Christian Cyclopedia

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(from Gk. for “wolf” and “man”). 1. Form of insanity in which one believes that he is an animal, esp. a wolf. 2. Belief that one can transform himself and/or others into animal (esp. wolf) form (hence “werewolf,” from OE wer, “man”). In the Middle Ages, as late as the 17th c., theologians regarded lycanthropy as a branch of sorcery.


1. Balthasar (ca. 1576–1629). “Palatinus.” Son of 3, father of 2; b. (Gross) Umstadt, near Darmstadt, Ger.; Dutch Ref. theol.; preacher Dordrecht; delivered opening and closing sermon at 1618–19 Syn. of Dordrecht.* 2. Jacob (1610–79). Son of 1; b. Dordrecht, Neth.; exegete; archaeol.; pastor Dordrecht. 3. Martin (ca. 1539–1601). Father of 1; b. Lübeck, Ger.; Dutch Ref. pastor; preacher Amsterdam 1580, Leeuwarden 1585; prof. Franeker 1585; moderate Calvinist.

Lyman, Henry

(November 23, 1809 [1810?]–June 28, 1834). B. perhaps Northampton, Massachusetts; educ. Amherst (Massachusetts) Coll. and Andover (Massachusetts) Sem.; studied medicine; ABCFM miss. to Indian Archipelago (Malay Archipelago; Malaysia; East Indies; Indonesia) with S. Munson* 1833. See also Bataks; Indonesia, 4.

Lyons, Councils of.

Many councils were held at Lyons, Fr., beginning in the 470s. RC ecumenical council Lyons I 1245 tried unsuccessfully to unseat Frederick* II; enjoined preaching of crusade* against Saracens, but without effect. RC ecumenical council Lyons II 1274 tried to remove the schism of 1054 (see Schism, 6); Gk. representatives agreed to terms of union, including filioque (see Filioque Controversy), but union dissolved in the 1280s. See also Councils and Synods, 4.

Lyra, Justus Wilhelm

(1822–82). B. Osnabrück, Ger.; theol.; hymnist; liturgist; composer.

Lyra, Nicolaus de

(variants include Lyranus and Lyre; ca. 1270–1340). “Doctor planus et utilis”; b. Lyre (Lire; la Neuve-Lyre), Fr.; exegete; Franciscan; provincial for Burgundy 1325; prof. Sorbonne, Paris. Works include commentaries on the Bible known for emphasis on literal sense and praised by M. Luther; their influence came to be expressed in the Latin saying, Si Lyra non lyrasnet, Lutherus non saltasset (which, some hold, says too much).

Lysius, Heinrich

(1670–1731). B. Flensburg, Ger.; educ. Jena, Leipzig, Königsberg; pastor and prof. Königsberg; exponent of Pietism.*

Lyte, Henry Francis

(1793–1847). Eng. Angl. cleric and hymnist; b. Ednam, near Kelso, Scot.; educ. Dublin, Ireland; ordained 1815; curate Lower Brixham, Devonshire, Eng., 1823–47; d. Nice, Fr. Hymns include “Abide with Me! Fast Falls the Eventide”; “God of Mercy, God of Grace”; “My Spirit on Thy Care”; “Jesus, I My Cross Have Taken.”

Lyttelton, George

(1709–73). 1st Baron Lyttelton of Frankley; statesman, author; b. Hagley, near Kidderminster. Worcestershire, Eng.; educ. Eton and Oxford: mem. parliament 1735; lord commissioner of treasury 1744–54, chancellor of exchequer 1755–56. Works include Observations on the Conversion and Apostleship of Saint Paul. See also Deism, IV.

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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