* Eng. Theory of Atonement; Joseph Bellamy (171990; exponent of the views of J. Edwards the Elder; works include True Religion Delineated and The Wisdom of God in the Permission of Sin; see also Ministry, Education of, VI A); S. Hopkins* (works include The System of Doctrines, Contained in Divine Revelation, Explained and Defended); Nathanael Emmons (Nathaniel; 1745 [1746?]1840; held that all exercises of the will [holiness and sin] are caused by the divine efficiency of First Cause; see also Ministry, Education of, VI A); Edward(s) Amasa Park (18081900; b. Providence, R. I.; prof. Andover [Massachusetts] Theol. Sem.; ed. Bibliotheca sacra; other works include Discourses on Some Theological Doctrines). See also Taylor, Nathaniel William.
5. New Eng. Theol. spread rapidly in Cong. chs. in New Eng. and westward and was favored by many in other Calvinistic chs. The movement founded Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem. (1807/08), the Theol. Dept. of Yale U., New Haven, Connecticut (1822), and Hartford (Connecticut) Theol. Sem. (1833/34).
Adherents of New Eng. Theol. deviated from the old Calvinistic system in holding, e.g., (1) Predestination secures the certainty of man's choices but not their necessity; (2) Adam's guilt is not imputed to his descendants but as a result of his transgression man is constituted to choose wrong instead of right; (3) Christ did not suffer the exact penalty of the Law but pains substituted for that penalty and designed to secure moral govt.; (4) justification does not involve transfer of Christ's righteousness to the believer but forgiveness for Christ's sake and treatment of man as if innocent or holy; (5) Regeneration is either active or passive, or both, and either instantaneous or gradual, a restoration of life-communion with God; (6) The elect can fall after regeneration but never will.
G. N. Boardman, A History of New England Theology (New York, 1899); F. H. Foster, A Genetic History of the New England Theology (Chicago, 1907); P. Y. De Jong, The Covenant Idea in New England Theology, 16201847 (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1945).
Governmental theory of atonement (see Atonement, Theories of, 5) of H. Grotius* as developed by J. Edwards* the Younger (hence also called Edwardean Theory): God is a moral governor rather than a sovereign; the work of Christ is universal, not particular; neither Adam's sin nor Christ's righteousness is imputed. See also New England Theology, 4.
1. 2d-largest is. (after Greenland); part of Malay Archipelago; sometimes included in Melanesia*; N of Australia, S of equator. Area: 319,713 sq. mi. (with related islands: 345,627 sq. mi.) Divided into Territory of Papua (SE part; area: 90,540 sq. mi.; [mainland 87,786 sq. mi.]; Brit. colony from 1888; under control of Australia 1901; became Territory of Papua 1906), Territory of New Guinea (NE part; area [including islands]: 92,160; Ger. colony called Kaiser Wilhelmsland from 1884; mandated to Australia 1920 by League of Nations; under UN trusteeship, Australian administration, 1946; administrative union of Papua and New Guinea promulgated 1949; and officially deleted from the combined name 1971; Papua New Guinea attained self-govt. December 1, 1973), and Irian Jaya (see Indonesia, 7). Natives related to Negroes and Melanesians.
2. Luth. miss. work in Irian Jaya, begun 1855 by the Gossner* Miss. Soc., was taken over 1862 by the Utrecht* Miss. Soc. Other missions in Irian Jaya include The Christian and Missionary Alliance, Unevangelized Fields Mission, Baps., and RCs See also Indonesia, 7.
3. The LMS began work in what is now the Territory of Papua in the early 1870s (see also Chalmers, James; Lawes, William George), RCs in the mid-1880s, Angls. and the Overseas Mission of the Meth. Ch. in Australia in the early 1890s.
4. J. Flierl* began work 1886 near Finschhafen, in what is now the Territory of New Guinea; C. Keysser arrived ca. the turn of the c.; this miss. became known as the Luth. Miss. Finschhafen. Friedrich Eich (January 20, 1843October 21, 1919; b. Dierdorf, Ger.) and J. I. Wilhelm Thomas (June 6, 1843December 30, 1900; b. Eilbach, Ger.) of the Rhenish* Miss. Soc. explored several fields, including the islands of New Brit. and New Ireland; Thomas abandoned the work because of illness; Eich opened a miss. 1887 at Bogadjim, near Madang; this miss. became known as the Luth. Miss. Madang. For further developments see Australia, C 1.
By 1940 the Luth. Miss. Finschhafen had ca. 40,000 bap. mems., Luth. Miss. Madang ca. 20,000. Missions and missionaries suffered severely in WW II. The UELCA, ALC, and NLC joined hands to rebuild. In 1953 the 2 missions merged to form the Lutheran Mission New Guinea. In 1956 the Ev. Luth. Ch. of New Guinea (ELCONG) was formed.
5. In 1936 the ELCA (Evangelical Luterran Church in Australia in this context) acquired the Neuendettelsau miss. on the Rooke-Siassi islands, bet. the is. of New Brit. and the Huon Peninsula of the Territory of New Guinea. In 1951 the ELCA expanded to the interior of the mainland, opening a station among the Kukukuku (Kukakuka) natives at Menyamya, W of Huon Gulf.
6. On appeal of the ELCA, the LCMS resolved 1947 to aid ELCA miss. work in the Territory of New Guinea with men and money. The ELCA est. a station at Yaramanda (Yaramunda) August 1948. Otto Charles Hintze Jr. (b. March 22, 1923, at El Paso, Texas; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; LCMS miss. to New Guinea 1948; asst. prof. Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, 1966) and Willard Lewis Burce (b. February 9, 1924, at Marshall, Michigan; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; LCMS miss. to New Guinea 1948) arrived there November 1948. Work began under joint sponsorship of the ELCA and LCMS; the miss. took the name New Guinea Luth. Miss. (Mo. Syn. was later added to the name). The Luth. missions of Rooke-Siassi and Finschhafen provided evangelists and teachers in the early yrs. of work. LCMS assumed full responsibility for this field 1949. First baptisms (79): January 6, 1957. The const. of the Wabag Luth. Ch. was ratified 1961; name changed 1978 to Gutnius Luth. Ch.Papua New Guines (Gutnius is pidgin for Good News). VEH
The New Hampshire Bap. conv. appointed a committee 1830 to prepare a statement of faith to offset Arminianism; it was pub. 1833; moderately Calvinistic. See also Baptist Churches, 5, 14.
(Taylorism). New Eng. Calvinism* (see also New England Theology) modified by a group of men chiefly of Yale U., New Haven, Connecticut, background, including L. Beecher,* T. Dwight* (17521817), E. T. Fitch,* C. A. Goodrich,* and N. W. Taylor*; held that freedom to choose as well as to do is the only possible basis for responsibility; defined sin as voluntary transgression of known law, and total depravity as the occasion but not the cause of sin.
Organized 1861 German Valley, New Jersey, by 6 pastors and 4 laymen who had withdrawn 1859 from the New York Ministerium; consisted mainly of chs. in the Raritan valley; joined The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA; 1862; merged 1872 with the Ev. Luth. Syn. of New* York. See also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 15.
(New Lights). Mems. Scottish Secession Chs. who supported the principle of voluntarism*; opposed the small minority Auld Lichts (Old Lights), who held to the principle of connection bet. ch. and state. See also Presbyterian Churches, 1.
1. Those among Baps., Congs., and Presbs. who favored revivals and emotionalism during and after the Great* Awakening in Am.; Old Lights opposed revivals and emotionalism in religion. 2. See New Lichts.
(180190). Theol., first Angl., then RC; b. London, Eng.; educ. Oxford; helped found Oxford* Movement; RC 1845; cardinal 1879. Engaged in controversy with C. Kingsley.* Coauthor Tracts for the Times; other works include The Idea of a University; Apologia pro vita sua; the hymn Lead, Kindly Light.
Name given revivals and related practices that followed after rationalism in Am., had spent itself early in the 19th c.; prevalent from ca. 1830 in some areas; advocated, e.g., by B. Kurtz*; regarded by others as questionable Lutheranism.
The Presb. Ch. in the US began to divide internally ca. 1825 into a New School (advocated liberal interpretation of the confessions and cooperation with Congregationalists; opposed slavery) and a conservative Old School; schism occurred 1837; the New School adopted the Auburn* Declaration 1838; the Old School Gen. Assem. endorsed it 1868; the 2 groups reunited 1869.
See Mexico, A.
1. Term referring to the effort ca. 1880ca. 1910 to restate Christian beliefs to harmonize with modern critical views and beliefs; proponents included R. J. Campbell* and T. T. Munger.* 2. See England, C 13.
Movement beginning late in the 19th c. with roots in work of P. P. Quimby,* who influenced M. M. Eddy.* Quimby formed no organization, but many were formed on basis of his thought. Basic attitude is positive; emphasizes psychic control and faith healing; teachings vary from naturalism to mysticism and from Christianity to pantheism and atheism. The Nat. New Thought Alliance (1908 name) grew out of nat. annual convs. beginning 1894 and became the Internat. New Thought Alliance 1914. See also Divine Science; Trine, Ralph Waldo; Unity School of Christianity.
H. W. Dresser, A History of the New Thought Movement (New York, 1919); E. S. Holmes, New Thought Terms and Their Meanings (New York, 1942).
(16421727). Mathematician, natural philos.; b. Woolsthorpe, near Grantham, Lincolnshire, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; prof. Cambridge 1669; some claim to find Arian views in his writings. Works include Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica. See also Deism, I, 3; Time.
(17251807). B. London, Eng.; sailor till 1755, the last 4 yrs. in Afr. slave trade; tide surveyor Liverpool 175560; studied Gk. and Heb.; ordained Angl. curate Olney, Buckinghamshire; produced Olney Hymns with W. Cowper.* Hymns include Glorious Things of Thee Are Spoken; How Sweet the Name of Jesus Sounds.
Organized in the 1940s as an indep. effort to work among tribes to whom the Gospel is not preached; emphasizes indigenous chs.; first missionaries sent to Bolivia 1942; other fields include Colombia, Paraguay, Venezuela, Brazil, New Guinea, Jap., the Philippines, Thailand, Panama, Senegal, Liberia, India; New Tribes Institute founded 1943 Chicago, Illinois.
Beginning of the secular calendar yr.; as such not part of the ch. yr. See also Church Year, 16.
End of the secular calendar yr.; as such not part of the ch. yr. See also Departed, Commemoration of; Silvesterabend.
Organized October 22, 1867, Red Hook, New York, under leadership of H. N. Pohlman,* by 17 pastors and 10 congs. who seceded from the New York Ministerium 1866 in protest against its withdrawal from The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA; joined Gen. Syn. 1868; merged 1872 with the Ev. Luth. Syn. of New* Jersey. See also Synods, Extinct; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 15.
(Steimle Syn.; The Ger. Syn. of New York). Founded 1866 by F. W. T. Steimle* and a few others who seceded from the New York Ministerium because of the Ministerium's stand in regard to the Luth. confessions; the syn., but not Steimle, rejoined the Ministerium 1872. See also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 15.
1. Dominion in the Brit. Commonwealth of Nations, ca. 1,200 mi. SE of Australia; consists of 2 chief islands (North Is.; South Is.; separated by Cook Strait), Stewart Is. (off the S tip of South Is.), and the Chatham Islands (ca. 500 mi. E of South Is.). Area: ca. 103,735 sq. mi. Pop. Maori natives (perhaps ca. 8% of the pop.) are Polynesian.
Miss. work began 1814 with S. Marsden.* Wesleyan Meths. of London, Eng., entered the field 1822, RCs 1838; many other groups followed.
2. There is no state ch. The Ang. Ch. is largest (more than 800,000), followed by Presbs. (more than 550,000, reflecting a large immigration from Scot.), RCs (ca. 365,000), Meths. (more than 170,000); others include Baps., Brethren, Latter Day Saints, Salv. Army, Seventh-day Adventists, Assoc. Chs. of Christ, Cong. Union, and Luths.
3. The first Luth. immigrants came from Ger. with missionaries 184344; some went on to Australia; the permanent settlers est. congs. at Nelson (on the N coast of South Is.) and elsewhere. Mo. Syn. missionaries to N.Z. include Martin Theodore Winkler (November 24, 1880May 13, 1942; b. Stratmann [Strathman], ca. 5 mi. W of Clayton, Missouri; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; miss. to N.Z. 1903; prof. Conc. Coll., Adelaide, Australia, 1908) and Frederick Henry Stephen Hassold (January 22, 1882September 6, 1970; b. Huntington, Indiana; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; miss. to N.Z. 1905). Hamuera Te Punga (August 16, 1880July 30, 1968; b. Lower Hutt, N.Z.), a native Maori, was educ. Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois (grad. 1912), returned to work among his people for ca. 10 yrs., with little success; then worked in other areas of the N.Z. ch. till retirement 1951. In 1914, N.Z. Luths. connected with the Mo. Syn. became part of the Ev. Luth. Syn. in Australia (became the ELCA; see Australia, B). OHS
See also Cook Islands; Graebner, August(us) Lawrence; Kowert, Wilhelm Hermann; Selwyn, George Augustus.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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