(Ger. away from Rome or free from Rome). Movement away from Rome. The term (said to have been coined 1897 by a student in Vienna) designates various attempts to effect widespread defections from RCm, esp. in the Ger. provinces of the Austrian empire. The latter form began as a pol. movement but soon drew in religious elements to serve its purposes of nationalism and spread to countries including Belg., Ceylon, Fr., Mex., Poland; its effects are still in evidence.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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