Christian Cyclopedia

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Lubbertus, Sibrandus

(ca. 1556–1625). B. Langwarden, Ostfriesland; Ref. theol.; educ. Wittenberg, Marburg, Geneva; preacher Friesland; prof. dogmatics Franeker. Upheld orthodox Calvinism* in Holland against Arminianism*; took part in 1618–19 Syn. of Dordrecht.* Works include De principiis Christianorum dogmatum; Episolica disceptatio de fide justificante, deque nostra coram Deo justificatione; Declaratio responsionis D. C. Vorstii.

Lübeck, Vincent

(ca. 1654–1740). B. probably Padingbüttel, near Dorum, Hannover, Ger.; composer; organist Stade 1675, Hamburg 1702–40. Works include cantatas and choral-preludes.

Lubin, Eilhard

(Eilhardus; 1565–1621). B. Westerstede in Ammerland, Oldenburg, Ger.; educ. Leipzig, Cologne, Helmstedt, Strasbourg, Jena, Marburg, Rostock. Traced evil to non-ens. Works include Clavis graecae linguae; Phosphorus, de prima causa & natura mali; commentaries on poets and Pauline epistles.

Lucaris, Cyril

(Lukaris; Kyrillos Loukaris; 1572–1638). Eastern* Orthodox prelate; b. Crete; educ. Padua; ordained; opposed union of E and W Chs.; condemned by several E Orthodox syns.; opposed by E prelates and theologians and by Jesuits; murdered by Turkish soldiers because he was suspected of rousing the Cossacks. Works include Confessio fidei, which shows strong Ref. influence. See also Eastern Orthodox Standards of Doctrine, C.

G. A. Hadjiantoniou(s) (Chatzeantoniou), Protestant Patriarch (Richmond, Virginia, 1961).

Lucian of Antioch

(ca. 240–312). Mem. of Antioch School (see Exegesis, 4; Schools, Early Christian, 4); martyr; b. probably Antioch or Samosata; educ. Edessa; presbyter Antioch. His theol. traces all to creation; everything, including Logos,* is created out of nothing by an act of God's will. Emphasized literal meaning of Scriptures; his rev. of the LXX and the 4 gospels (called Lucianic text, or Byzantine [or Syrian] text) conflated variants and removed crudities and obscurities and became standard in Syria, Asia Minor, and Constantinople; most surviving MSS of the 4 gospels (thus Textus* Receptus and KJV) embody his text.

G. Bardy, Recherches sur saint Lucien d'Antioche et son école (Paris, 1936).

Lucian of Samosata

(ca. 115–ca. 200). Pagan satirist. Apart from literary significance, important for cultural and religious information; treatment of philos. superficial: regarded Christians with contemptuous indifference and depicted them as kind but credulous. Works include De morte Peregrini; Alexander seu Pseudomantis.


Schismatic followers of Lucifer (d. ca. 371), anti-Arian bp. of Calaris (Caralis; Carales; now Cagliari), Sardinia; organized on Novatian principles (see Novatianism); returned to ch. ca. beginning of 5th c. See also Gregory of Elvira.

Lucius, Paul Ernst

(Ernest; 1852–1902). Alsatian Luth. theol.; b. Ernolsneim, near Strasbourg; educ. Strasbourg, Zurich, Paris, Jena, Berlin; prof. ch. hist. and miss. hist. Strasbourg; liberal. Works include Bonaparte und die protestantischen Kirchen Frankreichs; Der Essenismus in seinem Verhältnis zum Judentum; Die Therapeuten und ihre Steilung in der Geschichte der Askese; Die Anfänge des Heiligenkults in der christlichen Kirche.


See also Luecke.

Lücke, Gottfried Christian Friedrich

(1791–1855). B. Egeln, near Magdeburg, Ger.; educ. Halle and Göttingen; prof. Bonn 1818, Göttingen 1827; mediating theol. (see Mediating Theology); assoc. closely with F. D. E. Schleiermacher*; NT exegete. Works include Commentar über die Schriften des Evangelisten Johannes; Grundriss der neutestamentlichen Hermeneutik und ihrer Geschichte.


(Titus Lucretius Carus; ca. 97–55 BC). B. perhaps Rome; poet; adopted atomism* of Democritus* and Epicurus*; held that all things, including gods (who take no concern in human affairs) and the soul, consist of fine particles; envisioned a kind of steady state, in which nothing is created out of nothing, and the universe does not change. Works include the poem De rerum natura. See also Secularism; Steady State Theory.

Ludämilia Elisabeth

(Ludämilie; Ludomilla; 1640–72). Cousin of Aemilie* Juliane; b. Heidecksburg, Rudolstadt, Ger.; lived for some yrs. at castle of Friedensburg, near Leutenberg; hymnist. Hymns include “Jesus, Jesus, nichts als Jesus”; “Sorge, Vater, sorge du”; “Wo ist ein solcher Gott zu finden.”

Lüdemann, Hermann Karl

(1842–1933). B. Kiel, Ger.; educ. Kiel, Heidelberg, and Berlin; prof. Kiel 1878, Bern, Switz., 1884; his Christian ideas were influenced by his philos. and psychol. thought. Works include Christliche Dogmatik.

Lüdke, Friedrich Germanus

(1730–92). B. Stendal, Prussia, Ger.; chaplain; pastor Berlin; exponent of biblicistic (see Biblicism) neology* against authority of confessions; contributed to spread of Enlightenment*; differentiated bet. fundamental and non-fundamental arts. of faith; favored tolerance and freedom of conscience.

Ludlow, John Malcolm Forbes

(1821–1911). Angl. soc. reformer; b. Nimach, India; educ. Fr.; to London 1838; helped found Christian* Socialism; promoted 1852 Industrial and Provident Societies Act; with J. F. D. Maurice* and T. Hughes* founded Working Men's Coll., London; founded and ed. Christian Socialist 1850.

Ludolf, Hiob

(Ludolph; Leutholf; 1624–1704). Orientalist; b. Erfurt, Ger.; educ. Erfurt and Leiden; learned Ethiopic from Abyssinian scholar in It. Ed. Psalterium Davidis Aethiopice et Latine; other works include Historia aethiopica (Eng. tr. A New History of Ethiopia); Ethiopic-Lat. lexicon; Ethiopic grammar.

Ludolf of Saxony

(Ludolph; ca. 1300–78). “The Carthusian”; Dominican (see Dominicans) for ca. 30 yrs.; joined Carthusians* at Strasbourg 1340; prior of charterhouse at Koblenz 1343; resumed status as ordinary monk 1348. Works include commentary on Ps; Meditationes vitae Jesu Christi.

Ludwig von Württemberg

(1554–93). Duke of Württemberg 1568–93; fostered Luth. confessionalism; hymnist. See also Africa, D 7.


See also Lücke.

Lüecke, Martin Louis Ernest

(Lüeke: June 22, 1859–April 13, 1926). B. Sheboygan Co., Wisconsin; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor Bethalto, Illinois, 1881–84; Troy Illinois, 1884–92; Springfield, Illinois, 1892–1903; pres. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, 1903–26. Works include Der Bürgerkrieg der Vereinigten Staaten, 1861–'65; Tabellen für die heilige Geschichte; Biblische Symbole: oder, Bibelblätter in Bildern; Outlines of The Sacred History of The Old and New Testaments.

Lufft, Hans

(1495–1584). Printer Wittenberg, Ger.; printed 1st complete ed. of M. Luther's* Ger. Bible and other works of Luther.

Luger, Friedrich Paul

(1813–90). B. Lübeck, Ger.; Luth. pastor. Works include Über Zweck, Inhalt und Eigenthümlichkeit der Rede des Stephanus; Heinrich Pestalozzi; sermons.

Lugo, Juan de

(1583–1660). B. Madrid, Sp.; Jesuit; taught philos. and theol. at several Jesuit schools in Sp.; to Rome ca. 1621; cardinal 1643. Taught that God gives enough light for salvation to every soul; emphasized destruction as distinctive factor in sacrificial worship of Eucharist. Works include De incarnatione Domini; Disputationes scholasticae et morales; Tractatus de venerabili Eucharistiae Sacramento; Responsorum moralium libri sex.

Luis de Granada

(Louis of Granada; 1504–88). B. Granada, Sp.; Dominican; famous preacher; influenced by humanism*; provincial for Port.; confessor of Port. queen regent. Wrote ascetic treatises.

Luke of Prague

(Lukas Prazsky; ca. 1458–1528). B. probably Prague; educ. Prague; joined Bohemian* Brethren ca. 1480; bp. 1500. Guided the Brethren to maturity as an autonomous reform ch. Corresponded with D. Erasmus* and M. Luther.*

Luke was an Augustinian in his understanding of justification. He tried to clarify what is “essential” (“substantial”), “ministerial,” and “accidental” to salvation, and the relationship of these 3 in the church's life. Works include Zprávy knezské (Directives to Priests).

See also Bohemia, Lutheran Theology in, 2.

M. S. Fousek, “The Second-Generation Soteriology of the Unitas Fratrum,” Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte (1965), 41–63; A. Molnar, Bratr Lukás (Prague, 1948); J. T. Müller, Geschichte der Böhmischen Brüder, 3 vols. (Herrnhut, 1922–31); E. Peschke, Die Theologie der Böhmischen Brüder in ihrer Frühzeit, I (Stuttgart, 1935), Die Böhmischen Brüder im Urteil ihrer Zeit (Stuttgart. 1964), and “Der Kirchenbegriff des Bruder Lukas von Prag,” Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Univ. Rostock, V (1955/56), Gesellschaftliche u. Sprach. Reihe, Heft 2, p. 274. MSF


(ca. 710–786). Anglo-Saxon; b. Wessex, S Brit.; Benedictine; companion of Boniface*; bp. Mainz 754; est. monastery Hersfeld ca. 769; noted for learning.

Lully, Jean Baptiste

(1632–87). B. Florence, It.; to Paris, Dr., 1644; composer and conductor; injured his foot with a heavy baton while conducting his Te Deum and died of complications. Works include Miserere; De profundis; Dies irae; Te Deum.

Lully, Raymond

(Ramón Lull; Raimundus Lullus; Raimond Lulle; Raimundo Lulio; ca. 1235–1315). “Doctor Illuminatus”; b. Palma, Majorca (Mallorca), Balearic Islands; well-educ. RC nobleman; converted 1265 after dissolute life; devoted self to study of Arabic and miss. work to Muslim; taught Arabic in Franciscan monastery at Miramar, Majorca; preached crusade for conversion of Muslim; miss. to Muslim of Tunis, Cyprus, and Asiatic Turkey; acc. to legend, stoned at Bougie, Afr., and died on board ship in sight of Majorca. See also Africa, D 2; Cabala.

Lund-Quist, Carl Elof

(September 19, 1908–August 26, 1965). B. Lindsborg, Kansas; educ. Bethany Coll., Lindsborg, Kansas, and Augustana Sem., Rock Island, Illinois; pres. Luth. Student Assoc. of Am. 1931–33; pastor Chicago, Illinois, 1936–41; student pastor U. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 1941–46; asst. exec. dir. NLC 1946–51; ex. secy LWF 1951–60.

Lund, Theology of

(Swed. lundateologi). Theol. of Lundensian School, which includes G. E. H. Aulén,* A. T. S. Nygren,* and Ragnar Bring (b. 1895 Skara, Swed.; Aulén's successor at U. of Lund).

The Lundensian School has tried to set forth a strictly scientific methodology to be used in systematic theol. Bring and esp. Nygren have tried to demonstrate positive relationships bet. theol. and other branches of scientific research. Nygren's objective in earlier writings (e.g., Religiost apriori, 1921; Dogmatikens vetenskapliga grundläggning, 1922; Filosofisk och kristen etik, 1923) was to lay a solid foundation of dogmatics and ethics by means of a philos. of religion that can guarantee not only them but, on the whole, all kinds of science. The keynote of this speculation is the concept of eternity. It belongs, Nygren claims, to the religious sphere, but secures the validity of all other knowledge as well, since that which is true cannot be true or valid if it is not true always and everywhere, i. e., has the characteristics of that which is eternal.

After trying to show a religious a priori, Nygren turned to the study of the hist. of ideas, to show how religion, or the religious a priori, is realized. He began the “motif research,” to which Aulen, Bring, et al. have made valuable contributions. Aulén broke with K. G. A. v. Harnack's* interpretation of ch. hist. and showed that the Luth. Reformation* went back to the early ch. The best examples of the theol. approach of “motif research” are perhaps Nygren's Agape and Eros and Aulen's Christus Victor, the former a study of religious ideas of Gk. philos. and the NT that follows the hist. of religious motives until the Reformation, the latter an analysis and evaluation of the most influential ideas about the essential meaning of the atonement. Nygren sharply contrasts the Platonic idea of love* (eros) and the Christian agape. Whereas eros is a desire of good for self (man's effort to ascend to God and, primarily, human love), agape is God's way to man: free, spontaneous, unselfish, and self-giving love. Aulén emphasizes the “classical” theory of the atonement held, e.g., by Irenaeus* and Luther: the atonement is primarily God's action taken in Jesus Christ to set man free from death, sin, and all destructive powers (see also Atonement, Theories of, 7; Christus Crucifixus). This classical theory is contrasted with more anthropocentric and legalistic views, e.g., of Anselm* of Canterbury. Similar ideas are set forth by Aulén in The Faith of the Christian Church.

The Lundensian School strongly emphasized Luther's theol. as the legitimate renewal of NT thoughts. Bring has contributed works on Luther (e.g., Förhaallandet mellan tro och gärningar inom luthersk teologi) which have stimulated further Luther research (see also Luther Renaissance). As to evaluation of Luther and Lutheranism, there is a marked tendency to stress that P. Melanchthon* differed from Luther and that the orthodox period (see Lutheran Theology After 1580) did not always grasp the depths of Luther's thought.

The foremost representatives of the Lundensian School have played an important role in contemporary ecumenical debates. Aulén's and Nygren's books have been studied as textbooks at theol. schools outside Swed. and outside Lutheranism. The Lundensian School has also met opposition, e.g., in the criticism of Gustav Wingren (b. 1910 Tryserum, Swed.; taught in Lund, Aabo, and Basel; prof. dogmatics U. of Lund 1951). GH

See also Sweden, Lutheranism in, 6.

A. T. S. Nygren, Agape and Eros, tr. P. S. Watson, 2 vols. in 3 parts, rev., and in part retranslated, and pub. in 1 vol. (London, 1953); G. E. H. Aulén, Christus Victor, tr. A. G. Hebert (New York, 1931) and The Faith of the Christian Church, 2d ed., tr. E. Wahlstrom from the 5th Swed. ed. (Philadelphia, 1960); P. S. Watson, Let God be God! (Philadelphia, 1947); E. M. Carlson, The Reinterpretation of Luther (Philadelphia, 1948); G. Hillerdal, “La théologie de Lund,” Positions luthériennes, V (1957), 49–61; G. Wingren, Theology in Conflict, tr. E. H. Wahlstrom (Philadelphia, 1958).

Lundeberg, Knut Olafson

(January 23, 1859–June 6, 1942). B. Kviteseid, Telemark, Norw.; studied at normal school there; to US 1879; educ. Luther Coll. and Breckenridge Institute (Decorah, Iowa), Milton (Wisconsin) Coll., U. of North Dakota (at Grand Forks), and at Northfield, Minnesota Pastor Kenyon, Minnesota; Portland, Oregon; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Deer Park, Wisconsin; Ellsworth, Iowa Helped organize Church* of the Lutheran Brethren of America; taught at their Bible school at Wahpeton, North Dakota; pres. Ch. of the Luth. Brethren of Am. 1900–03. Ed. Broderbaandet; other works include The Church of the Living Lord.

Lundström, Anders Herman

(1858–1917). B. Filipstad, Swed.; prof. ch. hist. Uppsala; pioneer of ch. hist. research in Swed.

Lüpke, Hans von

(1866–1934). B. Müden an der Aller, Ger.; pastor; given position 1933 at Göttingen U. to teach village ch. work; founded Dorf-Kirchenbewegung (Village Ch. Movement).


(ca. 383–ca. 478). B. Toul, Fr.; married Pimeniola, sister of Hilary* of Arles; separated and devoted themselves to religious life; bp. Troyes ca. 426.

Lupus Servatus

(Loup de Ferriéres; ca. 805–862 or later). B. Diocese of Sens, Fr.; studied under Rabanus* Maurus; humanist; abbot Ferriéres ca. 846; leader in revival of learning under Charlemagne*; made Ferriéres a center of learning. Held double* predestination and that fallen man on his own is capable only of evil. See also Predestinarian Controversy.

MPL, 119, 423–700.

Luria, Isaac ben Solomon

(surnamed Ashkenazi, Heb. “the German”; 1534–72). Jewish cabalist (see Cabala) and mystic; b. Jerusalem of Ger. descent; founded school of mystics.


Desire, craving, longing, passion (e.g., Ex 15:9; Nm 11:34; Dt 12:15; Ro 7:7; Ja 1:14; 4:1–5). “Lusts of the flesh” are evil (e.g., Ro 13:14; Gl 5:17; Eph 2:1–3; 1 Jn 2:16) and “war against the soul” (1 Ptr 2:11); Christians are to flee them (e.g., 2 Ti 2:22; Tts 2:12). Gk. epithymia is used in a neutral (e.g., Mk 4:19), good (e.g., Lk 22:15; Ph 1:23; 1 Th 2:17), and bad (e.g., 1 Th 4:5; 1 Ptr 4:3) sense. “Libido” refers mainly to the sexual urge. See also Concupiscence; Sensuality; Sin; Sins, Venial and Mortal

Luthardt, Christoph Ernst

(1823–1902). Luth. theol.; b. Maroldsweisach, Lower Franconia, Bav., Ger.; educ. Erlangen and Berlin; taught at Gymnasium at Munich 1847–51, at Erlangen 1851–54; prof. Marburg 1854–56; prof. dogmatics and NT exegesis Leipzig 1856–1902; mem. Erlangen School (see Lutheran Theology After 1580, 11). Ed. Allgemeine Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirchenzeitung; other works include Apologetische Vorträge über die Grundwahrheiten des Christenthums; Die Ethik Luthers in ihren Grundzügen; Geschichte der christlichen Ethik; with R. Bendixen (diaconus in Colditz [ca. 25 mi. SE of Leipzig], Ger.) an abridged tr. of M. Chemnitz,* Examen Concilii Tridentini.

Luther, Chief Writings of.

1. The loving care of M. Luther's* contemporaries and followers and the industry of modern Luther research (see Luther Renaissance) have made it possible to trace the development of his thought in his chief writings.

2. Among Luther's early writings, his 1515–16 lectures on Ro have attracted much attention. In these lectures, discovered and pub. in the 20th c., the Reformer's growing insight into the true meaning of the Gospel is evident. Present, too, is testimony to his keen interest in the problems of individual and soc. ethics. Like the lectures on Ro, those on Heb. (1517–18) show the eschatological bent of his theol. and his intense effort to assert his faith in the context of RC theol.

3. By 1519 Luther's thought had progressed considerably. That progress is reflected esp. in his 1519 commentary on Gl (rev. 1523; a longer one appeared 1535). From this charter of ev. freedom against legalistic tyranny, Luther derived his incisive analysis of the distinction bet. Law and Gospel and his realization of the work of Christ as that of victorious liberation from Law and sin.

4. Perhaps best-known of Luther's works are the trilogy issued 1520: An Open Letter to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation Concerning the Reform of the Christian Estate refutes 3 basic assumptions of the medieval ch.: the supremacy of the spiritual over the secular arm; the absolute right of the pope to interpret Holy Scripture; and the exclusive authority of the pope to convoke a council. The sacramentalism and sacerdotalism of the RC Ch. is subjected to close scrutiny in The Babylonian Captivity of the Church. And against the whole authoritarian structure of the ch., On the Freedom of a Christian Man asserted the spiritual freedom of a Christian, but his bondage under Christ to serve all men.

5. But the freedom of a Christian cannot be construed as the freedom of man as such in relation to God. Luther made his position on this clear in On the Bondage of the Will (1525), directed against D. Erasmus.* This is one of the most difficult and perhaps most profound of Luther's writings. God, not man, is the directing agent in the divine-human relationship; man does not choose, but is chosen. But yrs. later Luther warned that he had meant this treatise to be understood soteriologically, not as an abstract philos. discussion.

6. For the old Luther, probably no work is as revealing as his 1535–45 lectures on Gn. Despite his insistence on the literal meaning of the text, he often went far beyond its explicit and implicit meaning. This commentary contains some of his best theol. work, combined with sections of deep devotion and much practical pastoral counsel. Few theol. problems are untouched in this his last great work.

7. In 1539 he issued On Councils and the Church, a work of profound hist. and theol. scholarship, written to overthrow hist. claims of the papacy. The treatise also reveals Luther's thought on the nature of the ch., to which he devotes the 3d section, a clear and systematic definition of the relationship bet. the empirical ch. and the hidden, or invisible, ch. See also Church, 3. JP

Luther, Coat of Arms or Seal of.

Described by M. Luther* in a letter to L. Spengler* July 8, 1530: “There is first to be a cross, black [and placed] in a heart, which should be of its natural color, so that I myself would be reminded that faith in the Crucified saves us.… Even though it is a black cross, [which] mortifies and [which] also should hurt us, yet it leaves the heart in its [natural] color [and] does not ruin nature; that is, [the cross] does not kill but keeps [man] alive.… Such a heart is to be in the midst of a white rose, to symbolize that faith gives joy, comfort, and peace; in a word it places the believer into a white joyful rose; for [this faith] does not give peace and joy as the world gives and, therefore, the rose is to be white and not red, for white is the color of the spirits and of all the angels. Such a rose is to be in a sky-blue field, [symbolizing] that such joy in the Spirit and in faith is a beginning of the future heavenly joy; it is already a part [of faith], and is grasped through hope, even though not yet manifest. And around this field is a golden ring, [symbolizing] that in heaven such blessedness lasts forever and has no end, and in addition is precious beyond all joy and goods, just as gold is the most valuable and precious metal.” Cf. WA-Br 5, 445.

Luther, Controversies of.

a. With the papacy.* See Luther, Martin, 7–14.

b. With J. Eck.* See Leipzig Debate.

c. With Henry* VIII et al. Luther's The Babylonian Captivity of the Church (see Babylonian Captivity, 3; Luther, Chief Writings of, 4) encountered widespread opposition. Henry VIII issued Assertio septem sacramentorum July 1521. Luther replied to Henry VIII July 1522. To this Henry VIII did not reply personally but was defended by writings of T. Murner,* J. Fisher,* and T. More.* Further correspondence bet. Luther and Henry VIII 1525–28 failed to settle the issues in controversy.

Luther and Henry VIII clashed for the 2d time when Henry VIII proposed divorce from Catherine of Aragon. Luther held that the marriage had taken place under a dispensation which should not have been granted, but that the marriage should not be broken.

d. With Anabaptists While Luther was at the Wartburg (see Luther, Martin, 13–15), G. Zwilling* and A. R. B. v. Karlstadt* with their radical reforms caused disturbance in Wittenberg. Luther carne secretly to the city December 1521 to restore quiet. But the Zwickau* prophets came December 1521 and fanned the sparks into a blaze. Luther was asked to return and bring order out of chaos. This he did March 1522 with 8 sermons. Karlstadt and the Zwickau prophets went elsewhere. See also Münster Kingdom.

e. With the Peasants. See Peasants' War.

f. With Erasmus. At first D. Erasmus* favored Luther, but finally, under threat of losing pension, he wrote De libero arbitrio against Luther 1524. Luther replied with De servo arbitrio 1525, in which he showed from the NT that salvation does not depend on man's free will, but on God's free grace; many regard this as his most profound work. Erasmus wrote Hyperaspistes 1526, but Luther did not reply.

g. With Zwingli. H. Zwingli* read Luther 1518, received religious power and moral depth from him, received his doctrine of the Lord's Supper from C. H. Hoen* ca. 1523, attacked Luther's position 1524. Union of pope and emp. against evangelicals was in evidence at the 1529 Diet of Speyer.* In defense, Philip* of Hesse and Zwingli tried to build a pol. alliance bet. Swiss and Saxon ev. forces and to that end to remove doctrinal differences at the Colloquy of Marburg (see also Lutheran Confessions, A 2). Luther there gave Zwingli and his followers “the hand of peace and charity” but could not agree with them on the question of the Real Presence (see also Grace, Means of, IV 3).

Luther, Descendants of.

Contemporary descendants of M. Luther* (called Lutherides, or Lutherids) are traced through his son Paul and daughter Margaret; see also Luther, Family Life of. Many are in the US. With great-great-grandson Martin Gottlob Luther, attorney in Dresden, the family name died out November 3, 1759.

O. Sartorius, Die Nachkommenschaft D. Martin Luthers in vier Jahrhunderten (Verlag der Lutheriden-Vereinigung, Göttingen, 1926); Dennis A. Kastens, “Luther's Line in America,” The Lutheran Witness, CIII (October 1984), 374–376.

Luther, Family Life of.

Leon[h]ard Koppe of Torgau helped some nuns escape from the cloister of Marienthron at Nimbschen, near Grimma, and brought 9 to Wittenberg in spring 1523. M. Luther* returned some to their former homes, placed the rest in good families; married 1 of them, Katharina von Bora (Katherine; 1499–1552; b. Saxony; Cistercian nun 1515–23), June 13, 1525. Katharina was a good wife and capable manager. Their children: (1) Johannes (Hans; June 7, 1526–October 27, 1575; studied law; employed in Weimar chancellory as adviser); (2) Elisabeth (Elizabeth; December 10, 1527–August 3, 1528); (3) Magdalene (Magdalena; May 4, 1529–September 20, 1542); (4) Martin (November 9, 1531–March 2[3?], 1565; studied theol. but never occupied a pulpit); (5) Paul (January 28, 1533–March 8, 1593; physician in several courts); (6) Margaret(a) (Margarethe; December 17, 1534–1570; m. Georg von Kuhnheim [or Kunheim] August 5, 1555). The letter Luther wrote 1530 from the Coburg to his oldest son (“Hänsichen”) is unique in literature (see also Richter, Adrian Ludwig).

Luther was an extremely fond father, but a strict disciplinarian. As a rule he fared frugally. On festivals he enjoyed a good dinner. He took relatives into his home; students and many others enjoyed his hospitality. His table talk (see Luther, Table Talk of) was recorded by various guests and later pub.

Luther, Hymns of.

When the Luth. Reformation* began, corporate worship included no singing by the common people. In harmony with M. Luther's* enunciation of the doctrine of spiritual priesthood, a need for hymn texts and tunes for cong. singing arose. The Luth. chorale* is one of Luther's gifts to Christendom. It is hard to say with final authority which hymn texts Luther wrote and for which he composed the music. Some of his hymns are apparently wholly original. As to text, some are original additions to 1 or more existing stanzas; some are poetic forms of Bible passages; some are translations or adaptations of extant material. As to music, some melodies are ascribed to him, e.g., the one for “Jesaia, dem Propheten” (“Isaiah, Mighty Seer”) and “Ein* feste Burg” (“A Mighty Fortress”); in other cases he adopted and/or adapted extant melodies; for others he requested contributions of other composers. Early Luth. hymnals appeared 1524: Etlich christlich lider, also known as Achtliederbuch, ascribes the hymn “Nun freut euch, lieben Christen gmein” to Luther; Enchiridion (2 eds.) includes 18 hymns ascribed by many to Luther; Geystliche gesangk Buchleyn, designed for choir use, includes 24 hymns ascribed by many to Luther. +

Hymns ascribed to Luther include “Ach Gott vom Himmel, sieh darein” (“O Lord, Look Down from Heaven, Behold”); 'All Ehr' und Lob soil Gottes sein” (“All Glory Be to God Alone”); “Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir” (“From Depths of Woe I Cry to you”); “Christ lag in Todesbanden” (“Christ Jesus Lay in Death's Strong Bands”); “Dies sind die heil'gen zehn Gebot” (“That Man a Godly Life Might Live”); “Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott” (“A Mighty Fortress Is Our God”); “Erhalt uns, Herr, bei deinem Wort” (“Lord, Keep Us Steadfast in Your Word”); “Es woll' uns Gott genädig sein” (“May God Embrace Us with His Grace”); “Gelobet sei'st du. Jesu Christ” (“We Praise, O Christ, your Holy Name”); “Gott der Vater steh' [wohn'] uns bei” “Triune God, Oh, Be Our Stay”); “Gott sei gelobet und gebenedeiet” (“O Lord, We Praise you”); “Jesaia, dem Propheten, das geschah” (“Isaiah, Mighty Seer, in Spirit Soared”); “Komm, Heiliger Geist, Herre Gott” (“Come, Holy Ghost, God and Lord”); “Mit Fried' und Freud' ich fahr dahin” (“In Peace and Joy I Now Depart”); “Mitten wir im Leben sind” (“In the Very midst of Life”); “Nun bitten wir den Heiligen Geist” (“To God the Holy Spirit Let Us Pray”); “Vater unser im Himmelreich” (“Our Father, Who from Heaven Above”); “Vom Himmel hoch, da komm' ich her” (“From Heaven Above to Earth I Come”); “Vom Himmel kam der Engel Schar” (“To Shepherds as They Watched by Night”); “Wär Gott nicht mit uns diese Zeit” (“If God Had Not Been on Our Side”); “Wir glauben all' an einen Gott” (“We All Believe in One True God”).

See also “Away in a Manger”; Music, Church.

Martin Luthers geistliche Lieder, ed. K. E. P. Wackernagel (Stuttgart, 1848); F. Spitta, “Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott”: Die Lieder Luthers in ihrer Bedeutung für das evangelische Kirchenlied (Göttingen, 1905); W. E. Buszin, “Luther on Music,” The Musical Quarterly, XXXII (January 1946), 80–97; P. Nettl, Luther and Music, tr. F. Best and R. Wood (Philadelphia, 1948); Dr. Martin Luther's deutsche geistliche Lieder, Ger. and Eng., ed. L. W. Bacon and N. H. Allen (New York, 1883); B. Pick, Luther's Battle Song (New York, 1917); G. K. Wolfram, Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott (Berlin, 1936); Luther's Works, Am. ed., LIII, ed. H. T. Lehmann and U. S. Leupold (Philadelphia, 1965), 189–334.

Luther, Liturgies of.

At the urging of N. Hausmann,* M. Luther* in December 1523 pub. Formula missae et communionis pro ecclesia Vuittembergensi, an account of the ev. mass which omitted the sacrifice of the mass. It included Introit; Kyrie; Gloria in excelsis; Collect; Epistle; Gradual and/or Hallelujah; Gospel; Nicene Creed; Sermon; Preface; Consecration; Sanctus (including elevation of the elements during the Benedictus for the sake of the weak); Lord's Prayer; Pax; Distribution during Agnus Dei (the pastor communicating first himself and then the cong.); Collect; Benedicamus; Benediction; all in Lat., except sermon in the vernacular; vernacular hymns also to be included.

Multiplication of Ger. masses led to demand for a standard order of service. On October 29, 1525, Luther's 1st completely Ger. mass was held in Wittenberg; it was fully introd. December 25, 1525, and appeared in print 1526 as Deudsche Messe und ordnung Gottis diensts. Included: Hymn or Ps, Kyrie, Collect, Epistle, Hymn, Gospel, versified Creed, Sermon, paraphrase of the Lord's Prayer and admonition to communicants, Consecration and distribution of bread, Ger. Sanctus (“Jesaia, dem Propheten, das geschah”) or Hymn, Consecration and distribution of wine, Ger. Agnus Dei (“Christe, du Lamm Gottes”) or Hymn, Collects, Aaronic benediction.

Luther also prepared liturgies for occasional services (see Baptism, Liturgical, 3; Marriage Liturgy).

See also Chant; Liturgics.

Luther's Works, Am. ed., LIII, ed. H. T. Lehmann and U. S. Leupold (Philadelphia, 1965), 3–188; WA 12, 31–37; 19, 44–113.

Luther, Martin

(November 10, 1483–February 18, 1546). “Doctor biblicus”; Father of Protestantism; founder of Lutheranism; b. and d. Eisleben, Ger.

1. Information on ancestry is limited. Family name variously spelled, e.g., Chlotar, Luder, Ludher, Luder, Lauther, Lutter. The ancestral lands were at Möhra, near Eisenach, Thuringia. Luther's grandparents, Heine and Margarethe (nee Lindemann) Luder, had 4 sons. The oldest, Gross-Hans (“Big Hans”), married Margarethe Ziegler (some say Lindemann) and moved to Eisleben, at the E foot of the lower Harz mountains, to become a miner. Their oldest son was bap. Martin on November 11, St. Martin's Day, in nearby St. Peter's Ch. The family moved to Mansfeld 1484; industry and thrift improved their circumstances; by 1491 Hans Luther had become an influential citizen.

2. M. Luther's childhood was that of a normal RC boy in a burgher home. His father wanted him to become a lawyer and sent him to 3 preparatory schools (in Mansfeld, Magdeburg, and Eisenach). In Mansfeld he received training preparatory to academy work. It was probably in Magdeburg, under instruction of the Brethren* of the Common Life at the Cathedral School, that he first saw a (Lat.) Bible. in Eisenach he fortunately moved in the Schalbe-Cotta family circles, where he seems to have roomed at the Cottas (see Cotta, Ursula) and boarded at the Schalbes, whose son he tutored. Both families were very devout. A frequent guest was Johann Braun, vicar at St. Mary's Ch. and in charge of the Franciscan monastery at the foot of the Wartburg, a castle near Eisenach; around him gathered a group of young people interested in music and poetry.

3. In spring 1501 Luther entered the U. of Erfurt, which had ca. 2,000 students (see also Trutvetter, Jodocus). In May 1505 he entered the Erfurt Law School; obtained a copy of Corpus* iuris canonici to aid his studies. Then, quite unexpectedly, July 17, 1505, he entered the Black Cloister of the local Augustinian* Hermits (their black garb gave it its name). Later he often spoke of a severe thunderstorm which had wrung from him a prayer to St. Anne and a vow to become a monk.

4. Luther did not find peace of mind and soul in the monastery, but he determined to keep his vows. He was ordained priest in spring 1507, celebrated his 1st mass May 2, 1507, in presence of his father, other relatives, and many friends. He continued his studies 1507–12, acquiring the degrees of Biblicus (or lector), Formatus, Sententiarius, and ThD The more he studied medieval theol. and the more he became involved in the labyrinth of scholasticism,* the more confused he became. The main problem which disturbed him: How may I render God gracious to my soul?

5. Luther was called to Wittenberg 1508 to teach moral philos. He was recalled to Erfurt 1509, perhaps to assist his old Augustinian teacher Johannes Nathin (15th–16th c.) instruct novitiates. In November 1510 Luther and another monk set out on foot for Rome to help settle some matters pertaining to the Augustinian Order. They reached Rome January 1511. The pope was in Romagna. All cardinals except 2 were absent. Few relic chambers were open. Luther was shocked by the worldliness of some of the It. clergy. He climbed the Scala Sancta (see Lateran), praying for his grandparents.

6. Shortly after his return to Ger. he was recalled to the U. of Wittenberg, where he was trained to succeed John Staupitz in the chair of lectura in Biblia as soon as he had earned the doctorate, which was awarded October 18–19, 1512 (see also Frederick III [1463–1525]). While lecturing on Gn, Ps, Rm, Gl, and Heb 1512–18, Luther evolved from a scholastic theol. to a Biblical humanist. Probably in fall 1514, while lecturing on Ps 71, he discovered the key to the entire Bible in the principle of “justification by faith.” He did not fully understand all its implications but realized that he had found the “Gate to Paradise” (WA 54, 186). In course of time he won the whole U. faculty to his point of view. By 1517 the school was becoming a center of Biblical humanism.

7. The “New Theol.,” which was Christocentric and stressed sola* Scriptura, was too dynamic to leave the RC Ch. unaffected. Conflict with traditional scholastic theol. was unavoidable; it began in connection with sale of indulgences.* Luther posted notice of a debate on the school bulletin board (N door of the Castle Ch.) October 31, 1517, listing 95 theses (see Theses, Ninety-Five, of Luther) for discussion. He hoped that an academic debate would clarify the subject of indulgences and determine the position the U. should adopt toward the practice. The theses were in Lat. because that was the academic language of the day. For some unknown reason the debate was never held. But the subject was timely. The theses rapidly spread through Ger. Many agreed with Luther's stand. Financial returns from indulgence sales in Ger. were greatly reduced.

8. This financial loss brought immediate reaction from J. Tetzel,* indulgence salesman in Luther's territory, from Tetzel's fellow Dominicans, and from Albert* of Brandenburg, who was hoping thus to pay his “fee” for appointment as abp. Mainz, which made him holder of 3 ch. positions simultaneously. All these brought pressure to bear on the pope to silence Luther.

9. The processus inhibitorius (Lat. “process of inhibiting”), the RC church's way of silencing its critics, was set in motion. The Augustinian Order was instructed to discipline its recalcitrant mem. But at the Heidelberg* Disputation, April 1518, Luther won many new friends; instead of reprimanding him, the Order asked him to write an elaboration of his original 95 theses.

10. Under influence of the Saxon Dominican provincial, the fiscal procurator of Rome opened Luther's case, charging “suspicion of heresy.” In September 1518 Luther was summoned to appear at Augsburg before the papal legate Cajetan* (see also Augsburg Diet [1518]). Luther was willing to be convinced on the basis of Scripture that indulgences were Biblical. But the differences could not be reconciled. J. v. Staupitz* absolved Luther of the vow of obedience ca. the middle of October 1518. Cajetan recommended to Frederick III that Luther be either banished or surrendered to Rome.

11. On Luther's initiative the Wittenberg U. faculty sent a letter dated November 22, 1518, to Frederick III, attesting complete agreement with Luther's views. Upon this statement of Luther's case and the advice of his court, Frederick III; refused to surrender Luther to Rome before he had been proved a heretic by a neutral tribunal. Luther hoped for solution by a gen. council.

12. RCs connected with the case include K. v. Miltitz* and J. Eck,* the latter known esp. for his part in the Leipzig* Debate 1519. First hopeful of cleansing the ch. of error, Luther began to realize that no reformation of the existing body, permeated with error in head and mems., was possible.

13. After election of Charles* V 1519 Rome again turned its attention to the Luther case. The univs. of Louvain and Cologne had issued condemnations of Luther's theol. 1519. The bull Exsurge, Domine was drafted June 15, 1520: it gave Luther 60 days to recant and required all his writings to be burned. Tension mounted. At Wittenberg, Luther retaliated by burning the Canon* Law and the bull. Rome's reply was the bull of excommunication, Decet Romanum Pontificem, issued January 3, 1521. Considerable pressure was exerted on Charles to condemn Luther. After much pol. maneuvering, Charles summoned Luther to appear at the Diet of Worms* 1521. Luther resisted all efforts to persuade him to recant and privately and pub. reiterated that he could not recant unless convinced of error by Scripture. Lacking necessary support of Ger. princes to secure Luther's condemnation, Charles waited till the Diet had been dismissed, then in a rump session declared Luther a heretic and outlaw who could be killed on sight. Luther's prince, who left the Diet earlier because of illness, anticipated the outcome and arranged to have Luther placed in “protective custody” at the Wartburg.*

14. At the Wartburg Luther reexamined his position and clearly realized that reform of the existing ch. was impossible, that the only solution was a return to the practices and tenets of early Christianity. His Wartburg works include a Ger. NT (see Bible Versions, M).

15. In March 1522 Luther returned to Wittenberg against the wishes of his prince to quiet the confused situation which had developed there under the ill-considered leadership of A. R. B. v. Karlstadt* and G. Zwilling* (see also Luther, Controversies of, d). He preached a series of 8 sermons and began to reorganize ch. services. Hymn singing was introd. and the liturgy revised, providing greater participation by the cong. (see also Luther, Hymns of; Luther, Liturgies of).

16. Other works include the Large and Small Catechisms (see Catechisms, Luther's); postils (see Postil) providing sermon materials for the “emergency preachers” who filled pulpits made vacant by conversion of many congs from RCm to Lutheranism: a Ger. Bible (see Bible Versions, M); tracts; letters; treatises (see also Luther, Chief Writings of).

17. The pol. situation that followed the Diet of Worms was confused. The Edict of Worms* could not be enforced. New economic forces brought on other disturbances culminating in the Knights* Revolt and the Peasants* War. In both cases Luther's writings were misconstrued. When he called on forces of law and order to quell the revolt, he was accused by his enemies of turning against the peasants.

18. When the 1529 Diet of Speyer* nullified an earlier pronouncement permitting a prince to control religious affairs in his realm both factions prepared for violence. The rift which had developed among followers of Luther and those of H. Zwingli* divided Prot. forces. An attempt to resolve their differences at the Marburg Colloquy 1529 (see Luther, Controversies of, g; Lutheran Confessions, A 2) ended in agreement on all points but the Real Presence (see Grace, Means of, IV 3; Lutheran Confessions, A 2 [b]). Other attempts at reconciliation bet. RCs and Prots., include the 1530 Diet of Augsburg (see Lutheran Confessions, A). See also Lutheran Confessions, B 1–2.

19. Never a robust man and beset by many attacks of illness, Luther led an amazingly active and productive life. Late in 1545 he was asked to arbitrate a family quarrel among the princes of Mansfeld. Though old, ill, and loath to undertake an arduous journey of ca. 80 mi. from Wittenberg in winter, Luther went to Eisleben. Adjudicating the family quarrel proved hard. Besides, Luther preached 4 times and helped conduct several services. The quarrel was settled February 17, 1546. That evening Luther felt severe pains in the chest. Despite treatment he died early the following morning in presence of sons Martin and Paul (see Luther, Family Life of), 2 doctors, et al.

20. Testimony of the love and esteem with which he was regarded by the people was the homage given his mortal remains as the funeral cortege returned to Wittenberg, where his body was laid to rest in the Castle Ch. February 22, 1546. EGS

See also other entries beginning Luther …; Christian Church, History of the, III, 1; Pack, Otto von; Philip of Hesse; Psychology, F.; Reformation, Lutheran; Sachs, Hans.

A. H. Böhmer, Road to Reformation, tr. J. W. Doberstein and T. G. Tappert (Philadelphia, 1946) and Luther in Light of Recent Research, tr. C. F. Huth Jr. (New York, 1916); J. Mackinnon, Luther and the Reformation, 4 vols. (London, 1925–30); M. Reu, Luther's German Bible (Columbus, Ohio, 1934): P. Nettl, Luther and Music, tr. F. Best and R. Woods (Philadelphia, 1948); E. M. Plass, This Is Luther (St. Louis, 1948); E. G. Schwiebert, Luther and His Times (St. Louis, 1950); R. H. Bainton, Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther (New York, 1950); W. Dallmann, Martin Luther, rev. ed. (Saint Louis, 1951); P. Althaus, The Theology of Martin Luther, tr. R. C. Schultz (Philadelphia, 1966).

Luther, Works of, Editions of.

Ger. and Lat. (1) Wittenberg 1539–59, ed. G. Rörer, C. Cruciger the Elder, G. Major, C. Walther; 19 vols. (12 Ger., 7 Lat.) plus index vol.; reprint. repeatedly up to 1603. (2) Jena 1555–58, ed. G. Rörer et al.; 12 vols. (8 Ger., 4 Lat.) plus index vol. for the Ger. vols. by T. Kirchner 1564; reprint. several times in whole or in part up to 1615; Eisleben Supplement to Wittenberg and Jena eds., ed. J. Aurifaber, 2 vols. 1564–65, reprint. Leipzig 1603. (3) Altenburg 1661–64. ed. J. C. Sagittarius; 9 vols. (Ger.) plus index vol.; Halle Supplement vol. 1702, ed. J. G. Zeidler. (4) Leipzig 1729–34 and 1740, ed. J. G. Pfeiffer, C. F. Borner, and J. J. Greiff, 22 parts in 11 vols. plus appendix and index in 1 vol. (5) Walch 1 (Halle, 1740–53), ed. J. G. Walch; 22 vols. (Ger.) plus Luther biography and indexes, 2 vols.; enl. and repub. as St. Louis ed. (Walch 2; 1880–1910), 22 vols. plus index vol. (6) Erlangen (1826–86), ed. J. K. Irmischer and J. G. Plochmann; 65 vols. (Ger.) plus 2 index vols. and 38 vols. (Lat. in 3 series); vols. 1–20 and 24–26 repub. as Erlangen-Frankfurt ed. (1862–85), ed. E. L. Enders (Ger.). (7) Weimar (1883– ), begun by J. K. F. Knaake; pub. in 4 sections: Works, vols. 1–54 and 56–58 I (in 68 parts; vol. 55 projected for 2 parts); Tabletalk, 6 vols. (complete); Ger. Bible, vols. 1–12 (in 15 parts); Correspondence, vols. 1–11. (8) Editions of selected works: a. Braunschweig (1889–93), 3d ed. Leipzig 10 vols.; b. Bonn [Berlin] students' ed. (1912–33), vols. 1–4 6th ed. 1966–68, vols. 5–8 3d ed. 1962–66, ed. O. Clemen et al.; c. Munich eds. (1914–27; 1934–39; 1940 [suppl. vol. 1] and 1948–65); d. Luther Deutsch (Berlin, Stuttgart, and Göttingen, 1948–; some vols. in 2d and 3d ed.); e. Calwer (Stuttgart, 1930–40), 6 vols.; f. Volksbibliothek (St. Louis, 1859–76), 30 vols. in 15. Bibliographic keys and indexes comparing collation and contents of eds.: (1) and (2), S. Schwob, Register (Breslau, 1563; Wittenberg, 1564, 3d ed. 1573); (1)–(3), index of Altenburg ed.; (1)–(4), index of Leipzig ed.; (1)–(5), indexes of Walch 1; (5)–(6), index of Erlangen ed.; (5)–(8d), K. Aland et al., Hilfsbuch zum Lutherstudium, 3d ed. (Witten, Ger., 1970).

The two editions of Luther's works acceptable for serious scholarly work and citation of the original language Material are the Weimer and Bonn Editions.

English. (1) Cole (London, 1826), ed. H. Cole; 4 vols. (2) Lenker (Minneapolis, 1903–10), ed. J. N. Lenker; 13 vols. (3) Holman (Philadelphia, 1915–32), ed. H. E. Jacobs; 6 vols. (reprint. 1943). (4) Am. (St. Louis and Philadelphia, 1955– ), ed. J. Pelikan and H. T. Lehman; 55 vols., plus companion vol. (J. Pelikan, Luther the Expositor: Introduction to the Reformer's Exegetical Writings). Bibliographic keys and indexes comparing collation and contents of eds.: G. S. Robbert, “A Checklist of Luther's Writings in English,” CTM, XXXVI (December 1965), 772–792, and XLI (April 1970), 214–220; for (3) and (4), K. Aland et al., Hilfsbuch zum Lutherstudium, 3d ed. (Witten, Ger. 1970).

French. Geneva (1957– ). JAH

“Kurze Geschichte und Charakteristik aller Gesammtausgaben von Dr. M. Luther's Schriften,” Zeitschrift für Protestantismus und Kirche, XIX (1850), 43–59; Bibliotheca Lutherana (Nördlingen, Ger., 1883).


Term (adjective and noun) derived from the name M. Luther*; refers to his followers and to doctrines and practices of the Luth. Ch.; apparently 1st used ca. 1519 or in the early 1520s, but it may be impossible to determine exactly when and by whom (but first, apparently, by Luther's enemies). William Warham (ca. 1450–1532; b. Okeley, Hampshire, Eng.; educ. Winchester and Exford; abp. Canterbury 1504) used the term of followers of Luther 1521. Luther wrote 1522: “True, by any consideration of body or soul you should never say: I am Lutheran, or Papist. For neither of them died for you, or is your master.… But if you are convinced that Luther's teaching is in accord with the Gospel and that the pope's is not, then you should not discard Luther so completely.… It is on account of the teaching that they attack you and ask you whether you are Lutheran” (WA 10 II, 40). Ap XV 44 (Ger.): “The saving doctrine, the precious, holy Gospel, they call Lutheran.”

Lutheran Academy for Scholarship

(Academia Lutherana Philosophiae; Gk. acronym Alpha Lamda Phi). Assoc. organized March 1942 Chicago, Illinois Membership by invitation: patron, mem., fellow, award fellow. Purposes: to serve (1) as a means whereby professionally trained persons belonging to the Luth. Ch. may jointly confront and discuss the major problems of ch. and soc.; (2) as an instrument providing opportunity for the individual mem. of the Academy to contribute at his level of accomplishment to the thought and life of the Luth. Ch.; (3) as an instrument helping to preserve and develop the distinctive accents of Lutheranism within our pluralistic soc.; (4) as a means of creating opportunities to discuss and to formulate specific ethical concerns of the Luth. Ch. in various academic disciplines and in particular professions. Functions: (1) Pub. a quarterly journal, various symposia of proceedings from colloquies, institutes, assemblies, and conferences; (2) planning and implementation of nat. meetings designed to bring to the attention of selected groups of professional persons the nature and size of various issues of concern to both ch. and soc.; (3) joint work with appropriate bds. and commissions in raising and discussing matters of major concern to persons engaged in educ. coll. and grad. students; (4) selection of certain professions as areas meriting specific and concentrated investigation, analysis, and prescription.

R. Beese, “The First Quarter Century,” The Lutheran Scholar, XXVI (1969), 28–32, 45–61.

Lutheran Bible Institute, The,

Golden Valley, Minnesota Organized 1919 in St. Paul, Minnesota; moved to Minneapolis 1929, to Golden Valley (suburb 4 mi. W of downtown Minneapolis) 1961. See also Golden Valley Lutheran College; Lutheran Bible Institute of California; Lutheran Bible Institute of Seattle, The; Lutheran Bible Institute of Teaneck, New Jersey.

Lutheran Bible Institute of California

(formerly The California Luth. Bible School). Est. 1951 in Los Angeles by authorization of the bd. of trustees of The Lutheran Bible Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota; moved to Anaheim 1979. See also Affiliation of Lutheran Movement.

Lutheran Bible Institute of Seattle, The.

Began 1944 as a branch of The Lutheran Bible Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota; inc. by 1956; moved to Providence Heights, Issaquah, Washington, 1979. See also Affiliation of Lutheran Movements.

Lutheran Bible Institute of Teaneck New Jersey

Began 1948 as a branch of The Lutheran Bible Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota; issued in Luther Coll. of Teaneck 1968; ceased to function as a coll. 1978.

Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, Districts of The.

A. North America. Rapid growth soon called for division of the syn. into districts. Great distances, poor traveling facilities, and great expenses of annual conv. trips strained the resources of congs., pastors, and teachers and interfered with full attendance. The problem was noted already by the 1848 conv., but decision was deferred till the convs. of 1852–54, when the syn. was divided into 4 districts (Western, Central, Northern, and Eastern), these to meet 2 yrs. in succession separately and the 3d yr. in gen. conv. (districts 1855 and 1856, gen. conv. 1857, etc.), and dist. meetings as ne-nessary concurrent with gen. convs.

In course of time the original 4 districts were divided, and the no. of districts in North America grew to 38 (as of 1982), including 3 in Can. (Alberta-British Columbia, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, and Ontario).

Districts, with par. nos. in this section:

Alberta and British Columbia
California and Nevada
California and Oregon
Central Illinois
Iowa East
Iowa West
Manitoba and Saskatchewan
Minnesota North
Minnesota South
Minnesota and Dakota
Nebraska (old)
Nebraska (new)
New England
New Jersey
North Dakota
North Dakota and Montana
North Wisconsin
3, 6
Northern Illinois
Northern Nebraska
Oregon and Washington
South Dakota
South Wisconsin
Southern California
Southern Illinois
Southern Nebraska

1. Western Dist. (Missouri, Illinois, Louisiana). Pres.: G. A. Schieferdecker* 1854–57, J. M. G. Schaller* 1857–63, J. F. Bünger* 1863–75, F. J. Biltz* 1875–91, C. C. Schmidt* 1891–98, Paul Theodore Roesener 1898–1901, John Jacob Bernthal 1901–19, J. H. C. Fritz* 1919–20, Ludwig Friedrich Brust (Acting Pres.) 1920–21, R. T. Kretzschmar* 1921–39, Paul F. Koenig 1939–45, Elfred L. Roschke 1945–51, T. A. Weinhold 1951–57, George W. Wittmer 1957–59, W. J. Stelling 1959–63, Kurt W. Biel 1963–66.

Out of the W. Dist. were carved the Illinois Dist. (see 5) 1874, the Iowa Dist. (see 8) 1878/79, the Nebraska Dist. (see 13) and the Southern Dist. (see 14) 1881/82, the Kansas Dist. (see 15) and the California and Oregon Dist. (see 16) 1887. The W. Dist. divided 1965/66 to form the Missouri Dist. (see 45) and the Mid-South Dist. (see 46).

2. Central Dist. (Ohio and Indiana). Pres.: W. Sihler* 1854–60, H. C. Schwan* 1860–78, W. S. Stubnatzy* 1878–80, J. H. Niemann* 1880–1909, John H. Wefel 1909–15, William E. Moll 1915–19, J. Adam Schmidt 1919–20, John Dietrich Matthius 1920–27, W. F. Lichtsinn 1927–47, J. H. Meyer 1947–51, Ottomar Krueger 1951–63. The dist. divided 1962/63 to form the Indiana Dist. (see 42) and the Ohio Dist. (see 41).

3. Northern Dist. (Michigan and Wisconsin). Pres.: O. Fuerbringer* 1854–72, J. A. Hügli 1872–75. The N. Dist. divided 1874/75; part retained the old name (see 6), the other part was called Northwestern Dist. (see 7).

4. Eastern Dist. (New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and D. C.; later Ont.). Pres.: E. G. W. Keyl* 1854–69, C. Gross* 1869–75, J. P. Beyer* 1875–88, P. Brand* 1888–99, Herman Henry Walker 1899–1915, Franz (Francis) Carl Verwiebe 1915–21 and 1931–38, William Broecker 1921–28, J. K. E. Horst 1928–31, Oscar Adelbert Sauer 1938–39, Paul Fretthold 1939–45, Charles A. Behnke 1944–55, Eric Carl Malte 1955–58, Gustav M. Karkau 1958–66, Herman R. Frincke 1966–. The Eastern Dist. transferred Ont. to the Northern Dist. (see 6) 1874, divided 1906 (part retained the old name, the other part was called Atlantic Dist. [see 20]).

5. The Illinois Dist., carved out of the Western Dist. (see 1) 1874, held its 1st conv. 1875. Pres.: H. Wunder* 1875–91, ???H. H. Succop* 1891–1903, Herman Engelbrecht Sr. 1903–07. The dist. divided 1907/08 to form the N. Illinois Dist. (see 22), Cen. Illinois Dist. (see 23), and S. Illinois Dist. (see 24). See also Illinois, Evangelical Lutheran Synod of, b.

6. The reorganized Northern Dist. (see 3) included Michigan and Ont. (the latter transferred from the Eastern Dist.) and held its 1st conv. 1875. Pres.: O. Fuerbringer* 1875–82. The Can. Dist. (see 9) was carved out of the Northern Dist. 1878/79. The Northern Dist. changed name to Michigan Dist. (see 10) 1881.

7. Northwestern Dist. (not to be confused with the later Northwest Dist.; see 18), formed when the Northern Dist. divided (see 3), included Wisconsin and Minnesota and held its 1st conv. 1875. Pres.: C. J. A. Strasen* 1875–82. The Northwestern Dist. divided 1882/82 to form the Wisconsin Dist. (see 11) and the Minn. and Dakota Dist. (see 12).

8. Iowa Dist., carved out of the Western Dist. (see 1) 1878/79, held its 1st conv. 1879. Pres.: J. Lorenz Crämer 1879–88, Philipp Studt 1888–91, Ludwig Friedrich Brust 1891–94, Ernst Zürrer 1909–09, A. D. Greif 1909–14, Theodore Wolfram 1914–27, Herman A. Harms 1927–36. Then the dist. divided into Iowa East Dist. (see 36) and Iowa West Dist. (see 37).

9. Canada Dist. (name changed to Ontario Dist. 1923), carved out of the Northern Dist. (see 6) 1878/79, held its 1st conv. 1879. Pres.: J. A. Ernst* 1879–81, C. F. (W.) Hochstetter* 1881–83, Frederick Dubpernell 1883–87, G. F. Bente* 1887–93, Johannes Wilhelm Weinbach 1893–1906, C. W. G. Eifrig* 1906–09, William Carl Boese 1909–18, Paul Karl Graupner 1918–19, Reinhard Eifert Sr. 1919–21, Frank Paul Edmund Malinsky 1921–48, Walter Oscar Rathke 1948–60, Philip Fiess 1960–70, Albin Stanfel 1970–.

10. The Northern Dist. (see 3 and 6) changed name to Michigan Dist. 1881. Pres.: M. J. Schmidt* 1882–91, Gustav Ernst Spiegel 1891–1912, T. E. W. Engelder* 1912–14, Emanuel August Mayer 1915–24, John Jacob Frederick Schinnerer 1924–42, Andrew Zeile 1942–57, W. Harry Krieger 1957–65, Edwin C. Weber 1965–69, Richard L. Schlecht 1969–.

11. The Minnesota and Dak. Dist. (see 12) was carved out of the Northwestern Dist. (see 7) 1881/82. The remainder was called Wisconsin Dist. and held its 1st conv. as such 1882. Pres.: C. J. A. Strasen* 1882–85, Henry F. Sprengeler 1885–91, J. H. Herzer* 1891, Bernhard Carl Ludwig Sievers 1892–94, John Conrad Strasen (son of C. J. A. Strasen) 1894–1900, Claus (Klaus) Seuel 1900–06, Samuel William Herman Daib 1906–16. Then the dist. divided to form the N. Wisconsin Dist. (see 28) and S. Wisconsin Dist. (see 27).

12. Minnesota and Dakota Dist., formed 1881/82, when the Northwestern Dist. divided (see 7), held its 1st conv. 1882. Pres.: E. O. Cloter* 1882–85, Frederick J. Sievers 1885–91, F. Pfotenhauer* 1891–1908, Henry Schulz 1908–12, Franz Robert Koehler 1912–18, J. H. W. Meyer* 1918–30, Henry Jansen Bouman 1931–33, Johann Christoph Ludwig Meyer 1933–42, Robert Gottfried Heyne 1942–48, Hugo A. Gamber 1948–57, Ernst H. Stahlke 1957–63.

The South Dakota Dist. (see 21) was carved out of the Minnesota and Dak. Dist. 1905/06; the remainder continued using the name Minnesota and Dak. District. The North Dakota and Montana Dist. (see 25) was carved out of the Minnesota and Dak. Dist. 1910. The Minnesota and Dak. Dist. changed name to Minnesota Dist. 1912. The Alta. and B. C. Dist. (see 30) and the Man. and Sask. Dist. (see 31) branched off of the Minnesota Dist. 1920. The Minnesota Dist. divided 1962/63 to form the Minnesota N. Dist. (see 43) and the Minnesota S. Dist. (see 44).

13. Nebraska Dist. (not to be confused with the later Nebraska Dist.; see 47), was carved out of the Western Dist. (see 1) 1881/82, held its 1st conv. 1882. Pres.: J. Hilgendorf* 1882–1900, Carl Henry Becker 1900–15, C. F. Brommer* 1915–22. Then the dist. divided to form the S. Nebraska Dist. (see 32) and the N. Nebraska Dist. (see 33).

14. Southern Dist. (Texas, Louisiana, and adjoining states), carved out of the W. Dist. (see 1) 1881/82, held its 1st conv. 1882. Pres.: Timotheus Stiemke 1882–88, Gotthilf Heinrich Wilhelm Birkmann 1888–91, Gottfried Johann Wegener 1891–1927, Martin W. H. Holls 1927–54, Paul W. Streufert 1954–57, Edgar Homrighausen 1957–69, Lothar Kleinhans 1969–70, John E. Ellermann 1970–.

The Texas Dist. (see 19) was carved out of the S. Dist. 1905/06, the Florida-Georgia Dist. (see 40) 1947/48.

15. Kansas Dist. (Kansas and Colorado), carved out of the W. Dist. (see 1) 1887/87, held its 1st conv. 1888. Pres.: Friedrich Pennekamp 1888–94, Carl (Karl: Charles) Hafner 1894–1906, Friedrich Christoph Droegemueller 1906–12, Theodore H. Juengel 1912–19, Carl Frederick Lehenbauer 1919–32, W. Mahler* 1932–39, Walter H. Meyer 1939–60, Arlen J. Bruns 1960–.

The Kansas Dist. divided 1920/21. Part retained the name Kansas Dist. and included Kansas, Oklahoma, and N. Mex.. The other part was called Colorado Dist. (see 29). The Oklahoma Dist. (see 34) was carved out of the Kansas Dist. 1923/24.

16. The Pacific Coast had been part of the W. Dist. (see 1) since 1860, when J. M. Bühler* settled in San Francisco, California. The California and Oregon Dist., carved out of the W. Dist. 1887, held its 1st conv. 1887. Pres.: J. M. Bühler* 1887–99. Then the dist. divided to form the California and Nevada Dist. (see 17) and the Oregon and Washington Dist. (see 18).

17. California and Nevada Dist., formed when the California and Oregon Dist. (see 16) divided 1899, held its 1st conv. 1900. Pres.: J. M. Bühler 1899–1901, George P. Runkel 1901–05, George A. Bernthai 1905–20, J. W. Theiss* 1920–24, Arthur Clemens Henry Brohm 1924–45, C. Fickenscher 1945–54, Arthur C. Nitz 1954–59, Paul E. Jacobs 1959–.

The S. California Dist. (see 35) was carved out of the California and Nevada Dist. 1929/30.

18. Oregon and Washington Dist. (Oregon, Washington, and Idaho), formed when the California and Oregon Dist. (see 16) divided 1899, held its 1st conv. 1899. Pres.: Henry August Carl Paul 1899–1903, W. Lüssenhop 1903–06, W. H. Behrens* 1906–09, Ludwig Frederick Emil Stuebe 1909–18, Johann Adam Rimbach 1918–21, Weert J. Janssen 1921–36, Frederick Max Leopold Nitz 1936–48, Carl H. Bensene 1948–70, Emil G. Jaech 1970–.

The Oregon and Washington Dist. changed name 1948 to Northwest Dist. (not to be confused with Northwestern Dist.; see 7).

19. Texas Dist., carved out of the S. Dist. (see 14) 1905/06, held its 1st conv. 1906. See also 29. Pres.: Adolf W. Kramer 1906–09, Charles A. Waech 1909–12, Gotthilf Heinrich Wilhelm Birkmann 1912–20, Henry Peter Studtmann 1920–26, J. W. Behnken* 1926–29, Constantin Martin Beyer 1929–42, Edwin A. Heckmann 1942–48, Oliver R. Harms 1948–50, Roland P. Wiederaenders 1950–59, Albert F. Jesse 1959–63, Carl A. Heckmann 1963–.

20. Atlantic Dist., formed when the E. Dist. (see 4) divided 1906, included the territory of the New York and New Eng. Conf., with the boundary line in New York passing bet. Utica and Rome; 1st conv. 1907. Pres.: E. C. L. Schulze* 1906–18, H. P. L. Birkner* 1918–30, A. J. Brunn* 1930–41, George Charles Koenig 1941–42, Herman John Rippe 1942–60, Karl Frank Graesser 1960–67, Rudolph P. F. Ressmeyer 1967–. The Atlantic Dist. divided 1971/72; part retained the old name, part was called New Eng. Dist. (see 50), part was called New Jersey Dist. (see 51).

21. South Dakota Dist., carved out of the Minnesota and Dak. Dist. (see 12) 1905/06, held its 1st conv. 1906. Pres.: August Frederick Breihan 1906–12, Johann Dietrich Ehlen 1912–18, Ernst Gottlieb Jehn 1918–21, Friedrich W. Leyhe 1921–36, Walter Nitschke 1936–51, Philip H. Mueller 1951–60, Elmer O. Luessenhop 1960–68, Leonard Eberhard 1968–70, Arthur J. Crosmer 1970–.

22. Northern Illinois Dist., formed when the Illinois Dist. (see 5) divided 1907/08, held its 1st conv. 1909. Pres.: Hermann Engelbrecht Sr. 1907–09, W. C. Kohn* 1909–13, Friedrich Heinrich Brunn 1913–27, Alex Ullrich 1927–36, Ernest Theodore Lares 1936–45, Arthur Henry Werfelmann 1945–60, Erwin L. Paul 1963–66, Edmund H. Happel 1966–.

23. Central Illinois Dist., formed when the Illinois Dist. (see 5) divided 1907/08, held its 1st conv. 1909. Pres.: F. Brand* 1907–17, Fred William Brockmann 1917–18, August Friedrich Wilhelm Heyne 1918–27, P. Schulz 1927–32, Philip Wilhelm 1932–33, Walter Ernest Hohenstein 1933–35, John Carl Schuelke 1935–42, Albert Otto Carl Bernthal 1942–48, Emil Frederick Tonn 1948–54, Alvin W. Mueller 1954–63, Lewis C. Niemoeller 1963–70, Rudolph A. Haak 1970–74, Arthur Kuehnert 1974–.

24. Southern Illinois Dist., formed when the Illinois Dist. (see 5) divided 1907/08, held its 1st conv. 1909. Pres.: Fred William Brockmann 1907–09, Ulfert Iben 1909–12, Johannes Gottlieb Frederick Kleinhans 1912–33, C. Thomas Spitz Sr. 1933–45, Erhard H. Bohrer 1945–46, Paul Juergensen 1946–47, Harry C. Welp 1947–57, Walter William Adolf Raedeke 1957–58, W. Theophil Janzow 1958–59, Alfred Buls 1959–67, Herman Neunaber 1967–.

25. North Dakota and Montana Dist., carved out of the Minnesota and Dak. Dist. (see 12) 1910, held its 1st conv. 1910. Pres.: Tietje Hinck 1910–24, Joseph Paul Klausler 1924–41, Albert Jordan 1941–42, Arnold Henry Grumm 1942–45.

The North Dakota and Montana Dist. divided 1944/45 to form the Montana Dist. (see 39) and the North Dakota Dist. Pres. of the latter: Arnold Henry Grumm 1945–50, Walter Henry Theodore Cordts 1950–54, Bernhard G. Mueller 1954–57, Lothar Karl Meyer 1957–61, Harold V. Huber 1961–65, John D. Fritz 1965–67, Alwin M. Reimnitz 1967–.

26. English Dist. (see also Missouri and Other States, The English Evangelical Lutheran Synod of) held its 1st conv. 1912. Pres.: Henry Philip Eckhardt* 1911–12, M. S. Sommer* 1912–15, John Adam Detzer 1915–18, O. C. Kreinheder* 1918–27, Guido R. Schuessler 1927–36, Paul Lindemann 1936–38, M. F. Walker* 1938–45, Herman William Bartels 1945–51, Hugo G. Kleiner 1951–63, Bertwin L. Frey 1963–70, John H. Baumgaertner 1970–74, Harold L. Hecht 1974–.

27. South Wisconsin Dist., formed when the Wisconsin Dist. (see 11) divided 1916, held its 1st conv. (25th in the Wisconsin Dist. series) 1918. Pres.: Edward Albrecht 1916–21, Henry John Andrew Grueber 1921–32, John Frederick Boerger 1932–36, Fred A. Schwertfeger 1936–48, Arthur H. Oswald 1948–53, Herbert W. Baxmann 1953–70, Karl L. Barth 1970–.

28. North Wisconsin Dist., formed when the Wisconsin Dist. (see 11) divided 1916, held its 1st conv. 1918. Pres.: Johann Gotthilf Schliepsiek 1916–18, Samuel William Herman Daib 1918–36, William Louis Kohn 1936–54, Lloyd H. Goetz 1954–74, Henry E. Simon 1974–.

29. Colorado Dist., formed 1920/21 when the Kansas Dist. (see 15) divided, included Colorado and Utah and held its 1st conv. 1921. In course of time the dist. came to include congs. in Page, Arizona; Venango, Nebraska; El Paso, Texas. N. Mex. (see 15) and the Texas Dist. congs. in southern N. Mex. became part of the Colorado Dist. 1941/42. Pres.: Otto Luessenhop 1921–30, Otto K. Hensel 1930–34, Frederick William Obermeier 1934–42, E. Julius Friedrich 1942–50, Henry G. Hartner 1950–54, Herbert H. Hellbusch 1954–60, Walter A. Enge 1960–66, Waldemar E. Meyer 1966–.

30. Alberta and British Columbia Dist. branched off of the Minnesota Dist. (see 12) 1920 and held its 1st conv. 1921. Pres.: August J. Mueller 1921–30, William C. Eifert 1930–51, Carl F. Baase 1951–60, Alfred F. Miller 1960–66, George Rode 1966–.

31. Manitoba and Saskatchewan Dist. branched off of the Minnesota Dist. (see 12) 1920 and held its 1st conv. 1922. Pres.: Paul E. Wiegner 1922–27, Christian T. Wetzstein 1927–30, John H. Lucht 1930–51, Leonard W. Koehler 1951–70, Philip Fry 1970–.

32. Southern Nebraska Dist., formed when the Nebraska Dist. (see 13) divided 1922, held its 1st conv. 1924. Pres.: C. F. Brommer* 1922–24, Wilhelm Heinrich Ferdinand Cholcher 1924–30, Herman Ernst Meyer 1930–36, A. J. C. Moeller* 1936–38, Iddo Charles Heinicke 1938–49, Arthur Frederick Wegener 1949–56, Henry F. Krohn 1956–60, Henry W. Niermann Sr. 1960–70. The S. Nebraska Dist. and the N. Nebraska Dist. (see 33) combined 1969/70 to form the new Nebraska Dist. (see 47).

33. Northern Nebraska Dist., formed when the Nebraska Dist. (see 13) divided 1922, included stations in Wyoming and held its 1st conv. 1924. Pres.: John Frederick William Harms 1922–33, Martin Eugene Mayer 1933–39, Walter E. Homann 1939–57, Frederick A. Niedner 1957–70. The N. Nebraska Dist. and the S. Nebraska Dist. (see 32) combined 1970 to form the new Nebraska Dist. (see 47).

34. Oklahoma Dist., carved out of the Kansas Dist.. (see 15) 1923/24, held its 1st conv. 1924. Pres.: Henry Mueller 1924–39, Carl R. Matthies 1939–40, Edward C. Hauer 1940–42, Paul J. Hartenberger 1942–43, Otto Henry Hoyer 1943–54, Alfred E. Behrend 1954–70, Harold Brockhoff 1970–.

35. Southern California Dist., carved out of the California and Nevada Dist. (see 17) 1929/30, held its 1st conv. 1930. Pres.: Gotthold Herman Friedrich Smukal 1930–42, Walter F. Troeger 1942–48, Armand Elmer T. Mueller 1948–55, Victor Louis Behnken 1955–69, Arnold G. Kuntz 1969–.

36. Iowa East Dist., formed when the Iowa Dist. (see 8) divided 1936, held its 1st conv. 1937. Pres.: Herman A. Harms 1936–38, Carl John Henry Hesse 1938–49, Walter D. Oetting 1949–63, Fred H. Ilten 1963–70, John C. Zimmermann 1970–.

37. Iowa West Dist., formed when the Iowa Dist. (see 8) divided 1936, held its 1st conv. 1937. Pres.: Adolph Schwidder 1936–45, Herbert W. Berner 1945–46, John Theodore Martin Hoemann 1946–48, Gustav W. Lobeck 1948–66, Ellis Nieting 1966–.

38. Southeastern Dist., formed 1938/39 in an area involving esp. the Eastern Dist. (see 4) and the Eng. Dist. (see 26) and including in gen. South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, D. C., and part of Georgia, held its 1st conv. 1939. Pres.: J. George Spilman 1939–45, Oscar Adelbert Saner 1945–48, Rudolph Stang Ressmeyer 1948–54, William H. Kohn 1954–59, Leslie F. Frerking 1959–63, William H. Kohn 1963–67, Martin C. Poch 1967–70, Charles S. Mueller 1970–.

39. Montana Dist., formed when the North Dakota and Montana Dist. (see 25) divided 1944/45, held its 1st conv. 1946. Pres.: Paul M. Freiburger 1945–66, August F. Droegemueller 1966–69, George F. Wollenburg 1969–.

40. Florida-Georgia Dist., carved out of the Southern Dist. (see 14) 1947/48, held its 1st conv. 1948. Pres.: Conrad F. Kellermann 1948–57, Frederick W. Lorberg 1957–63, August Bernthal 1963–74, L. Lloyd Behnken, 1974–.

41. Ohio Dist., formed when the Cen. Dist. (see 2) divided 1962/63, included part of Kentucky and W. Virginia and held its 1st conv. 1964. Pres.: Ottomar Krueger 1963–66, Paul G. Single 1966–69, Edgar M. Luecke 1969–70, Arthur H. Ziegler 1970–.

42. Indiana Dist., formed when the Cen. Dist. (see 2) divided 1962/63, included part of Kentucky and Ohio and held its 1st conv. 1964. Pres.: Edgar C. Rakow 1963–70, Elwood H. Zimmermann 1970–.

43. Minnesota North Dist., formed when the Minnesota Dist. (see 12) divided 1962/63, held its 1st conv. 1963. Pres.: Alfred C. Seltz 1963–70, August T. Mennicke 1970–.

44. Minnesota South Dist., formed when the Minnesota Dist. (see 12) divided 1962/63, held its 1st conv. 1963. Pres.: Ernest H. Stahlke 1963–66, Martin W. Lieske 1966–.

45. Missouri Dist., formed when the W. Dist. (see 1) divided 1965/66, held its 1st conv. 1968. Pres.: Herman C. Scherer 1966–.

46. Mid-South Dist., formed when the W. Dist. (see 1) divided 1965/66, includes Arkansas, Tennessee, and part of Kentucky and held its 1st conv. 1968. Pres.: Wilbert E. Griesse 1966–.

47. The new Nebraska Dist. (not to be confused with the earlier Nebraska Dist. [see 13]), formed 1969/70 by combination of the S. Nebraska Dist. (see 32) and the N. Nebraska Dist. (see 33), includes all Nebraska except the panhandle (the line of division approximately follows the 102d meridian); 1st conv. 1970. Pres.: Frederick A. Niedner 1970–.

B. South America.

1. Brazil. On invitation of a German Luth. missionary, the Mo. Syn. sent a miss., C. J. Broders,* to Brazil 1900; under his dir. a cong. was organized at Sâo Pedro, Rio Grande do Sul. W. Mahler* was sent 1901 as his successor and miss. dir. The Brazil Dist. held its 1st conv. 1904. Work expanded 1921 to the states of Santa Catarina and Paranà. Work was begun in the city of Rio de Janeiro 1929 and in the state of Espírito Santo 1931. Before WW II most work was done in Ger. War hysteria caused persecution in some areas. Port. replaced Ger. as the common language for ch. work.

Broders and others promoted parochial schools successfully. An institute for training pastors and teachers was est. 1903 at Bom Jesus, Sâo Lourenço, Rio Grande do Sul; it was closed 1905, reopened 1907 in Pôrto Alegre, where it was relocated 1921; now called Seminario Concordia. A teacher training school opened in S. Joâo Grande ca. 1947, moved to Baixo Guandu ca. 1951, closed ca. 1957. Instituto Conc. was est. for pretheological training at Rio de Janeiro 1957, moved to Sâo Paulo 1962; closed 1973.

Periodicals pub. by the Brazil Dist. included Evangelisch-Lutherisches Kirchenblatt für Süd-Amerika (since 1903); Mensageiro Luterano (“Lutheran Messenger”); Igreja Luterana; Em Marcha; O Jovem Luterano; O Pequeno Luterano. Pub. house: Casa Publicadora Concordia, Pôrto Alegre.

The Brazil Dist. divided 1926/27; part kept the name Brazil Dist., the other part was called Argentine Dist. (see 2). January 1, 1980, the Brazil Dist. became a partner ch. of the LCMS called Igreja Evangelica Luterana do Brasil (Ev. Luth. Ch. of Brazil), acronym IELB.

See also South America, 4.

2. Argentina. On invitation of a Ger. miss. who claimed to be Luth. and planned to return to Ger., W. Mahler* 1905 visited the area of Urdinarrain, a town with neighboring villages, in the province of Entre Rìos, ca. 250 mi. N of Buenos Aires. The Brazil Dist. served Luths. in Argentina from 1905 till the 1920s. The Argentine Dist., formed when the Brazil Dist. (see 1) divided 1926/27, held its 1st conv. 1928.

A few parochial schools were est. but were closed because of adverse school legislation. Various other agencies for religious educ of the young have been more successful. Colegio Conc., a pre theol. school, was est. 1926 at Crespo, Entre Rìos. Theo. training was given at Pôrto Alegre, Brazil, till 1942. when a seminary (now called Seminario Concordia) was established in rented quarters (moved 1948 to its own quarters) in Villa Ballester (Josè Leòn Snàrez since 1970), ca. 12 mi. NW of Buenos Aires. Colegio Conc., Crespo, was closed 1950 and its work amalgamated with the sem. in Villa Ballester. The facilities at Crespo were used 1950–63 for primary instruction, something on the order of a parochial school; then it closed. A preparatory school (called Colegio Conc. since ca. the early 1960s) was est. 1956 at Obera, Misiones.

Periodicals pub. by the Argentine Dist. include Evangelisch-Lutherischer Kirchenbote; El Luterano. WED

August 1, 1986, the Argentine Dist. became a partner ch. of the LCMS called Iglesia Evangelica Luterana Argentina (Ev. Luth. Ch. of Argentina).

See also South America, 1, 5, 8, 10.

Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, The.

Name adopted 1947 by the body of Luths. in Am. that had first been called Die Deutsche Evangelisch-Lutherische Synode von Missouri, Ohio und andern Staaten, 1917 adopted the name Die Evangelisch-Lutherische Synode von Missouri, Ohio und andern Staaten (The Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and Other States), and was often called “Missouri Synod” or simply “Missouri.”

I. Löhe Men.

1. The Mo. Syn. was organized Chicago, Illinois, Monday, April 26, 1847. Three meetings preceded: Cleveland, Ohio, September 1845 (cf. par. I 2); St. Louis, Missouri, May 1846 (cf. par. II 6); Fort Wayne, Indiana, July 1846 (cf. par. III 1).

2. At the Cleveland meeting several Löhe missionaries (Ger.: Sendlinge) withdrew from the Ohio Syn. (see Document of Separation).

3. Löhe men in Michigan included G. W. C. Hattstädt,* F. A. Crämer,* and G. E. C. F. Sievers.*

4. Löhe men in Fort Wayne included C. A. W. Röbbelen,* W. Sihler,* and C. L. A. Wolter.*

5. Other Löhe men included F. J. C. Lochner,* J. H. P. Graebner,* J. M. G. Schaller,* C. J. H. Fick,* E. A. Brauer.*

6. Löhe men helped organize the Mo. Syn. and were a strong element in its early hist. The 1st suggestion for a syn. including Saxons seems to have been made by J. A. Ernst* in a letter to C. F. W. Walther* early in 1845.

II. Saxons in Missouri.

1. Saxons under M. Stephan* the elder came to St. Louis and Perry Co., Missouri, 1839. Other pastors in the group: E. M. Bünger,* E. G. W. Keyl,* G. H. Löber,* C. F. W. Walther,* O. H. Walther.* Candidates included T. J. Brohm,* J. F. Bürger,* O. Fuerbringer,* C. L. Geyer,* J. J. Gönner,* G. A. Schieferdecker.* There were more than 600 persons on the 4 ships that arrived (Copernicus, Johann Georg, Republik, Olbers; ca. 57 were lost at sea with the Amalia). They were soon joined by a group from New York that had come to the US 1836 and by more than 100 from Saxe-Altenburg under T. C. F. Gruber.*

2. Within a few months after arrival in Missouri, Stephan was found guilty of moral turpitude and exiled. His views on ch. and ministry also raised questions regarding status of the immigrant congs., validity of the pastoral office in their midst, and efficacy of sacraments as administered among them.

3. The Altenburg* Debate clarified matters for the Perry Co. settlers April 1841. By that time, too, their physical conditions had improved.

4. Shortly after the Altenburg Debate, C. F. W. Walther became pastor of the St. Louis cong., which became the largest and dominant cong. among the Saxons. A log-cabin “college” was founded 1839 at Dresden, Perry Co., by J. F. Bünger, T. Brohm, O. Fuerbringer, and C. F. W. Walther; classes soon moved to Altenburg; became a preparatory school for pastors and a sem., with J. J. Gönner rector; see also Ministry, Education of, X E.

5. Under Walther's leadership the St. Louis cong. began pub. Der Lutheraner in September 1844, a medium of communication that brought the Saxons into contact with F. C. D. Wyneken* and Löhe men including W. Sihler and F. A. Crämer. The size and economic strength of this cong. contributed to the prominence it enjoyed.

6. The St. Louis cong. shared in preliminary drafting of the const. of the Mo. Syn. in the St. Louis meeting May 1846 (cf. par. I 1). Löhe men present: F. J. C. Lochner, W. Sihler, and J. A. Ernst. Saxons included C. F. W. Walther, O. Fuerbringer, J. F. Bünger, G. H. Löber, E. G. W. Keyl, T. C. F. Gruber.

See also Vehse, Carl Eduard.

III. Organization of the Mo. Syn.

1. The draft of the const. drawn up in St. Louis was discussed at a meeting in Fort Wayne in July 1846 (cf. par. I 1). 16 pastors and 5 candidates attended. Saxons included T. J. Brohm, G. H. Löber, C. F. W. Walther. Others included F. W. Husmann,* G. H. Jäbker,* and W. Sihler* from Indiana; J. G. Burger,* J. A. Detzer,* J. A. Ernst,* and P. J. Trautmann* from Ohio; F. A. Crämer* and G. W. C. Hättstadt* from Michigan; C. A. T. Selle* from Illinois The approved form of the const. was submitted to the congs. and pub. in Der Lutheraner, III, 1 (September 5, 1846).

2. The organization meeting was held Sunday, April 25–Thursday, May 6, 1847, in Chicago. 19 pastors attended; 12 (11 present, 1 absent) became voting mems.; 10 (6 present, 4 absent) became advisory mems.; 2 did not join. C. F. W. Walther was elected pres., W. Sihler vice-pres., F. W. Husmann secy., F. W. Barthel* (a St. Louis layman) treas. C. J. H. Fick was elected miss. committee chm. Der Lutheraner became property and official organ of the syn., which elected a pub. committee; C. F. W. Walther continued as ed. Steps were taken with a view to acquiring the schools at Altenburg, Missouri (see par. II 4), and Fort Wayne, Indiana (see Löhe, Johann Konrad Wilhelm), and the Löhe miss. among Indians at Frankenmuth, Michigan (see Crämer, Friedrich August; Indians, Lutheran Missions to North American). C. H. F. Frincke* was appointed Besucher (“visitor”; traveling missionary) to look up Luth. settlers needing services of the ch. The syn. was divided into 6 pastoral conferences.

3. A notable feature already of the 1st const. is a statement of reasons for forming a syn. organization. See also par. IV 1.

4. The syn. adopted as its confessional basis Holy Scripture of the OT and NT as the written Word of God and only rule and norm of faith and life, and all the Luth. confessions as the pure and unadulterated explanation and presentation of the divine Word.

5. The advisory character of syn. in regard to self-government of the individual cong. became a concern of the syn. from the outset (cf. 1847 Proceedings, p. 7; see also par. IV 5 below).

6. Conducting missions, operating educ. institutions for preprofessional ch. workers, certifying pastors and teachers, expanding the syn. territories, publishing ch. periodicals, and carrying on relations with other ch. bodies were matters that belonged to syn.

7. Each cong. was allowed representation in conventions by pastor and elected lay delegate.

IV. 1854 Const. Rev.

1. 1854 const. statement of reasons for forming a syn. organization: “(1) The example of the apostolic church (Acts 15:1–31). (2) The Lord's will that the diversities of gifts be used for the common profit (1 Co 12:4–31). (3) The joint extension of the kingdom of God and the establishment and promotion of special church enterprises (seminary, agenda, hymnal, Book of Concord, schoolbooks, Bible distribution, missionary endeavors within and without the church, etc.). (4) The conservation and promotion of the unity of the pure confession (Eph 4:3–6; 1 Co 1:10) and the common defense against schism and sectarianism. (Ro 16:17). (5) The protection and maintenance of the rights and duties of pastors and congregations. (6) The establishment of the largest possible uniformity in church government.” (Cf. Moving Frontiers, ed. C. S. Meyer [St. Louis, 19641, p. 149)

Syn. was divided into 4 geog. and administrative districts. The dist. pres. was given some functions originally assigned to the syn. pres., esp. that of visiting individual congs. The districts were charged with direct responsibility of maintaining correct doctrine and acceptable practices; overall supervision of doctrine and practice still belonged to the syn. pres. See also Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, Districts of The, A.

2. After 1854 the syn. conv. pattern was no longer annual but triennial. The districts met in each of the intervening yrs., and concurrently with the gen. conv. as necessary. Greater participation in gen. ch. matters and better administrative procedures were hoped for as results of the change.

3. Needs of spiritually neglected Luths. in its territory were made concerns of each dist. Conditions were specified under which a dist. could supply a pastor for a mixed cong., i. e., one consisting of Luths., Ref., and so-called Evangelicals or United (Ger. Uniert). (1854 Const., V A 10–11)

4. The 1854 const. continued arrangements for bds. of control of the 2 institutions of higher learning, 1 bd. of electors for choosing professors at these schools, and 2 examining commissions for colloquizing ministerial candidates not trained by the 2 schools.

5. Relation bet. syn. and mem. congs. was defined: “Synod is in respect to the self-government [Selbstregierung] of the individual congregations only an advisory body. Therefore no resolution of the former, when it imposes anything upon the individual congregation as a synodical resolution, has binding force for the latter.—Such a synodical resolution has binding force only when the individual congregation through a formal congregational resolution has voluntarily adopted and confirmed it.—Should a congregation find a synodical resolution not in conformity with the Word of God or unsuited for its circumstances, it has the right to disregard, that is, to reject it.” (1854 Const., Chap. IV A 9; Moving Frontiers, p. 151)

V. Planting, 1847–87.

1. The 1st period of Mo. Syn. hist. extends from its founding 1847 to the death of C. F. W. Walther 1887.

2. This period was dominated by the personality of Walther, syn. pres. 1847–50, 1864–78. The Gesamtgemeinde (“whole parish”) in St. Louis, of which Walther was chief pastor, grew to 4 congs. (Trinity 1839, Immanuel 1847, Holy Cross 1858, Zion 1860) and was the most influential parish in synod. Conc. Sem. moved to St. Louis 1849. Walther was its pres. 1854–87. He ed. Der Lutheraner 1844–65; ed. Lehre und Wehre (professional journal for pastors) from its beginning 1855 to 1860, coed. 1861–64. He was the outstanding preacher, writer, and theol. in the synod. F. C. D. Wyneken, syn. pres. 1850–64, was primarily concerned with planting new congs. During his tenure the syn. divided into 4 districts (see IV 1–3). See also Stephan, Martin, Jr.

3. In 1872 the syn. adopted the delegate pattern, acc. to which congs. in groups of 2–7 elected a pastor and a layman to represent them at the triennial conv.; the 1st delegate syn. met 1874. Growth continued. H. C. Schwan* was syn. pres. 1878–99.

4. The syn. gained many mems. by miss. work among immigrants. See also Immigrant and Emigrant Missions.

5. Many parochial schools, often taught by a pastor, were est. Esp. in large cities they attracted many non-Luths., usually Ger. The syn. produced textbooks. Part-time agencies (e.g., summer schools; Saturday schools) were also used. Instruction before confirmation* and Communion was emphasized (see also Catechetics, 11).

6. A private “teachers' sem.” opened Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1855 by F. J. C. Lochner,* P. Fleischmann,* et al. In 1857 the syn. adopted it and moved it to Fort Wayne, Indiana, and united it with the theol. sem. there (see Löhe, Johann Konrad Wilhelm). In 1864 it moved to Addison, Illinois; to River Forest, Illinois, 1913; 1915 charter name: Conc. Teachers Coll.; name change 1979 to Conc. Coll.; became Conc. U. January 1. 1990. See also Concordia University System; Ministry, Education of, VIII B; Stephan, Martin, Jr.

7. The Ft. Wayne theol. sem. moved to Saint Louis 1861, to Springfield, Illinois, 1875, to Ft. Wayne 1976. The Gymnasium conducted in conjunction with the St. Louis sem. (see Ministry, Education of, VI C; X E) moved to Ft. Wayne 1861. In 1881 preparatory schools were begun in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and NYC The NYC school moved to Hawthorne (other names: Sherman Park, Unionville, Neperan), New York 1894, to Bronxville, New York, 1908–10. The Milwaukee school came under the control of the Mo. Syn. 1887, the Bronxville school 1896. In 1896 the syn. also assumed control of St. Paul's Coll., begun 1884 in Concordia, Missouri See also Ministry, Education of, VIII B, C 2.

8. Educational leaders included A. F. T. Biewend,* J. C. W. Lindemann,* G. Schick,* C. A. T. Selle.*

9. F. A. Brunn* of Steeden, Nassau, Ger., sent students to receive coll. and sem. training in the US 1862–86.

10. Efforts were directed also toward work in English. A. F. T. Biewend and C. H. R. Lange* lectured in English. The Eng. Ev. Luth. Conf. of Missouri was organized 1872, reorganized 1888, renamed 1891 The Eng. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Missouri* and Other States, became the Eng. Dist. of the Mo. Syn. 1911 (see Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, Districts of The, A 26).

11. Syn. and dist. convs., the twice-yearly pastoral conferences, and more frequent smaller conferences gave doctrinal discussions priority. Walther's writings were largely doctrinal; his work on pastoral theol., e.g., was grounded in systematic theol. Doctrinal preaching was emphasized. Ch. periodicals featured doctrinal articles. C. Löber,* Evangelisch-Lutherische Dogmatik, and Walther's ed. of J. W. Baier,* Compendium, were widely used. C. F. (W.) Hochstetter,* Die Geschichte der Evangelisch-lutherischen Missouri-Synode in Nord-Amerika, und ihrer Lehrkämpfe, told chiefly about doctrinal controversies.

12. Beginning 1840 the Saxon theologians differed with J. A. A. Grabau* esp. on the doctrine of the ministry (see also Buffalo Synod, 2–5). Difference regarding ch. and ministry led to a break 1853 bet. the Mo. Syn. and Löhe and to controversy with the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Iowa* and Other States. Most severe was the Predestinarian* Controversy (see also VI 1). Polemics against W. Nast,* a Ger. Meth., were sustained.

13. Because of the movement known as American* Lutheranism, Walther issued a call for free* Luth. confs. Four were held: Columbus, Ohio, 1856; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1857; Cleveland, Ohio, 1858; Fort Wayne, Indiana, 1859.

14. Fraternal relations were est. 1857 with The Norw. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. (see Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 8) on the latter's initiative. P. L. Larsen* taught at Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1859–61. Norw. students attended the St. Louis sem.

15. A colloquy was held with the Buffalo* Syn. 1866 (see Buffalo Colloquy). The Mo. Syn. was represented 1866 at the Reading, Pennsylvania, conv. which preceded organization of the General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (N) Am.; it did not join the Gen. Council. A colloquy was held 1868 with the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States, on the latter's initiative, at Columbus, Ohio; it led to fellowship 1872. Agreement was reached with the Wisconsin* Syn. 1869, the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Illinois* 1872. See also Synodical Conference, 1.

16. A meeting was held 1871 in Fort Wayne, Indiana, which led 1872 to organization of the Synodical* Conf., of which Walther was 1st pres.

VI. Conservation, 1887–1932.

1. The Syn. Conf. suffered severe losses as result of the predestinarian* controversy; the Ohio Syn. withdrew in bitter opposition to the Mo. Syn.; the Norw. Syn. withdrew to preserve its unity and for language reasons but remained in fellowship with the syns. of the Syn. Conf. The controversy seems to have made the Mo. Syn. even more concerned about correct doctrine and wary of entangling alliances. After Walther's death 1887 this concern and wariness became dominant.

2. F. Pieper* was pres. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1887–1911, syn. pres. 1899–1911; F. Pfotenhauer* was syn. pres. 1911–35. Both were conservative, emphasized confessionalism, and favored Ger. culture.

3. As a result of immigration, settlement, and expansion the Am. Frontier practically vanished 1890. In an endeavor to keep pace, the ch. used circuit riders. 1884–1935 the Mo. Syn. grew from 348,182 to 1,288,950 bap. mems., faster than the pop. growth rate to ca. 1900 and ca. the same as the pop. growth rate 1900–35.

4. Cultural isolation is reflected in the synod's stand on economic and soc. questions. Life insurance, dancing, and the theater were condemned. Pol. quietism, a rural outlook, and fear of defections became evident. Transition from Ger. to Eng. was resisted by many in fear that surrender to Eng. would mean sacrifice of doctrinal integrity. The language question was settled largely as a result of WW I. The war caused conflict in some communities, hostility against “Ger. Luths.,” destruction of property, and bodily harm. See also Language Question in the Lutheran Church [US].

5. Legislation against parochial schools was successfully resisted in the late 1880s and early 1890s esp. in Wisconsin, Illinois, New York, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wyoming, and Man., Can., and 1920–25 in Nebraska, Michigan, and Oregon

6. School enrollments increased but did not keep pace with ch. membership growth. By 1900 attempts were made to raise scholastic standards; in many schools the school week was increased from 4 to 5 days; instructional materials were improved. A. C. Stellhorn* was Secy. of Schools 1921–60. Dist. supts. were appointed; the first: for N Illinois 1918, Cen. 1918, Michigan. 1919. Conc. Teachers Coll., Seward, Nebraska, was founded 1894 as a preparatory dept. for the school at Addison, Illinois (see V 6).

7. The S. S. movement gained momentum in the syn. ca. 1910. First S. S. materials issued by CPH 1911. By 1935 enrollment was over 250,000. Other part-time agencies included Saturday schools, summer schools, and VBS (see also Christian Education, E 9). Walther* Coll., St. Louis, was founded 1887. Secondary schools were begun in Milwaukee 1903, Chicago 1909. Fort Wayne 1916. Ministerial preparatory schools were est. in St. Paul, Minnesota, 1893; Winfield, Kansas, 1893; Portland. Oregon, 1905; Oakland, California, 1906; Edmonton, Alberta, Can., 1921; Austin, Texas, 1926. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, was relocated 1926 on a new campus in Clayton, Missouri An institute for training pastors and teachers was est. 1903 at Bom Jesus, Sâo Lourenço, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (see also Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, Districts of The, B 1). In 1924 a sem. opened at Nagercoil and a Gospel Training School and a Bible Women's Training School at Ambur, India; a teacher training school opened at Ambur 1926.

8. The syn. created a Bd. for For. Miss. 1893 and directed that work begin in Jap. But, under changing circumstances, the 1st missionaries, K. G. T. Näther* and F. E. Mohn,* were sent to India.

9. Miss. work began in Brazil 1901. A miss. to the Isle of Pines was called 1911. E. L. Arndt* organized the Ev. Luth. Miss. for China 1912. F. Brand* became Dir. of For. Miss. 1920.

The syn. adopted E. Dist. missions to Latvians and Estonians 1899, Polish and Lith. miss. 1908, Fin. miss. 1911.

10. The period also saw considerable activity on the part of welfare and benevolent socs. The Am. Luth. Bd. for Relief in Eur. was appointed 1919. Miss. and charitable activities of the syn. show that it was not wholly isolationist.

In relations with other chs. the syn. seemed to stand aloof. It maintained fellowship with syns. of the Syn. Conf. (despite friction with the Wisconsin Syn.) and with the Norw. Syn. but made no move to unite with other Luths.

11. Free* Luth. conferences were held in the early 1900s in an endeavor to heal the rift in the Syn. Conf. caused by the predestinarian* controversy of the 1880s. In 1917 the Mo. Syn. created an Intersyn. Committee which met with representatives of me Wisconsin, Buffalo, Iowa, and Ohio syns. The Chicago* Theses (Intersyn.) were adopted 1925 by representatives of the Buffalo, Iowa, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin syns., but the Mo. Syn. did not adopt them. The 1929 Mo. Syn. conv. authorized drafting another set of theses; this led to the 1932 Brief* Statement.

12. The syn. presidency became a full-time office 1911. A Bd. of Dirs. was created 1917. The Gen. School Bd. and the Gen. S. S. Bd. were combined 1929 into a Bd. of Christian Educ. (see also VII, 4).

VII. Expansion, 1932 –. 1. Characterized by rapid growth, expansion of Christian educ., miss. outreach, greater lay activity, active efforts toward Luth. union, doctrinal tensions, and increase in syn. centralization and in administration.

2. Bap. syn. membership more than doubled.

3. With an increase in dists., administrative functions and full-time ex. positions increased (e.g., full-time dist. presidents and ex. secretaries of educ., miss., evangelism, and stewardship, or combinations of some of these).

4. On the syn. level, bds. and executives were added. In 1959 the office of ex. dir. was est. The 1st vice-presidency became a full-time office 1950. The Bd. of Christian Educ. (see VI, 12) was renamed The Bd. for Parish Educ. 1944, Bd. of Parish Educ. 1959, Bd. for Parish Services 1981.

5. A 9-mem. committee on higher educ. authorized by the 1929 syn. conv. became a 13-mem. Committee on Higher Educ. 1932, Bd. for Higher Educ. 1938, Bd. for Professional Education Services 1981.

Reports (1959, 1962) of the Syn. Survey Commission created by the 1956 conv. led to divisional administrative structure.

6. Conc. Pub. House (see Publication Houses, Lutheran) was expanded from time to time. KFUO (see Radio Stations, Religious, 3) has provided program materials for stations in the US and abroad. “This Is the Life” TV programs have been produced since 1952 (see Radio and Television Evangelism, Network). Conc. Hist. Institute (see Archives) was designated as the Dept. of Archives and Hist. of LCMS 1959. A Dept. of Pub. Relations was created in 1947.

7. Auxiliary agencies in or related to syn. included (1) The Walther League (see Young People's Organizations, Christian, II 3); (2) The Luth. Deaconess Assoc. (see Deaconesses, 9–14); (3) International Lutheran* Laymen's League; (4) Lutheran* Women's Missionary League; (5) Society* for the Promotion of Mohammedan Missions; (6) Lutheran* Med. Miss. Assoc.; (7) Lutheran* Educ. Assoc.; (8) Nat. Luth. Parent-Teacher League (see Parish Education, J).

8. Parish educ. was promoted vigorously, but parochial schools suffered esp. during the 1930s Great Depression.

9. S. S. enrollment more than tripled. Summer schools became almost totally defunct; Saturday schools decreased sharply in no.; vacation Bible school flourished.

10. The no. of high schools increased from 3 (1932) to 61 in 1982 in N. Am.

11. Valparaiso U. (see Universities in the United States, Lutheran, 6) also grew.

12. Concordia* Sr. Coll., Ft. Wayne, Indiana, dedicated 1958, was phased out 1976–77, Conc. Coll., Ann Arbor, Michigan, was founded 1963. (See also Concordia University System.) Christ Coll. Irvine Irvine, California, opened 1976. Entrance requirements at Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, were raised in the late 1950s to include a BA degree or its equivalent.

13. During the 1930s Great Depression the sems. produced more candidates than could be placed in ch. work. During WW II the syn. helped supply military chaplains. For. miss. expansion, a trend toward earlier retirement and est. of new congs. led to manpower shortage.

14. More extensive expansion followed WW II. New miss. fields included the Philippines 1946, Jap. and New Guinea 1948, Hong Kong 1950, Taiwan 1951, Venezuela 1951, Korea 1958, the Middle East 1959. Work in India (see VI 7–8) expanded (see also India, 13). A Bible institute at Tokyo, Jap., became a theol. school 1953. Sem. classes began 1952 in Taipei, Taiwan. A sem. est. 1955 in the Philippines at Manila moved to Baguio City 1960. A sem. was est. at Hong Kong 1959. The miss. program included elementary and secondary schools and various part-time agencies. Bible correspondence courses became prominent in for. miss. fields after the middle of the 20th c. Medical missions were fostered in India at Bethesda Hosp., Ambur (opened 1923), Malappuram (work begun 1955; dispensary [child welfare center] opened 1956), Wandoor (dispensary opened 1952; later became a hosp.), and elsewhere; in New Guinea at the Mambisanda Hosp. and related clinics; in the Philippines; in Afr. at Eket, Nigeria. In 1970 the LCMS was active in 11 for. fields. See also Middle East Lutheran Ministry.

15. H. F. Wind* was appointed ex. secy. of the dept. of soc. welfare 1953. “Cooperation in externals” led to est. of Luth. welfare councils, feds., and assocs. in NYC, Chicago, Ohio, Washington state, and elsewhere. The Armed Services Commission (called Armed Forces Commission beginning 1965) cooperated with the National* Luth. Council in maintaining service centers for military personnel.

16. Notable doctrinal statements include A Statement* and Common* Confession. Doctrinal controversies may broadly be said to have revolved around the question of fellowship. Problems in the area of Biblical studies became prominent after the middle of the 20th c.

17. A Committee on Luth. Ch. Union was created 1935. In 1938 the syn. resolved to “declare that the Brief Statement of the Missouri Synod, together with the Declaration of the representatives of the American Lutheran Church and the provisions of this entire report of Committee No. 16 now being read and with Synod's actions thereupon, be regarded as the doctrinal basis for future church-fellowship between the Missouri Synod and the American Lutheran Church” (1938 LCMS Proceedings, p. 231). The 1940 Pittsburgh* Agreement was regarded as inadequate in its statement on Scripture. The Common* Confession was “recognized as a statement in harmony with the Sacred Scriptures and the Lutheran Confessions” but was not adopted “as a functioning basic document toward the establishment of altar and pulpit fellowship with other church bodies” (1956 LCMS Proceedings, p. 505). Realignment of Luth. bodies, esp. formation of The ALC 1960 and the LCA 1962 arrested the union movement.

18. The Norw. Syn. of the Am. Ev. Luth. Ch. (name changed 1958 to Ev. Luth. Syn.) suspended relations with LCMS 1955; the Wisconsin Ev. Luth. Syn. suspended fellowship with LCMS 1961.

VIII. In 1965 LCMS resolved to approve the proposed const. of the Lutheran* Council in the USA and became a participating body in that agency. In 1969 LCMS entered altar and pulpit fellowship with The ALC The 1970s brought internal strife and dissension. The 1977 conv. resolved syn. to be in a state of “fellowship in protest” with The ALC; the 1981 conv. terminated the fellowship.

A biennial cycle of convs. was adopted 1962 and ratified by the congs. during the 1962–65 triennium; triennial convs. were readopted 1981, with 3-yr. cycles to begin 1983.

IX. Pres.: C. F. W. Walther 1847–50, 1864–78; F. C. D. Wyneken 1850–64; H. C. Schwan 1878–99; F. A. O. Pieper 1899–1911; F. Pfotenhauer 1911–35; J. W. Behnken* 1935–62; O. R. Harms* 1962–69; Jacob A. O. Preus 1969–81; Ralph A. Bohlmann 1981–1992; Alvin L. Barry 1992–

HQ moved from St. Louis to Kirkwood (a western suburb of St. Louis), Missouri 1982; new internat. center there at 1333 S. Kirkwood Rd. 63122 dedicated May 29, 1983.

See also Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches; Evangelical Lutherans in Mission; Christ Seminary—Seminex.

W. O. Forster, Zion on the Mississippi (St. Louis, 1953); K. E. Marquart, Anatomy of an Explosion (Ft. Wayne, Indiana, 1977); C. S. Meyer, Log Cabin to Luther Tower (St. Louis, 1965); Moving Frontiers, ed. C. S. Meyer (St. Louis, 1964); C. S. Mundinger, Government in the Missouri Synod (St. Louis, 1947); C. E. Vehse, Die Stephan'sche Auswanderung nach Amerika (Dresden, 1840), tr. R. Fiehler, The Stephanite Emigration to America (Tucson, Arizona, 1975).

Lutheran Churches of the Reformation.

Fed. organized April 28–29, 1964, at Emmaus Luth. Ch., Chicago, Illinois, by congs. which withdrew from LCMS. Adheres to the Book* of Concord of 1580 and the Brief* Statement of 1932. Cong. autonomy is emphasized in its const. The fed. holds annual delegate meetings and is governed in the interim by a council of 9 or more, one-third of which are pastors. Pub. One Accord.

Lutheran Church in America.

I. Constituent bodies and date of merger. The LCA, result of merger of the AELC (see Danish Lutherans in America, 3–4), Augustana* Ev. Luth. Ch., the Suomi Syn. (see Finnish Lutherans in America, 2), and The United* Luth. Ch. in Am., was organized Detroit, Michigan, June 28–July 1, 1962, in full operation January 1, 1963.

II. History. Discussions leading to the merger were initiated by the ULC and the Augustana Ev. Luth. Ch. 1955; a joint letter dated December 16 was sent by the presidents of these chs. inviting other Luth. bodies in Am. to designate duly authorized representatives to meet to consider organic union, draft a const., and devise organizational procedures to effect union. Favorable responses were received from the AELC and the Suomi Syn. A joint Commission on Luth. Unity was formed December 1956. Negotiations proceeded on the stated assumption that common adherence to the hist. Luth. Confessions provided adequate agreement in doctrine for merger of the chs. In 1960 a proposed const. was drawn up and an Agreement of Consolidation was approved by the 4 chs.

ULC hist. background. The preamble of the 1918 ULC const. included a standing invitation to all Ev. Luth. congs. and syns. in Am. to unite in 1 gen. organization (see also United Lutheran Church in America, The, I). In 1920 the ULC recognized no doctrinal reasons against complete cooperation and organic union with chs. calling themselves Ev. Luth. and subscribing the hist. Luth. Confessions (see Washington Declaration, B). In 1928 the ULC created a Commission on Luth. Ch. Unity and in 1934 directed the ULC pres. to invite the other Luth. chs. in Am. to discussions with a view to closer relationships and set up a Special Commission on Relationships to Am. Luth. Ch. Bodies (see also Savannah Declaration). Discussions with the Mo. Syn. and the ALC (in connection with the latter see Baltimore Declaration; Pittsburgh Agreement) led to neither union nor altar and pulpit fellowship. In 1944 the ULC declared itself to be in fellowship with all other Luth. chs. in Am. which accepted the Luth. Confessions, and invited the other Luth. chs. to make the same declaration. Beginning 1948 discussions were held with The Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. of Am. (see Danish Lutherans in America, 3) on the possibility of The Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. of Am. becoming a syn. of the ULC.

Augustana Ev. Luth. Ch. hist. background. In 1948 both the August Ev. Luth. Ch. and the ULC proposed a fed. and/or merger of the 8 NLC chs. On invitation of the Augustana Ev. Luth. Ch., issued by its ex. council through the pres. of the ch., 34 representatives (who became known as The Committee of 34) of most of the NLC chs. met in Minneapolis, Minnesota, January 4, 1949, to consider the possibility of organic union or of steps possibly leading to it. A resolution presented by ALC pres. E. F. Poppen,* to the effect that it was the sense of the group that a closer organizational affiliation of the participating bodies in the NLC was desirable and should be sought by all proper means, was unanimously adopted. A Committee of 15 was set up to prepare a structural plan for consideration by the Committee of 34. The Committee of 15 recommended (1) a referendum of the 8 NLC chs. on the question of immediate union; (2) est. of a Nat. Luth. Federation as an intermediate step toward union. But before the September 27, 1949, meeting of the Committee of 34, which was to consider these proposals, representatives of the American* Luth. Ch., The Evangelical* Luth. Ch., and UELC (see Danish Lutherans in America, 5) met (September 16, 1949) and proposed that these 3 chs. begin looking toward union. The Augustana Ev. Luth. Ch. entered into negotiations for this merger. But the following 1952 resolution of the Augustana Ev. Luth. Ch. was presented to the Committee of 45 (9 representatives of each of the ALC chs.) at Minneapolis November 10, 1952: “The Augustana Lutheran Church expresses itself as being unwilling to continue in unity discussions which are not open to all Lutheran general bodies and which do not include the considerations of the subject of ecumenical relations.” The representatives of the ALC, ELC, and UELC replied that they were without authority from their respective chs. to include all other Luth. chs., but that the question of ecumenical relations was still open. The representatives of the Augustana Ev. Luth. Ch. regarded the reply as unsatisfactory and withdrew from negotiations. In 1955 Augustana and the ULC(A) again sought to secure consideration of a merger of Luth. chs. in Am. Efforts toward union finally resulted in formation of the LCA.

III. Doctrinal basis, theol. work, spirit, and tendency.

LCA doctrinal basis: Const.Art. II. Confession of Faith. Section 1. This church confesses Jesus Christ as Lord of the Church. The Holy Spirit creates and sustains the Church through the Gospel and thereby unites believers with their Lord and with one another in the fellowship of faith.

“Section 2. This church holds that the Gospel is the revelation of God's sovereign will and saving grace in Jesus Christ. In Him, the Word Incarnate, God imparts Himself to men.

“Section 3. This church acknowledges the Holy Scriptures as the norm for the faith and life of the Church. The Holy Scriptures are the divinely inspired record of God's redemptive act in Christ, for which the Old Testament prepared the way and which the New Testament proclaims. In the continuation of this proclamation in the Church, God still speaks through the Holy Scriptures and realizes His redemptive purpose generation after generation.

“Section 4. This church accepts the Apostles', the Nicene, and the Athanasian creeds as true declarations of the faith of the Church.

“Section 5. This church accepts the Unaltered Augsburg Confession and Luther's Small Catechism as true witnesses to the Gospel, and acknowledges as one with it in faith and doctrine all churches that likewise accept the teachings of these symbols.

“Section 6. This church accepts the other symbolical books of the evangelical Lutheran church, the Apology of the Augsburg Confession, the Smalcald Articles, Luther's Large Catechism, and the Formula of Concord as further valid interpretations of the confession of the Church.

“Section 7. This church affirms that the Gospel transmitted by the Holy Scriptures, to which the creeds and confessions bear witness, is the true treasure of the Church, the substance of its proclamation, and the basis of its unity and continuity. The Holy Spirit uses the proclamation of the Gospel and the administration of the Sacraments to create and sustain Christian faith and fellowship. As this occurs, the Church fulfills its divine mission and purpose.”

This reflects the gen. theol. spirit and tendency of the LCA. Concentrated attention was given 1964–70 to a study of the doctrine of the ministry. Emphasis has also been laid on the church's responsibility in soc. work. Publications include M. J. Heinecken, The Meaning of the Cross and Christian Teachings: Affirmations of Faith for Lay People; W. H. Lazareth and R. O. Hjelm, Helping Youth and Adults Know Doctrine; G. W. Forell, Understanding the Nicene Creed and The Augsburg Confession: A Contemporary Commentary; J. Sittler, The Anguish of Preaching; J. H. P. Reumann and W. H. Lazareth, Righteousness and Society: Ecumenical Dialog in a Revolutionary Age; J. H. P. Reumann, Jesus in the Church's Gospels; J. A. Scherer, Mission and Unity in Lutheranism: A Study in Confession and Ecumenicity.

IV. Size and organizational structure.

As of January 1, 1970, the LCA had ca. 3,258,000 bap., ca. 2,275,000 confirmed mems.; ca. 6,200 congs., ca. 5,400 pastoral charges, 33 syns., ca., 7,600 ordained ministers.

The biennial conv. is the highest legislative authority. All congs., ministers, syns., officers, the ex. council, bds., agencies (except common agencies), and auxiliaries are bound by all actions pertaining to them taken by a conv. in conformity with the const. A pres., secy., and treas. are elected to 4-yr. terms at a regular conv. The ex. council (the 3 officers, 15 ministerial, and 15 lay mems. elected by the conv.) carries forward the work and policies of the ch. and acts for the ch. bet. convs., subject to review of its action by the following conv.

Congs. retain authority in all matters not committed to the LCA or its syns. by const. provision or by later ch. action. Syns. are agents of the ch. in admitting congs. and ministers to the ch. and in supervising and furthering ch. work in designated areas. Delegates to the convs. are elected by the syns.

A 9-mem. Court of Adjudication deals with questions of principle or practice (including questions involving disputed jurisdiction or interpretation of powers claimed or conferred by the ch.) and questions of doctrine or conscience referred to it. Its decisions are binding unless reversed by a conv. A consultative and advisory Conference of Syn. Presidents meets at least annually with the officers of the ch. to discuss problems, program, and plans affecting the syns.

V. Work. Assistance and service is made available to mem. congs. by various bds., commissions, and agencies. The Yearbook, compiled and pub. by the Bd. of Pub., provides information on organizational structure, on officers, staff, and other personnel, and on the syns., institutions, and agencies. It includes a list of colleges, sems., univs., campus pastors, summer camps, health and welfare agencies, congs., pastors, and information on Am. and World Missions work.

Colleges and univs. related to the LCA and its syns.: Augustana Coll., Rock Island, Illinois; Bethany Coll., Lindsborg, Kansas; California Lutheran Coll., Thousand Oaks, California; Carthage* Coll., Kenosha, Wisconsin; Gettysburg Coll., Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; Grand View Coll., Des Moines, Iowa (2-yr.); Gustavus Adolphus Coll., St. Peter, Minnesota; Lenoir Rhyne Coll., Hickory, North Carolina; Midland* Lutheran Coll., Fremont, Nebraska; Muhlenberg Coll., Allentown, Pennsylvania; Newberry Coll., Newberry, South Carolina; Roanoke Coll., Salem, Virginia; Suomi Coll., Hancock, Michigan (2-yr.); Susquehanna* U., Selinsgrove, Pennsylvania; Thiel Coll., Greenville, Pennsylvania; Upsala Coll., E. Orange, New Jersey; Wagner Coll., Staten Is., New York; Waterloo Luth. U., Waterloo, Ont., Can.; Wittenberg* U., Springfield, Ohio.

Theol. sems. related to the LCA and its syns.: Hamma School of Theol., Springfield, Ohio; Lutheran School of Theol. at Chicago, Illinois; Lutheran Theol. Sem., Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; Lutheran Theol. Sem., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Lutheran Theol. Sem., Saskatoon, Sask., Can.; Lutheran Theol. Southern Sem., Columbia, South Carolina; Northwestern* Luth. Theol. Sem., St. Paul, Minnesota; Pacific Luth. Theol. Sem., Berkeley, California; Waterloo Luth. Sem., Waterloo, Ont., Can.

Through its Bd. of World Missions the LCA shares in work of affiliated chs. overseas and on miss. fields. Financial assistance and necessary assisting personnel are supplied. Miss. fields have included Argentina, Chile, Ethiopia (radio), Guyana, Jamaica, Hong Kong, India, Jap., Liberia, Malaysia, Peru, Taiwan, Tanzania, Trinidad, Uruguay.

With guidance and assistance of the Bd. of Am. Miss., new congs. are organized in the US and Can. Ministries have been performed among migrants, Am. Indians, and several ethnic groups.

The Bd. of Soc. Ministry is related to soc. miss. institutions and agencies through the syns., which, through committees on soc. ministry, advise and exercise gen. supervision of institutions and agencies approved and supported, directly or indirectly, by the syns. The Bd. of Soc. Ministry supplies consultative services for institutions and agencies, aids in training and placing workers, undergirds ministries to persons or groups with special needs, and helps initiate new work.

VI. Affiliations and relationships. The LCA is a mem. of the Lutheran* Council in the USA (the LCA-Can. Section [see IX] is a mem. of the Can. Luth. Council [see Canada, B 30]), the Lutheran* World Fed., the National* Council of the Chs. of Christ in the USA (the LCA-Can. Section is a mem. of the Canadian* Council of Chs.), and of the World* Council of Chs. Any Luth. ch. fostered by the Bd. of World Miss. which concurs in the LCA Confession of Faith and in its art. on Assoc. Chs. (Const., Art. XXI) is recognized as in filial assoc. An assoc., ch. may send 2 representatives to regular convs., with privilege of seat and voice. See also Fellowship, B.

VII. Official publications. Official LCA organ: The Lutheran. World Encounter is pub. by the Bd. of World Miss., Lutheran Women by the Luth. Ch. Women (LCA auxiliary); Resource is sponsored by the Bd. of Parish Educ.

VIII. Pres.: F. C. Fry* 1962–68, Robert J. Marshall 1968–.

IX. Function of syns. and relationship to gen. body.

The LCA is divided into 33 syns., which serve as agents of the ch. in implementing its program. All syns. except the Slovak Zion Syn. (see IX B 26) are organized on a geographic basis. LCA syns. in Can. constitute the LCA-Can. Section.

Principal function of syns. is shepherding constituent congs. and ministers, including oversight to conserve unity in the true faith and to guard against any departure therefrom, encouragement to the fuller employment of resources, guidance in filling vacancies in pastorates, and intervention and mediation in times of strife and division. The syns. have primary responsibility for recruiting, preparing, and ordaining ministers, receiving congs., and disciplining congs. and ministers. Responsibility for ownership and administration of theol. sems., for provision of Christian higher educ. through ch.-related colleges, for stimulating cong. evangelism and works of mercy, and for maintaining and supporting soc. mission institutions and agencies rests in the syns. Each syn. has jurisdiction in its own affairs; when the LCA deals with internal matters of a syn., the cooperation and consent of the syn. must be secured. A syn. desiring to pub. books of devotion and instruction must first secure permission from a conv. or the ex. council. Syns. may memorialize a conv. on any subject affecting the welfare of the ch.

X. The LCA merged in 1987 with the Association* of Evangelical Lutheran Churches and The American* Lutheran Church to form the Evangelical* Lutheran Church in America.

See also Interim Eucharistic Sharing.

ULC Minutes 1918–62; Augustana Ev. Luth. Ch. Minutes 1918–62; LCA Minutes 1962–70; The Lutheran 1930–70; The Lutheran Companion 1930–62; Lutheran Herald 1930–60; ULC Year Book 1930–62; LCA Yearbook 1963–71; A. R. Wentz, A Basic History of Lutheranism in America, rev. ed. (Philadelphia, 1964); R. C. Wolf, Documents of Lutheran Unity in America (Philadelphia, 1966). DF

Lutheran Confessions.

The Luth. Reformation* caused the confessional principle, which had been dead for many cents., to revive.

A. General.

1. During the early days of the Reformation, M. Luther* and his writings soon came to be rallying points for his followers. The 1st books to organize Luth. doctrines were the Catechisms of 1529, pub. for instructing congs. (see Catechisms, Luther's).

2. Hist. Background of the Augsburg Confession.

a. After the 1529 Diet of Speyer,* Philip* of Hesse took the initiative in trying to unite, in a pol. fed. for mutual defense, those who had protested the autocratic action of Charles* V. Philip of Hesse and Jakob Sturm* united Saxony and Hesse with certain S Ger. Ev. cities (with Ulm, Strasbourg, and Nürnberg as nucleus) in a fed. created April 22, 1529, in a secret agreement at Speyer. To clear the way for possible inclusion of Swiss in the fed., Philip of Hesse initiated plans for settling the dispute bet. Luther and H. Zwingli* at a colloquy in Marburg (see [b]; Luther, Controversies of, g).

b. Pol. disintegration. After the Diet of Speyer, P. Melanchthon,* who had kept silent regarding differences bet. Ger. Luths. and Swiss, had a change of heart and tried to thwart the fed. Luther also opposed a fed. without confessional unity. Hans von Minckwitz, representative of John* the Constant at a meeting in Rotach June 7, 1529, which had been set at Speyer for final negotiations concerning the fed., succeeded in postponing action on the fed. to Schwabach August 24; this meeting was later reset for October 16, when the 17 Schwabach Arts., prepared bet. ca. July 25 and September 14 by Luther et al. and reflected in the Marburg Arts., were first presented, with another meeting set to consider them at Schmalkalden at the end of November Meantime, at a meeting of representatives of John the Constant, George* of Brandenburg-Ansbach, and Philip of Hesse in Saalfeld July 8, the representatives of George of Brandenburg-Ansbach successfully demanded, as prerequisite for fed.: adoption of a uniform confession, uniform ch. order, and other practical regulations; this helped give direction to the Schwabach Arts. Meanwhile also, the Colloquy of Marburg (see [a]) had been head October 1–4. Marburg Arts. 1–14 list the doctrines on which the Sacramentarians and the Luths. apparently agreed; agreement was in evidence also in the 1st part of the 15th, the last part of which, however, reads in part: “We are not agreed as to whether the true [real: Ger. wahre] body and blood of Christ are bodily [corporally, really; Ger. leiblich] present in the bread and wine.” By 1530 Zwingli's writings showed that he had a spirit very different from that of Luther. The Colloquy of Marburg failed to provide a basis for including Swiss in the fed. (see [a]). Demand for confessional unity was asserting itself over demand for fed. This trend issued at Schmalkalden at the end of November and beginning of December in defeat of the fed. Nürnberg and Brandenburg accepted the Schwabach Arts.; Strasbourg and Ulm rejected them; all 4 refused to enter the fed., which thus was wrecked.

c. In January 1530 Charles* V issued a summons for a Diet at Augsburg. John the Constant asked Luther, Melanchthon, J. Bugenhagen,* and J. Jonas* to deliberate regarding arts. of faith and usage. The result of their deliberations, in the hands of John the Constant at Torgau by March 27: Torgau Arts. (MS discovered at Weimar 1830), divided into an introd. and 10 arts.: human doctrine and human order; marriage of priests; both forms; mass; confession: jurisdiction; ordination; vows: invocation of saints: Ger. song. Because Luther was under the ban.* he did not attend the Diet but spent the time at Coburg. Since the summons stated that “every man's opinions, thoughts, and notions” were to be heard, Melanchthon, using the Torgau Arts. as guide, prepared a statement of the Luth. position and a preface. Abusive arts. (404) by J. Eck* moved Melanchthon to include a summary of doctrine based on the Schwabach Arts. Melanchthon changed the Confession repeatedly before its presentation. John the Constant sent it to Luther May 11 for consideration and possible revisions; Luther returned it May 15. Various things (e.g., the harsh message of Charles V to John the Constant on May 27, which included a ban on ev. preaching in Augsburg [repeated June 15]; the demand of Charles V that the Luths. join the Corpus Christi procession June 16) led to a rewriting of the preface so as to indicate that it was being submitted by others besides John the Constant. The Ger. draft of the AC was read Saturday afternoon, June 25, 1530, “in the lower large room,” by C. Beyer*; then the AC was given in both Ger. and Lat. to Charles V by G. Brück.* There are variants bet. the Lat. and Ger. texts; in some cases (e.g., VII 2, where the Lat. doctrina is rendered by the Ger. gepredigt) the one language elucidates the other. Following are listed as signatories in Die Bekenntnisschriften der evangelischlutherischen Kirche, 6th ed. (Göttingen, 1967), pp. 136–137, which notes that complete certainty in the listing has not been est.: John the Constant and John* Frederick of Saxony, George* of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Ernest* and Francis (younger brother of Ernest; d. 1549) of Lüneburg, Philip of Hesse, Wolfgang* of Anhalt, and representatives of Nürnberg and Reutlingen. Before the close of the Diet, representatives of Frankfurt am Main, Heilbronn, Kempten, Weissenburg, and Windsheim also signed.

3. Defense of the Confession. June 27 the RC estates resolved to answer the AC. Their reply tried to show that the matters that were true in the AC were taken from RCm, that the AC was not in harmony with statements of Ev. leaders, that the heresies in the AC had been condemned long ago, that other condemned heresies were held by Luther and his followers, and that Luther was the cause of the Anabap. and Capernaitic* heresies. The RC estates rejected it July 15 because of its harshness, and the Confutatio pontificia (also known as Responsio pontificia) was prepared and read to the Diet August 3. During the ensuing weeks, Luths. were subjected to tremendous pressure and intrigue. The Confutatio was not given to the Luths.. Melanchthon prepared a reply (Prima delineatio apologiae; not the one in the Book* of Concord) based on notes taken by J. Camerarius* during the reading of the Confutatio. When the imperial recess September 22 declared the AC “for good reasons answered and rejected by the Holy Scriptures and other writings,” the Luths. through Brück presented the Prima delineatio apologiae, but it was refused by Charles V. After receiving a copy of the Confutatio, Melanchthon continued work and pub. Apologia confessionis as a private document. It was signed 1537 with the AC at Schmalkalden (see B 2). It is a refutation of the Confutatio and a defense and amplification of the AC. The sequence of arts. follows in gen. that of the AC (see A 4) and the Confutatio. Arts. not disputed were treated briefly; those dealing with similar subject matter were combined. The Ap has the double value of theol. thoroughness and the warmth of a living confession. Luther endorsed both the AC and the Ap

4. Outstanding AC characteristics: objective universality, emphasis on personal salvation through justification by faith alone, air of reverent freedom, and spirit of catholic continuity. It claims to present nothing new but only to reemphasize the doctrines taught by the true ch. through the ages.

AC arts. I–XXI treat basic doctrine, XXII–XXVIII abuses corrected: I. God; II. Original Sin; III. The Son of God; IV. Justification; V. The Office of the Ministry; VI. The New Obedience; VII. The Church; VIII. What the Church Is; IX. Baptism; X. The Holy Supper of Our Lord; XI. Confession; XII. Repentance; XIII. The Use of the Sacraments; XIV. Order in the Church; XV. Church Usages; XVI. Civil Government; XVII. The Return of Christ to Judgment; XVIII. Freedom of the Will; XIX. The Cause of Sin; XX. Faith and Good Works; XXI. The Cult of Saints: XXII. Both Kinds in the Sacrament; XXIII. The Marriage of Priests; XXIV. The Massachusetts; XXV. Confession; XXVI. The Distinction of Foods; XXVII. Monastic Vows; XXVIII. The Power of Bishops.

5. Subsequent Hist. of the AC. In Germany* the AC became the confessional basis of the Schmalkaldic* League 1531 and was adopted by nearly all Ev. Ger. within ca. 15 yrs. after its presentation. In 1551 the Luths. asked Melanchthon and J. Brenz* to work out confessions supplementary to the AC for the Council of Trent* (Confessio Saxonica [Saxon Confession], also called Repetitio confessionis Augustanae; Confessio Virtembergica [Württemberg Confession]). In Austria* the AC was early received by many; official toleration of its adherents was granted 1568. In Boh. many accepted the AC soon after 1530; it gained recognition among the Unitas Fratrum by way of the “Boh. Confession” (see Bohemia, Lutheran Theology in, 4). In Silesia official recognition of the AC was obtained 1609 by the Charter of Rudolf* II. In Hungary* parts of the AC are reflected in the Confessio Pentapolitana (named after 5 free cities of Upper Hung.: Eperjes [Eperies; Presov], Bartfeld [Bardejov; Bártfa], Klein-Zeben [Kis-Szeben; Sabinov], Kaschau [Kosice; Kassa], and Leutschau [Levoca; Löcse]). In Slovakia* and in Yugoslavia* several groups accepted the AC. In Transylvania* the AC was accepted mostly by Saxons. In 1572 Lucas Ungleich (1526–1600) presented a compilation of the AC (Formula pii consensus inter pastores ecclesiarum Saxonicarum) which was adopted in addition to the AC. Kleinpolen (Little Poland; SE, mountainous part of the former kingdom of Poland; included, e.g., Krakau, Sandomir, Zator, Oswiecim [Auschwitz], Lublin, Red Russ., Podolia, Belz, Kiev), dominated 1530–55 by Wittenberg, adhered to the AC till 1555, but with increasing Ref. tendencies; Grosspolen (Greater Poland; NW, plain part of the former kingdom of Poland; included, e.g., Posen and Gostyn) used 2 Polish translations of the AC: that which Albert* of Prussia had made and that pub. by Martin Florus Quiatkowski; the 1st Luth. syn. pledged itself to the AC 1565; see also Poland; Reformation, Lutheran, 12. In Lithuania* a small minority accepted the AC. In Latvia* acceptance of the AC dates from Reformation times. After the influence of N. Hemming(sen)* was overcome, loyalty to the AC and SC became strong in Den. (see Denmark, Lutheranism in, 5) and Norw. (see Norway, Lutheranism in) in the last part of the 16th century. Iceland also accepted the AC (see Iceland, 3). The AC was not formally accepted in Swed. until 1593, when it, with the Bible and the ecumenical symbols, became the confessional basis of the Swed. Ch. and the 1571 ch. order was confirmed (see also Sweden, Lutheranism in, 1, 2). In Livonia and Estonia* the Diet of Reval 1524 decided for the Reformation, and use of the AC was a matter of course. In Russia* the AC became known through the Baltic Provinces. An Eng. tr. of the AC and the Ap, by R. Taverner,* was printed in London 1536 under the title The Confessyon of the Fayth of the Germaynes. 16 arts. (Wittenberg Articles; Repetitio Augustanae) agreed on by a delegation of Henry* VIII and Luths. (Luther, Melanchthon, Bugenhagen, Jonas, Cruciger*) in spring 1536 exerted (with the AC) a lasting influence on Angl. confessions and demonstrated what concessions the Luths. were ready to make to win a country like Eng. (see also England, B 2–3). Lutheranism came to the Netherlands* by 1518, but persecution beginning in the 1550s left only a few who adhered to the AC (1st Dutch version pub. 1543 in Wesel). Two Fr. translations were made at the time of the Augsburg Diet; others followed (see also France, 15). The AC may have been tr. in Sp. in the 16th c., but did not become somewhat gen. available in print till the 20th c. (see also Spain, 3). Two It. translations of the AC were made soon after the Augsburg Diet: one for the emp., the other for the pope; a 1562 It. tr. of the AC and the Ap was made for Dalmatia, Istria, and hart of Carniola but made no lasting impression. The AC was pub. in Gk. 1559. See also Eastern Orthodox Churches. 5.

6. The AC is used in N, Cen., and S. Am. Luth. pastors who came to Am. in the 17th c. were pledged to the AC, and their congs. bound by it. The Pennsylvania and New York Ministeriums, which did not have the AC in their constitutions, required the pledge at ordination. In the 18th and 19th cents. this pledging became an empty form due to Pietism,* rationalism,* and sectarianism. Reaction to the Prussian* Union and the coming of Old* Luths. brought renewed emphasis on the AC. The Definite* Syn. Platform encountered decisive opposition. Free* Luth. Conferences led to formation of the Synodical* Conf. Emphasis on confessionalism was also felt in formation 1867 of the General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (N) Am., which pledged itself to the Book* of Concord. T. E. Schmauk,* H. E. Jacobs,* C. Porterfield Krauth* were esp. active in the interest of confessionalism. In The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA there was also a trend toward stricter confessionalism which made possible the formation of The United* Luth. Ch. in Am.

7. Other Continents. Luths. in Afr. use the AC (tr., e.g., into Zulu, Twi, Shambala, Swahili). Various versions have been used in India (e.g., Tamil, Telugu, Eng., Hindi, Santali). Chinese translations include wen-li ca. 1914, Mandarin 1928. The AC has been tr. several times into Jap. The AC came to Australia 1836 (see Australia, B 1).

B. 1530–46.

1. A conference was held 1536 in the home of Luther bet. Luths. and Reformed. As a result, the Wittenberg* Concord was signed by Reformed (M. Bucer,* W. F. Capito,* M. Alber,* M. Frecht,* J. Otter,* W. Musculus,* et al.) and Luths. (M. Luther, P. Melanchthon, J. Bugenhagen, J. Jonas, Cruciger,* J. Menius,* F. Myconius,* U. Rhegius,* G. Spalatin,* et al.). See also Union Movements, 3.

2. June 2, 1536, Paul* III called a gen. council to meet at Mantua, It., on May 23, 1537, for the extirpation of heresy. In December 1536 John* Frederick asked Luther to write a positional statement to be reviewed and approved also by other Luth. theologians. It was signed at Wittenberg by Luther, Jonas, Cruciger, Bugenhagen, N. v. Amsdorf,* Melanchthon (with the reservation that the pope might hold primacy jure humano), J. Agricola,* G. Spalatin; delivered to John Frederick January 3, 1537. To help prepare for a possible gen. ch. council, John Frederick called for Luth. theologians to attend a meeting of the Schmalkaldic* League which had been considered for January 8 but postponed to February 7. Because of illness Luther could not attend this meeting, February 7–23, 1537, at Schmalkalden, which reaffirmed AC and AP but did not act officially on Luther's arts., though most men present signed them. In lieu of Luther's arts.. Melanchthon wrote Tractatus [Tract; Treatise], which was signed by all theologians present and which dealt with the power and primacy of the pope and with the power and jurisdiction of bps. Luther reed. his arts. and had them pub. in spring 1538; they grew in esteem, came to be known as Schmalkaldic Arts., and were pub. 1580 in the Book of Concord, with Melanchthon's Tractatus appended. SA Part I treats “the sublime articles of the divine majesty.” Part II: 1. Christ and Faith; 2. Mass and Invocation of Saints; 3. Chapters and Monasteries; 4. Papacy. Part III: 1. Sin; 2. Law; 3. Repentance; 4. Gospel; 5. Baptism; 6. The Sacrament of the Altar; 7. The Keys; 8. Confession; 9. Excommunication; 10. Ordination and Vocation; 11. The Marriage of Priests; 12. The Church; 13. How Man Is Justified before God, and His Good Works; 14. Monastic Vows; 15. Human Traditions. In April 1537 the council set for Mantua was postponed to November 1, 1537; later it was reset for May 1, 1538, Vicenza, It., and finally indefinitely suspended May 21, 1539. See also Vergerio, Pietro Paolo (2d entry).

3. While the AC was being est., Melanchthon made alterations in its wording. The 1540 Variata caused particular concern. See also Union Movements. 3. Agricola had jeopardized the Luth. position on Law and Gospel (see Antinomian Controversy). By 1543 Melanchthon had gone so far as to rework, for the reformation of Cologne, arts. in a document by Bucer, for which Bucer alone, however, wrote the art. on the Lord's Supper.

C. 1546–80.

1. After Luther's death the storm broke over the Ev. Luth. chs. South Ger. and most of N Ger. were conquered by Charles V. The Augsburg Interim (see Interim, I), which sacrificed the doctrine of justification, recognized 7 sacraments and transubstantiation, and interpreted the mass as a thank offering, was accepted by most of the crushed Prot. princes. Melanchthon opposed the Augsburg Interim but soon became fearful and yielded. The Leipzig Interim (see Interim, II) compromised the doctrine of justification by faith; reintrod. RC ceremonies at Baptism, and Corpus Christi; and included other rules favoring RCm. Controversies which arose chiefly out of aberrations of Melanchthon's followers and the extremism of M. Flacius* Illyricus et al. include Adiaphoristic* 1548, Osiandrian* 1549, Majoristic* 1551, Crypto-Calvinistic* 1552, Synergistic* 1555, Second Antinomian* 1556. The attempt to adjust controversies by academic disputations, to fix religion by dogmatic formulations, and to restore peace by the Frankfurt* Recess 1558 and Naumburg* Diet 1561, together with conflict regarding the Variata, led to at least 20 Luth. Confessions bet. 1546 and the adoption of the FC Best-known: Corpus Philippicum 1560 (doctrinal writings of Melanchthon), also called Misnicum (because it was to be used in ecclesiis et scholis regionum Saxonicarum et Misnicarum, subditarum ditioni Principis Electoris Saxoniae) and Wittenbergense; issued under the title Corpus* doctrinae christianae.

2. In 1567 Jakob Andreä* was commissioned to draw up a formula of harmony. 1574 Elector August* took sharp measures against the Philippists.* See also Crypto-Calvinistic Controversy. 1573 Andreä had published “Six Christian Sermons.” which, at the suggestion of M. Chemnitz,* was rev. into the Swabian Concordia (11 arts.). Rev. by D. Chytraeus* and Chemnitz, it was known as the Swabian-Saxon Concordia. L. Osiander* the elder and B. Bidembach* prepared a formula adopted at Maulbronn January 19, 1576. A meeting at Torgau May 28–June 7, 1576, attended by N. Selnecker,* Andreä,* Chemnitz,* Chytraeus,* A. Musculus,* C. Cornerus,* et al., formulated the Torgau Book on the basis of the Swabian-Saxon Concordia and the Maulbronn Formula. After Elector August had received criticisms of the work, final rev. was made 1577 at Bergen by Chemnitz, Andreä, Selnecker, Musculus, Cornerus, and Chytraeus. This Bergen Book (Solid Declaration; Thorough Declaration), together with Andreä's Epitome, was finished by May 28, 1577. These 2 works were brought together as the Formula of Concord in the Book of Concord (with a preface prepared by the theologians and signed by the princes), which appeared officially at Dresden June 25, 1580 (see Book of Concord). The Epitome (1) defines the state of controversy, (2) affirms the true doctrine, (3) rejects false doctrines. The Solid Declaration omits this division and discusses matters at length. Both have introductions. Contents of the FC: Introd. confesses the Scriptures as the only rule of faith and practice and also accepts the 3 ecumenical creeds and Luth. confessions previously adopted; Art. I: Original Sin: II: Free Will or Human Powers: III: The Righteousness of Faith before God; IV: Good Works; V: Law and Gospel; VI: The Third Function of the Law; VII: The Holy Supper; VIII: The Person of Christ; IX: Christ's Descent into Hell; X: The Ecclesiastical Rites that Are Called Adiaphora or Things Indifferent; XI: Eternal Foreknowledge and Divine Election; XII: Other Factions and Sects which Never Accepted the Augsburg Confession. The FC was signed by 3 electors, 2 bps., 18 princes, 24 counts, 4 barons, 35 cities, and nearly 8,200 clerics, teachers, and others by 1580.

D. Subscription.

1. Speaking of the September 22, 1530, Reichsabschied (imperial edict; recess), Luther expressed the view that all who hold the AC, whether openly or secretly, must be regarded and treated as brothers (St. L. ed., XVI, 1538). This view was reemphasized by C. F. W. Walther* (e.g., “Urtheil einer Conferenz,” Der Lutheraner, XII [July 1, 1856], 181–182; cf. A. B., “Eine freie Conferenz,” L. u. W., II [March 1856], 84–85, and ed. comment 85–86). Fellowship on basis of the Luth. Confessions was stressed also by C. Porterfield Krauth,* H. E. Jacobs.* T. E. Schmauk,* et al. Acceptance of the AC indicates that one has the Luth. altitude on the great fundamentals (sola Scriptura, sola gratia, sola fide) and by conscientious study will find himself in agreement with the doctrinal content of the other symbols. This does not imply that he reaches absolute and errorless perfection in exegesis, doctrine, life. Cf. “Von dem Namen 'Lutheraner,' ” Der Lutheraner, I (September 1, 1844), 2–4; “Antwort auf die neueste Vertheidigung der Union,” Der Lutheraner, I (June 18, 1845), 82–84; “Vorwort der Redaktion zum dreizehnten Jahrgang des 'Lutheraner,' ” Der Lutheraner, XIII (August 26, 1856), 1–3; Verhandlungen der dreizehnten Jahresversammlung des Westlichen Districts der Deutschen Ev.-Luth. Synode von Missouri, Ohio, u. a. Staaten im Jahre 1867 (at Chicago, Illinois) (St. Louis, Missouri), pp. 31–33.

2. In the 17th and 18th c. the Luth. symbols were not mentioned in some Luth. constitutions in the US. H. M. Mühlenberg* tried to rally Luths. around the AC and other Luth. symbols. After his death 1787, a trend away from confessionalism lasted into the 19th c. The Tennessee Syn. (see Henkels, The, 2, 3; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 10, 16) insisted on strict confessionalism. As the symbols came into prominence, distinctions bet. fundamental* and nonfundamental doctrines were reemphasized. The Definite* Syn. Platform tried to eliminate certain doctrines which had been regarded as nonfundamental and rejected by some.

3. The distinction bet. arts. of faith by which the subscriber is bound and ordinary factual statements was prominently elaborated in Am. by C. F. Schaeffer,* “Symbolic Theology,” The Evangelical Review, I (April 1850), 457–483. For a Mo. Syn. statement that since the symbols are confessions of the faith or of the teaching of the ch., the subscriber binds himself to all the doctrine therein contained but not to hist. references, matters belonging to science, logic, method of presentation, adiaphora, etc. see [C. F. W. Walther; cf. Der Lutheraner, XXIII (May 1, 1867), 130, col. 2, footnote] “Referat über die Frage: Warum sind die symbolischen Bücher unserer Kirche von denen, welche Diener derselben werden wollen, nicht bedingt, sondern unbedingt zu unterschreiben?” in Verhandlungen der Vierten Sitzungen des westlichen Distrikts der Deutschen Evang.-Luth. Synode von Missouri, Ohio und andern Staaten, im Jahre 1858 (St. Louis, 1858), pp. 7–25, reprint. without footnotes in Der Lutheraner, XIV (August 10, 1858), 201–206, tr. and condensed by A. W. C. Guebert, “Why Should Our Pastors, Teachers and Professors Subscribe Unconditionally to the Symbolical Writings of Our Church,” CTM, XVIII (1947), 241–253. In the same art. Walther indicates that the symbols should be accepted quia (“because”), not quatenus (“insofar as”), they agree with Scripture.

4. The major Luth. syns. in Am. require subscription to all Luth. symbols. Some Luths. subscribe only to the AC and SC. EL

See also Altar Fellowship.

Die Bekenntnisschriften der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche, 6th rev. ed. (Göttingen, 1967); J. M. Reu, The Augsburg Confession: A Collection of Sources with An Historical Introduction (Chicago, 1930); Die symbolischen Bücher der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche, ed. J. T. Müller, 11th ed. (Gütersloh, 1912): H. L. J. Heppe, Die Bekenntnisschriften der altprotestantischen Kirche Deutschlands (Kassel, 1855); T. G. Tappert, “The Symbols of the Church,” What Lutherans Are Thinking, ed. E. C. Fendt (Columbus, 1947); M. Loy, The Augsburg Confession (Columbus, 1908); T. E. Schmauk and C. T. Benze, The Confessional Principle and the Confessions of the Lutheran Church as Embodying the Evangelical Confession of the Christian Church (Philadelphia, 1911); G. J. Fritschel, The Formula of Concord: Its Origin and Contents (Philadelphia, 1916); J. L. Neve, Story and Significance of The Augsburg Confession on Its Four Hundredth Anniversary (Burlington, Iowa, 1930); C. Bergendoff, The Making and Meaning of the Augsburg Confession (Rock Island, Illinois, 1930); C. H. Little, Lutheran Confessional Theology (St. Louis, 1943); V. Ferm, The Crisis in American Lutheran Theology (New York, 1927); C. Mauelshagen, American Lutheranism Surrenders to Forces of Conservatism (Athens, Georgia, 1936); E. Schlink, Theology of the Lutheran Confessions, tr. P. F. Koehneke and H. J. A. Bouman (Philadelphia, 1961); F. Brunstäd, Theologie der lutherischen Bekenntnisschriften (Gütersloh, 1951); H. Volz, Luthers Schmalkaldische Artikel und Melanchthons Tractatus de potestate papae (Gotha, [1931]); H. Fagerberg, Die Theologie der lutherischen Bekenntnisschriften von 1529 bis 1537, tr. from the Swed. MS by G. Klose (Göttingen, 1965), Eng. tr. from the Swed. MS by G. J. Lund, A New Look at the Lutheran Confessions (1529–1537) (St. Louis, 1972); J. Meyer Historischer Kommentar zu Luthers Kleinem Katechismus (Gütersloh, 1929); W. Arndt, “The Pertinency and Adequacy of the Lutheran Confessions,” CTM, XX (September 1949), 674–700; A. C. Piepkorn, “Suggested Principles for a Hermeneutics of the Lutheran Symbols,” CTM, XXIX (January 1958), 1–24; The Church and the Confessions, ed. V. Vajta and H. Weissgerber (Philadelphia, 1963).

Am. eds.: The Christian Book of Concord, tr. Ambrose and Socrates Henkel, J. Stirewalt, H. Wetzel, J. R. Moser, and D. Henkel (Solomon D. Henkel and Bros., New Market, Virginia, 1851); The Book of Concord, ed. H. E. Jacobs, 2 vols. (Philadelphia, 1882–83); Concordia Triglotta (St. Louis, 1921); The Book of Concord, tr. and ed. T. G. Tappert, J. Pelikan, R. H. Fischer, A. C. Piepkorn (Philadelphia, 1959).

Lutheran Congregation.

Acc. to early leaders of the Mo. Syn., the local cong. of believers has all spiritual powers summed up under the term Office of the Keys.* The sphere of the ch. is exclusively spiritual, concerned solely with bldg. Christ's kingdom on earth; its governing principle is the Word of God. See also Authority; Hierarchy; Polity, Ecclesiastical.

Lutheran Council in Canada.

1. Inter-Luth. agency; became operative January 1967, representing ca. 99% of Canada's ca. 300,000 Luths. Represents The Ev. Luth. Ch. of Can. (see Canada, B 26), the Luth. Ch.-Can. (see Canada, B 28), the LCA-Can. Section (see Canada, B 27). Headquarters Winnipeg 2, Man., Can.

2. The LCIC succeeded the Canadian Luth. Council. A Commission on War Service was organized April 2, 1940, to represent the Luth. Ch. in appointment of chaplains and to help congs. keep in touch with service personnel. This commission was empowered by the fed. govt. March 14, 1946, to organize Canadian Luth. World Relief to serve Luths. in matters of immigration and material relief. A home mission conf. convened 1944 by the Commission on Am. Missions of the Nat. Luth. Council at Saskatoon, Sask., favored establishing a council similar to the NLC and took steps toward that goal. The Canada Committee of the Lutheran* World Fed. was formed May 1948. The Canadian Luth. Council was organized Winnipeg, Man., December 4, 1952. Charter mems.: American* Luth. Ch., Augustana* Ev. Luth. Ch., The Evangelical* Luth. Ch., Lutheran* Free Ch., United Ev. Luth. Ch. (see Danish Lutherans in America, 5), The United* Luth. Ch. in America. Divisions: Canadian Missions, Pub. Relations, Welfare, Student Service, War Service.

3. LCIC purposes and objectives:

“a. To further the witness, the work, and the interests of the participating bodies.

“b. To seek to achieve theological consensus in a systematic and continuing way on the basis of the Scriptures and the witness of the Lutheran Confessions.

“c. To provide an instrumentality through which the participating bodies may work together in fulfilling their responsibility of Christian service where co-ordination or joint activity is deemed by them to be desirable and feasible” (Constitution of Lutheran Council in Canada, Art. IV). To achieve these objectives the council provides a forum for discussions; establishes procedures and provides resources for theol. study and discussion; promotes understanding and helpful relationships with other Luth. chs. in Can.; brings to the attention of participating bodies matters which may need action; represents the interests of the council, and of participating bodies so requesting, in matters requiring common action before the public in Can., the govt., and organized agencies and bodies outside the Luth. Ch.; makes studies and surveys; performs specific services for participating bodies; establishes liaison with inter-Luth. groups; takes necessary steps to meet emergencies. Additional functions may be undertaken upon approval by two-thirds of the participating bodies.

4. Clergy and lay representatives of participating chs. est. and supervise the program carried on through 6 divisions and 1 committee: a. Division of Theol. Studies; all participating bodies take part. b. Division of Soc. Services. c. Division of Canadian Missions. d. Division of Campus Foundation Activity. e. Division of Educational Services. f. Division of Pub. Relations. g. Committee on Youth Activities. WAS

See also Canada, B 30.

Lutheran Council in the United States of America.

I. Organized at Cleveland, Ohio, November 1966, by 43 delegates from The American* Luth. Ch., the Lutheran* Ch. in Am., The Lutheran* Ch.-Mo. Syn., and the Synod* of Ev. Luth. Churches. LCUSA began functioning January 1967. Headquarters 315 Park Ave. S., New York, New York, 10010.

II. History. LCUSA grew out of a 1958 resolution of the National* Luth. Council calling for an examination of cooperative activities in Am. Lutheranism and possible extension of such activities. The LCMS hesitated to participate until assured 1959 that doctrinal implications would be examined.

Three major meetings 1960–61 of representatives of interested bodies led to the conclusion that there was basis for further exploration of possible establishment of a new cooperative agency whose functions would include (1) common theol. study with a view to consensus and (2) Christian service.

Meanwhile mergers decreased the participating bodies to 3: The ALC, LCA, LCMS, representing ca. 95% of ca. 8.6 million Luths. in the US and Can. Their 1962 convs. authorized further discussions.

Invitations were extended to other Luth. chs., but of them only the SELC sent observers to a meeting at Chicago, Illinois, January 22–23, 1963. The SELC became part of the Inter-Luth. Consultation (as the group constituted itself January 1963) at the next meeting, in Chicago, October 1963.

By January 1964 the consultation had endorsed a proposed name and const. for the new agency, chosen NYC as the site for its headquarters, and selected January 1, 1967, as target date for est. the agency. The const. was approved by The ALC 1964, LCMS 1965, SELC 1965, LCA 1966. The NLC held its 48th and final annual meeting February 1–3, 1966.

III. Concurrent Developments. The NLC ceased operation December 31, 1966. Nat. Luth. Campus Ministry was set up as an agency of the ALC and LCA, with LCUSA functioning only in a consultative capacity; in 1969 LCUSA accepted responsibility for administering the program on request of the 2 sponsoring bodies. See also Students, Spiritual Care of, B 4.

Several inter-Luth. agencies which previously had functioned separately were brought together by the organization of LCUSA: Publicaciones “El Escudo,” which pub. Sp. materials; Luth. Film Associates; Luth. Immigration Services; Luth. Service Commission; Nat. Luth. Commission on Scouting; God-Home-Country Program Committee; World Brotherhood Exchange, a lay volunteer service program. The council also provides staff services for the Luth. Educational Conf. of N. Am. and the Luth. Soc. Welfare Conf. of Am.

IV. Purposes and Constitutional Bases. Const., Art. IV, Purposes and objectives: “a. To further the witness, the work, and the interests of the participating bodies.

“b. To seek to achieve theological consensus in a systematic and continuing way on the basis of the Scriptures and the witness of the Lutheran Confessions.

“c. To provide an instrumentality through which the participating bodies may work together in fulfilling their responsibility of Christian service where coordination or joint activity is deemed by them to be desirable and feasible.”

Functions include providing a forum for discussing mutual concerns and planning common action; promoting understanding, amity, and helpful relationships with other US Luth. chs.; representing interests of participating bodies, upon request, before the public, govts., and other organized bodies and agencies; proposing new work; performing specific services in behalf of participating chs.; establishing liaison with voluntary or unofficial inter-Luth. groups.

V. Structure and Administration. LCUSA is an agency of its participating bodies. Its only authority is that delegated to it by the participants. Except for the constitutional requirement of participation in the program of ongoing theol., study, each body determines the extent of its cooperation in LCUSA activities.

Primary governing assem.: the annual meeting of representatives of the bodies. Each ch. is entitled to 1 representative for every 200,000 bap. mems. in the US or remaining major fraction thereof, with all participants entitled to a least 1 representative.

The annual meeting elects a pres., vice-pres., secy., and 7 other representatives, who together form the Ex. Committee, which acts for the council bet. annual or special meetings. A treas. is selected by the Ex. Committee.

A standing committee for each division, dept., and commission is appointed annually by the Ex. Committee upon nominations made by the participating bodies.

Regular financial support of the council is derived mainly from appropriations made by the participating bodies is proportion to their bap. membership. A current budget and projected needs for 2 additional yrs. are presented for approval to each annual meeting.

Work not provided for in the const. or bylaws cannot be initiated without two-thirds approval of the annual meeting and a majority of the participating bodies.

A gen. secy., elected for 4 yrs., is the chief ex.

VI. Divisions and Functions. Divisions: Educational Services, Mission Services, Pub. Relations, Service to Military Personnel, Theological Studies, Welfare Services.

Office of Research, Statistics, and Archives includes a reference library, archives of inter-Luth. cooperation, and information service and provides for coordination and correlation of research projects in the council and in the participating bodies.

Office of Nat. Youth Agency Relationships represents the interests of the participating bodies in matters relating to civic agencies, e.g., Boy Scouts of Am., Camp Fire Girls, 4-H Clubs; administers ch.-related programs recognized by the youth agencies; provides training opportunities for Luth. leaders assoc. with these youth groups.

Office of World Community Issues was added 1973.

VII. Publications include Interchange, a newsletter; Circle, a news and resource packet for Luth. campus ministers; Challenger, succeeded 1972 by Volunteer, pub. by World Brotherhood Exchange; In Step, for Luths. in the US armed forces; The Lutheran Chaplain, esp. for active duty Luth. military chaplains, chaplains in the reserve forces, and military contact pastors; Focus on Public Affairs, comment on and analysis of nat. and internat. issues; The Lutheran Scouter. HWD

Luther and Civil Authority.

M. Luther* approached the concept of state as authority and power (Ger. Obrigkeit) rather than as community of citizens. He called such authority God's kingdom of the left hand (WA 36, 385), a realm in which God is at work, directing the rule for His purposes (WA 30 I, 136, 152; 42, 129). Powers in ch. and state are under God, who is the ultimate authority (WA 51, 240; cf. 2, 16; 6, 415; 19, 656–658). The authority of the state is est. in the 4th Commandment (LC, 141). To serve in govt. is a noble task. Citizens owe obedience to govt. except when it overreaches itself and tyranically interferes in matters of faith (cf. Jn 19:10–11; WA 28, 286, 359–363). The Luth. Confessions follow Luther in distinguishing bet. ch. and state on basis of function. The ch. operates with the Word, the state with the sword (AC XXVIII). See also Church and State, 10 and bibliography.

Luther and the Reformation, Anniversaries of.

In 1646 the centennial of M. Luther's* death was observed esp. in Wittenberg and Erfurt. In succeeding cents. the date was noted more widely. The anniversary of Luther's birth was not extensively celebrated till 1883, which saw the greatest celebration in honor of Luther which had thus far occurred.

For some time there was little agreement on a date commemorating the Luth. Reformation. In 1568 Pomerania marked the anniversary of Luther's birth. Other areas in Ger. observed the date on which Lutheranism was introd. The centennial of the pub. of Luther's 95 Theses* was observed 1617 and the centennial of the AC 1630. Annual commemorations of the Reformation were apparently observed first in Saxony 1668; Goths followed 1717, Württemberg 1740, Hannover 1769, Schleswig 1770, Baden 1835; but the dates varied (e.g., October 31, November 18, June 25). Beginning ca. 1878, on initiative arising in Eisenach, the Sunday after October 30 was gen. adopted as the anniversary date.

Other important Reformation events are also commemorated (e.g., Catechism anniversaries and anniversaries of the Bible tr.).

Important literature is often pub. on the anniversaries. Less frequently attempts are made to have important events take place (e.g., Prussian* Union 1817).

Lutheran Education Association.

Assoc. of Luth. pastors, teachers, and laymen interested in promoting Christian educ.; organized July 1942 at River Forest, Illinois; endorsed 1944 by the Mo. Syn., which suggested that the Ex. Secy. of the synod's Bd. for Parish Educ. be advisory mem. of the Ex. Bd. of LEA. A research council, later called Research Committee, was created 1946 to identify broad areas of activity in Christian educ. requiring research. Research later came to be handled through the ex. board. LEA chaps. have been est. in all of the synod's teacher-training institutions. LEA publications include a yearbook, monographs on educ. subjects, minutes and essays of convs., and Lutheran Education, successor of Evangelisch-Lutherisches Schulblatt (1865–1920) and Lutheran School Journal (1921–47). ALA

“Lutheraner, Der.”

One of the official organs of The Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod. The last issue was Vol. 130, November–December 1974. See also Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, The, II 5; III 1–2; V 2; Publication Houses, Lutheran.

Lutheran Evangelical Association of Finland

(Luth. Gospel Assoc. of Fin.; Fin. Luterilainen Evankeliumiyhdistys). Organized 1873. Emphasized confessional Luth. theology. Miss. field: Japan. See also Finland, Lutheranism in, 4.

Lutheran Evangelistic Movement, The, Inc.

(LEM). Formed 1945 in Minneapolis, Minnesota; beginnings traced to the 1st Midwinter Evangelistic Conf., 1937; Can. office set up 1972. See also Affiliation of Lutheran Movements.

Lutheran Foreign Mission Endeavors in the United States, Early.

1. Early in the 19th c., Luths. in the US showed interest in for. missions by supporting various Eur. miss. socs. See also Central Missionary Society of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States.

2. The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA lent support to K. T. E. Rhenius* in India. Die deutsche Auswärtige Missions-Gesellschaft (The Ger. For. Missionary Soc.) was organized 1837 to work for Ref. and Luths., but failed; its name in the const. as amended 1841: The Foreign Mission Society of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of the United States; engaged J. C. F. Heyer* as miss. 1840; fearing complications because of difference in policy bet. the Gen. Syn. and ABCFM, with which the Gen. Syn. had cooperated, Heyer resigned 1841; he was then engaged for the same field (India) by the Pennsylvania Ministerium.

3. In 1867 the General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (N) Am. asked the Ex. Committee of Missions of the Pennsylvania Ministerium to carry on the for. miss. work. In 1869 the Gen. Council accepted responsibility for for. missions and appointed the Ex. Committee of Missions of the Pennsylvania Ministerium as the Ex. Committee on For. Missions of the Gen. Council.

4. The United* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the S. began work in Jap. 1892. All for. miss. work of the Gen. Syn., Gen. Council, and United Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the S. was transferred 1918 to The United* Luth. Ch. in Am.

5. The Ev. Luth. Syn. of Iowa* and Other States carried on its for. miss. work in connection with the Gen. Council, the Neuendettelsau* Miss. Soc., the Hermannsburg* Miss., and the Leipzig* Ev. Luth. Miss.

6. The Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States supported the work of the Hermannsburg Miss. in India; 1912 it took over the Hermannsburg stations at Kodur and Puttur, among Telugu in E India. See also India, 13.

7. Norw. Luths. supported missions in Afr., China, India, and Madagascar.

8. The Augustana Syn. (see Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church) supported miss. work in India beginning 1862, Afr. 1866, Persia 1888, Puerto Rico 1898.

See also Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod, The, VI, 8–9; Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod, Districts of The, B, 1–2; Missions, 9–10.

Lutheran Free Church.

Assoc. of Norw. Luth. congs. organized Minneapolis, Minnesota, June 1897, as result of a dispute in the United* Norw. Luth. Ch. involving matters pertaining to union agreements and new trends in theol. thinking, cong. life, and sem. training. Known 1893–97 as Friends of Augsburg. (in reference to Augsburg Theol. Sem. [see Luther Theological Seminary, 1, 4; Ministry, Education of, X]).

The congs. participated in an annual conf. which had no authority over congs. The sovereignty of each cong. under the authority of the Word and Spirit of God was emphasized. All voting mems. and voting mems. of other Luth. congs. who were willing to sign a statement that they accepted the LFC's “Fundamental Principles and Rules for Work” and promised to work for the purpose stated in Art. 2 (“making Lutheran congregations free and living, so that, according to their calling and ability, they may work in spiritual freedom and autonomy for the cause of the Kingdom of God at home and abroad through such agencies and institutions as the congregations themselves may designate”) were eligible to vote. The LFC helped form the NLC 1918. Until 1920 the pres. was only moderator of the annual conference.

Pres. Friends of Augsburg: Christian T. Sangstad 1893–94, G. Sverdrup* 1894–97.

Pres. LFC: Elias P. Harbo 1897–99, 1901–03, 1907–09; Endre E. Gynild 1899–1901, 1905–07, 1909–10, 1912–14, 1916–18, 1923–28; Christopher K. Ytrehus 1903–05; Paul Winther 1910–12; Johan Mattson 1914–16, 1918–20; Olai H. Sletten 1920–23; Hans J. Urdahl 1928–30; Thorvald Olsen Burntvedt 1930–58; John Stensvaag 1958–63.

The LFC merged with The ALC February 1, 1963. LFC statistics 12–31-62: 260 ordained pastors; 328 congs.; 60,564 confirmed mems.; 92,900 bap. mems.

See also American Lutheran Church, The, I; Association of Free Lutheran Congregations, The; Lutheran Council in Canada, 2.

E. L. Fevold, The Lutheran Free Church (Minneapolis, 1969).

Lutheran Human Relations Association of America.

Founded 1953. Holds “it to be the responsibility of the Church to remove all restrictions on her fellowship based upon race or ethnic origin.” Pub.: The Vanguard. HQ Valparaiso U., Valparaiso, Indiana.

Lutheran Laymen's League, International.

LCMS auxiliary organized June 22, 1917, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as Lutheran Laymenls League. Furpose: To aid LCMS in word and deed.

A $100,000 syn. debt led to organization of the LLL. A group including A. H. Ahlbrand,* J. W. Boehne,* B. Bosse,* A. G. Brauer,* H. W. Horst,* T. H. Lamprecht,* E. Seuel,* and F. C. Pritzlaff* met at the latter's home and launched a successful effort to liquidate the debt.

As a thankoffering at the close of WW I, the LLL began collecting a $3 million Endowment Fund to support superannuated and infirm pastors, teachers, profs., and their widows and orphans. By June 1923 the LLL gave the Mo. Syn. more than $2,300,000.

The LLL helped est. KFUO (see Radio Stations, Religious, 3) and the (Internat.) Luth. Hour (see Radio and Television Evangelism, Network, 5–7).

The LLL began pub. Leader's Guide 1943 (quarterly for LLL-affiliated clubs); inaugurated laymen's seminars 1943 (discontinued 1971); began providing scholarships to Valparaiso (Indiana) U., 1944; produced its 1st feature film, Youth for the Kingdom, 1944; initiated an LLL memorial campaign for classroom-administration bldg. at Valparaiso U. 1947; began operation of a Luth. hosp. at Vicksburg, Miss., 1949 (returned to doctor donors 1954).

A program of aid in placing Luth. workers began in the early 1950s. In 1952 The Lutheran Layman, official LLL pub. (begun July 1929 as Lutheran Laymen's League Bulletin [name changed April 1933]), adopted newspaper format. In the 1950s the LLL also cooperated with LCMS in planning a program for enlisting and training the laity.

“The Family Worship Hour,” a radio program, was produced by the LLL 1954–71. Grants to the Conc. Hist. Inst., St. Louis, Missouri, for microfilming began 1954; summer study grants to pastors through Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1955; cosponsorship of the Youth Leadership Training Program at Valparaiso U. 1956.

The LLL added a club services dept. 1956. In 1958 a full-time music dir. was employed. A field services dir. was added for “The Lutheran Hour” 1962, for the LLL 1963.

Having formerly rented space at CPH, the LLL dedicated its own headquarters in St. Louis in April 1959; an expansion wing was dedicated October 1971.

In 1961 the LLL initiated “Preaching Through the Press,” advertisements in publications with wide circulation. EFK

Name changed 1973 to International Lutheran Laymen's League.

See also Laymen's Activity in the Lutheran Church.

Lutheran Lay Renewal.

Lay movement with roots in the United Meth. Ch. (see Methodist Churches, 1); adapted to Luth. theol. and practice in the early 1970s in the Pacific states; spread across the US and into Can. by the early 1980s. See also Affiliation of Lutheran Movements.

Lutheran Lay Training Institute.

School for training laymen for ch. work; est. 1961 on the campus of Conc. Coll., Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The 1950 and 1953 LCMS convs. resolved to develop the training of laymen for ch. work. A planning commission was authorized 1956. This commission developed gen. objectives of an institute. Those who completed the program were to be well grounded in the Christian faith; possess a working knowledge of the Bible; be trained in teaching, witnessing, group work, family services, ch. administration, and miss. services. Establishment of the institute was authorized 1959. MAH

Lutheran Medical Mission Association.

Organized 195l to support LCMS and Syn. Conf. miss. work. Pub. Cross and Caduceus. Dissolved 1981. See also Medical Missions.

Lutheran Press.

Dept. of American* Luth. Publicity Bureau, including its tract publishing operations.

Lutheran Theological Seminary,

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Est. 1826 at Gettysburg by The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. ch. in the United States of America; LCA; joint administration with Lutheran* Theol. Sem., Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, since 1964. See also Ministry, Education of, VI C.

A. R. Wentz, History of the Gettysburg Theological Seminary … 1826–1926 (Philadelphia, [1926]).

Lutheran Theological Seminary,

Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Est. 1864 in Philadelphia; moved 1889 to Mt. Airy, NW cen. Philadelphia; LCA; joint administration with Lutheran* Theol. Sem., Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, since 1964.

Lutheran Theological Seminary,

Saskatoon, Sask., Can. Created 1965 by merger of Lutheran Coll. and Sem. (LCA; see Canada, B 14) and Luther Theol. Sem. (est. 1939; The ALC; see Canada, B 20); LCA and The ALC.

Lutheran Theological Southern Seminary,

Columbia, South Carolina Traces its hist. to a theol. school est. 1830 near Pomaria, South Carolina, by the Ev. Luth. Syn. of South Carolina (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 16, 27); Lexington, South Carolina, chosen as its “permanent location” 1832; a classical dept. added; moved to Newberry, South Carolina; classical dept. named Newberry Coll. 1856. Theol. instruction interrupted by the Civil War; work revived by the Gen. Syn. South first at Walhalla, South Carolina, 1868, than at Columbia, finally at Salem, Virginia; closed 1884; theol. work resumed 1886 by the Ev. Luth. Syn. of South Carolina at Newberry Coll.; given a new impetus by the United Syn. in the South ca. 1898; moved to Mt. Pleasant, ca. 21 mi. SW of Columbia, South Carolina; moved to Columbia, South Carolina, 1911. See also Hazelius, Ernest Lewis; Repass, Stephan Abion.

Lutheran Theology After 1580.

1. The Book* of Concord marked the beginning of about a century of strict Luth. orthodoxy. After many controversies, Luths. achieved unity. (See Lutheran Confessions, C.) Determination to safeguard this blessing accounts for the large development of theol. literature which followed.

2. The theol. calm created by the FC was disturbed by 2 Christological* controversies (see Crypto-Kenotic Controversy; Lütkemann, Joachim) and syncretism.* See also Dorsche, Johann Georg.

3. Luth. orthodoxy was not dead orthodoxy. It lived and flourished. Its useful productions include S. Glass(ius),* Philologia sacra; M. Walther,* Officina biblica; A. Pfeiffer,* Critica sacra and Hermeneutica sacra (later titled Thesaurus hermeneuticus); E. Schmidt,* Lat. tr. of the NT, with notes and Tamieion (Gk. “Treasury”; concordance of the Gk. NT); S. Schmidt,* commentaries on several OT and NT books; A. Calov(ius),* Biblia illustrata; L. Hutter,* Compendium Iocorum theologicorum; J. Gerhard, Loci theologici; J. A. Quenstedt,* Theologia didactico-polemica, sive Systema theologicum.

4. This activity was not merely of the head. Luth. orthodoxy produced J. Arnd,* Bücher vom wahren Christentum and Paradies-Gärtlein; J. Gerhard, Meditationes sacrae and Schola pietatis; C. Scriver,* devotional works; and such hymnists as H. Albert,* T. Clausnitzer,* S. Dach,* P. Flemming,* P. Gerhardt,* J. Heermann,* M. Meyfart,* M. Rinckart,* J. Rist,* G. Weissel.* See also Hymnody, Christian, 5–6.

5. Luth. orthodoxy is also reflected in such rulers as Ernest* I and Gustavus* II.

6. Pietism* spread through Ger., Scand., and Switz., preparing the way for rationalism.*

7. Notable works produced in the period of Pietism: J. G. Walch,* Historische und theologische Einleitung in die Religions-Streitigkeiten and an ed. of M. Luther's works (see Luther, Works of, Editions of); J. L. v. Mosheim,* Institutiones historiae ecclesiasticae; J. A. Bengel,* Gnomon Novi Testamenti; K. H. v. Bogatzky,* Güldenes Schatz-Kästlein der Kinder Gottes. The spirituality of the time found expression in A. H. Francke's* institutions, the works of such missionaries as B. Ziegenbalg,* H. Plütschau,* C. F. Schwartz,* H. P. Egede* and his son Paul, and in hymns (see Hymnody, Christian, 6).

8. By about 1750 rationalism had appeared in Germany. G. W. v. Leibniz* and C. v. Wolff* had planted the seed. Frederick II (1712–86; “the Great”; king of Prussia 1740–86) cultivated the soil. Rationalism substituted dictates of human reason for authority of God's Word. Others connected with the development of rationalism include J. A. Ernesti,* J. D. Michaelis,* J. S. Semler,* J. G. Toellner.* Rationalists who made noteworthy contributions to theol. scholarship include H. F. W. Gesenius* and K. G. Bretschneider.*

9. Rationalism suffered a serious blow at the hand of 2 of its disciples: I. Kant* exalted reason but showed its limitations in spiritual matters; K. A. v. Hase* is credited with having dealt the deathblow to rationalismus* vulgaris with Hutterus redivivus (1828; an attempt to set forth Luth. dogmatics as L. Hutter* might have done had he lived in these days) and a series of pamphlets 1834–37. F. D. E. Schleiermacher* contributed to the decline of the old rationalism by making feeling rather than reason the seat of religion. Luth. orthodoxy never was dead; it continued to live, e.g., in C. Harms.* But neither did rationalism die.

10. Liberal theol. derived the pattern of its development largely from Kant, G. W. F. Hegel,* and Schleiermacher. For Kant not creeds but moral precepts are the important factor in religion. Hegel converted hist. religion into philos. and rational ideas and stimulated the tendency to pantheism; men influenced by Hegel include B. Bauer,* F. C. Baur,* L. A. Feuerbach,* O. Pfleiderer,* D. F. Strauss,* J. Wellhausen.* Schleiermacher gave the new rationalism an anthropocentric approach to theol.

11. Luth. confessionalism reappeared as neo-Lutheranism* in reaction against the Prussian* Union and divided into repristination theol. and the theol. of the Erlangen School. Repristination theol. tried to restore hist. Lutheranism and was represented by C. P. Caspari,* E. W. Hengstenberg,* G. A. T. F. Hönecke,* T. F. D. Kliefoth,* J. K. W. Löhe,* F. A. Philippi,* A. F. C. Vilmar,* C. F. W. Walther.* The Erlangen School tried to combine Reformation theol. with the new learning; confessionalism was not to be static but dynamic; representatives of the Erlangen School included F. Delitzsch (see Delitzsch, 1), F. H. R. v. Frank,* T. A. Harnack,* J. C. K. v. Hofmann,* K. F. A. Kahnis,* C. E. Luthardt,* G. Thomasius.*

12. A. B. Ritschl* broke with the theol. of F. C. Baur's* Tübingen* school and later est. a school of his own: men influenced by Ritschl included W. Bender,* J. F. Gottschick,* K. G. A. v. Harnack,* J. W. Herrmann,* J. W. M. Kaftan,* F. Kattenbusch,* P. Lobstein,* F. Loofs,* H. H. Wendt.*

13. The hist.-religious school (Religionsgeschichtliche* Schule) stressed development of Christianity as seen in light of its hist. and geogr. environment. Christianity, like other religions, is considered a product of evolution. K. H. Graf* and J. Wellhausen* applied this theory to the study of the OT (see Higher Criticism, 12); those who applied it to the study of the NT include R. Otto,* J. Weiss,* W. Wrede.* Other mems. of this school include J. F. W. Bousset,* G. A. Deissmann,* A. Eichhorn,* H. E. F. W. Gressmann,* J. F. H. Gunkel,* W. Heitmüller,* A. Schweitzer,* E. P. W. Troeltsch,* A. Dieterich,* B. Duhm,* J. E. Linderholm,* R. Reitzenstein,* H. Windisch.*

14. More respectful of the creeds of Christianity: in Biblical studies T. v. Zahn,* A. Schlatter,* K. M. A. Kähler,* R. Kittel,* F. E. König*; in Luther research W. M. Walther,* K. Holl,* A. H. Boehmer,* H. Preuss*; in systematic theol. L. H. Ihmels,* O. K. Hallesby,* R. Seeberg,* T. Kaftan.*

These represent various shades of theol. opinions and degrees of conservatism.

15. Other representatives of neo-Lutheranism include W. Elert,* P. A. W. H. Althaus* K. Heim,* G. Kittel,* and exponents of the theol. of Lund.* LWS

See also Luther Renaissance.

J. H. Kurtz, Church History, III, tr. J. MacPherson (London, 1890); J. L. Neve, A History of Christian Thought, II, by O. W. Heick, [rev. ed.] (Philadelphia, 1966); E. H. Klotsche and J. T. Mueller, The History of Christian Doctrine (Burlington, Iowa, 1945).

Lutheran World Federation, The.

Conditions after WW I, relief work by Luths. of the US and other countries, and increased contact bet. Luths. in various parts of the world created desire for meetings in which all Luths. would be represented and where issues of common interest could be discussed. The Allgemeine* Evangelisch-Lutherische Konferenz and the NLC were among leaders whose efforts led to the 1st Luth. World Conference 1923 Eisenach, Ger., which est. the Luth. World Conv. (Lutherischer Weltkonvent); chm. L. H. Ihmels.* The 2d Luth. World Conv. met 1929 Copenhagen, Den.; the 3d 1935 Paris, Fr.; the 4th was to be held 1940 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, but was postponed because of WW II and held 1947 in Lund, Swed. A const. was adopted and the name changed to The Luth. World Federation. 1964 Const.: Art. II: “The Lutheran World Federation acknowledges the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the only source and the infallible norm of all church doctrine and practice, and sees in the three Ecumenical Creeds and in the Confessions of the Lutheran Church, especially in the Unaltered Augsburg Confession and Luther's Catechism, a pure exposition of the Word of God.” On the nature, functions, and scope of The LWF, Art. III of its const. says: “1. Nature. The Lutheran World Federation shall be a free association of Lutheran Churches. It shall act as their agent in such matters as they assign to it. It shall not exercise churchly functions on its own authority, nor shall it have power to legislate for the Churches belonging to it or to limit the autonomy of any Member Church. 2. Functions. In accordance with the preceding paragraphs, The Lutheran World Federation shall: (a) Further a united witness before the world to the Gospel of Jesus Christ as the power of God for salvation. (b) Cultivate unity of faith and confession among the Lutheran Churches of the world. (c) Develop fellowship and cooperation in study among Lutherans. (d) Foster Lutheran interest in, concern for, and participation in ecumenical movements. (e) Support Lutheran Churches and groups as they endeavor to meet the spiritual needs of other Lutherans and to extend the Gospel. (f) Provide a channel for Lutheran Churches and grouos to help meet physical needs. 3. Scope of Authority. In accordance with its nature, function and structure, The Lutheran World Federation may take action on behalf of one or more Member Churches in such matters as they may commit to it.” The 2d LWF assera, was held Hanover. Ger., 1952; the 3d Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1957; the 4th Helsinki, Fin., 1963; the 5th Évian-les-Bains. Fr., 1970; the 6th Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 1977; the 7th Budapest, Hungary 1984.

See also Lutheran World Service; Radio Voice of the Gospel.

Lutheran World Service.

After WW II, interchurch aid and refugee service increased; Luth. chs. often carried on activities with little knowledge of each other's work. In the US, Luth. World Relief, Inc., was founded 1945 as an agency of the National* Luth. Council; it serves people regardless of race, creed, or pol. connection. The Lutheran* World Fed. resolved 1952 to create a Dept. of Luth. World Service. Luth. nat. organizations cooperate with this dept. See also Canada, B 29; National Lutheran Council, 4.

Lutheran Youth Alive

(LYA). Inc. 1969 in California; dissolved 1980; effects absorbed by Lutheran* Youth Encounter. See also Affiliation of Lutheran Movements.

Lutheran Youth Encounter.

Inc. 1965 in Minnesota; HQ Minneapolis. See also Affiliation of Lutheran Movements.

Luther College.

1. Luther Coll., Decorah, Iowa; est. by The Norw. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. (see Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 8); founding resolution adopted 1857; 1st prof. P. L. Larsen*; the school was at Halfway Creek, La Crosse Co., Wisconsin, 1861–62, moved to Decorah 1862; coed. 1936; The ALC. See also Ministry, Education of, VIII B; Schmid(t), Friedrich August.

2. Luther Jr. Coll., Wahoo, Nebraska; formerly Luther Academy; est. 1883 by Augustana Syn.; merged with Midland Coll., Fremont, 1962; LCA. See also Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, 14; Ministry, Education of, VIII C 1.

3. Dr. Martin Luther Coll., New Ulm, Minnesota; est. 1883/84 by Ger. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Minnesota; Wisconsin Syn. 1892. See also Albrecht, Christian Johann; Ministry, Education of, VIII B.

4. Luther Coll., New Orleans, Louisiana The Synodical* Conf. resolved 1902 to est. 1 or 2 schools to train Negro pastors and teachers. F. J. Lankenau* opened the New Orleans school 1903 and was pres. 1903–08. The school also served as a sem. but was reduced 1910 to a preparatory school for Immanuel* Luth. Coll., Greensboro, North Carolina; closed 1925; in 1928 the Syn. Conf. resolved to reopen it; new beginning made 1929; closed 1932.

5. Luther Coll., Regina, Sask., Can.; est. 1913 as Luther Academy at Melville, Sask.; classes began 1914; moved to Regina; affiliated with U. Sask.; coed.; jr. coll.; sponsored by ELCC; action taken 1966 to fed. the school with the U. of Sask. See also Ministry, Education of, VIII C 1.

6. Luther Coll., Teaneck, New Jersey See Lutheran Bible Institute of Teaneck, New Jersey.

Lutherischer Verein.

Founded 1848 in Pomerania to champion Lutheranism; similar socs. were organized in other parts of Ger.; a gen. assoc. was formed 1849 at Wittenberg.

Luther Monuments.

Monuments of M. Luther* are found esp. in the cities where he was active. Among the earliest is that at Wittenberg created 1821 by Johann Gottfried Schadow (1764–1850; b. Berlin, Ger.; sculptor). The one at Worms, in a group of statues, was created 1868 by E. F. A. Rietschel*; a character study of the highest order, it shows Luther standing with his closed right hand resting on a closed Bible. He is surrounded by statues of other Reformation and pre-Reformation figures: G. Savonarola* seated at the front of the base, to Luther's right; J. Hus* similarly to Luther's left; P. Waldo (see Waldenses) and J. Wycliffe* similarly at the 2 rear corners of the base; Frederick* III (“the Wise”) standing on a separate pedestal at Luther's right in the foreground; similarly J. Reuchlin* at Luther's right in the background, Philip* of Hesse at his left in the foreground, and P. Melanchthon* at his left in the background; on a separate pedestal, to Luther's right, bet. Frederick III and Reuchlin is a seated figure, facing Luther, with the palm of peace, representing the city of Augsburg; similarly a seated figure at Luther's left, bet. Philip of Hesse and Melanchthon, represents mourning Magdeburg, and a seated figure behind Luther, bet. Reuchlin and Melanchthon, represents protesting Speyer. On the wall framing the entire group to Luther's right, rear, and left are emblems (left to right as you face the monument) of 1. Brunswick, 2. Bremen, 3. Konstanz, 4. Eisenach, 5. Eisleben, 6. Emden, 7. Erfurt, 8. Frankfurt, 9. Schwäbisch-Hall, 10. Hamburg, 11. Heilbronn, 12. Jena, 13. Königsberg, 14. Leipzig. 15. Lindau, 16. Lübeck, 17. Marburg, 18. Memmingen, 19. Nördlingen, 20. Riga, 21. Schmalkalden, 22. Strasbourg, 23. Ulm, 24. Wittenberg.

Other important statues in Ger. include one in Eisleben created 1883 by Rudolf Siemering (1835–1905; b. Königsberg, Ger.; sculptor) and the Luther-Melanchthon memorial in Leipzig, designed 1883 by Johannes Schilling (1828–1910; b. Mittweida, Ger.; sculptor).

Replicas of the Worms statue in the US include (1) one dating from 1883 in front of Luther Place Memorial Luth. Ch., Washington, D. C.; (2) one dating from 1903 at Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; (3) one at Luther Coll., Decorah, Iowa; (4) one at Wartburg Sem., Dubuque, Iowa; (5) one at Conc. Coll., St. Paul, Minnesota; (6) one in Luther Memorial Park, Detroit, Michigan

The Luther statue that for nearly 20 yrs. was at Conc. Sem., Springfield, Illinois, was moved to Conc. Sem., Ft. Wayne, Indiana (see Ministry, Education of, X D), and rededicated September 11, 1977. Cast in Ger. by Friedrich Adolf Soeterbier, the 2-ton statue was a gift of alumni to the sem. 1957. It was refinished by Fred Petrucci, a Michigan sculptor. Four cornerstones of the main bldgs. on the Springfield campus (Craemer Hall, built 1929; the gymnasium, built 1949 and remodeled 1972; Van Horn Hall, built 1951; Wessel Hall, built 1953) form part of the statue's base. The statue is a replica of the younger Luther. All its lines draw attention to the face. Luther is portrayed in monk's garb made to resemble medieval armor. The Bible, pressed to Luther's heart, is opened for the world to see.

Other Luther statues in the US include (1) one by Hans Schuler (1874–1951; b. Morange, Lorraine, Ger.; to US 1880; sculptor) formerly (since 1936) in Druid Hill Park, since 1959 at 33d St. and Hillen Rd., near Lake Montebello, Baltimore, Maryland; (2) one at Lutheran Theol. Sem., Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; (3) one by Walter Kirtland Hancock (b. 1901 St. Louis, Missouri; sculptor) in the “Washington Cathedral” (also known as Nat. [Prot. Episc.] Cathedral; Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul), Washington, D. C.

Luther Northwestern Theological Seminary,

St. Paul, Minnesota Established July 1, 1982. by merger of Luther Theol. Sem. (see Luther Theological Seminary, 1) and Northwestern* Luth. Theol. Sem. In 1976 these sems. were unified. A joint council was made responsible for oversight of their day to day operations; 1 pres, was elected to form 1 administration; the faculties formed joint depts.; a common curriculum became effective 1977; possible merger began to be studied 1980. ALC-LCA.

Luther Renaissance.

The sterility of rationalism* and the theol. waywardness of Pietism* led, by the 19th c., to restudies of original Lutheranism. Revived interest in M. Luther* led to pub. of the Erlangen ed. of his works and to advocacy of confessional Lutheranism. Controversies and theol. currents engendered by these studies developed a huge literature on doctrinal and hist. themes dealing with Luther and climaxed in the definitive critical ed. of his works (Weimar, 1883–; see Luther, Works of, Editions of). A 2d period of the back-to-Luther movement began with the 20th c. and the effort to discern motives of primitive Luth. concepts introd. into the Ger. ch. by Luther's co-workers and successors. In Scand. the theol. of Lund* contributed to the Luther renaissance. Am. contributions include those of J. M. Reu, the Center* for Reformation Research, the St. Louis ed. (also called Walch 2) of Luther's works, and the Am. ed. of Luther's works in Eng. (see Luther, Works of, Editions of), development toward the Luth. parish ideal, and studies in the Luth. liturgy. The Luther renaissance played a part in Eur. and Am. neo-orthodoxy.* RRC

See also Lutheran Theology After 1580, 11–15: Neo-Lutheranism.

Luther Society

(Luther-Gesellschaft). Est. 1918 on initiative of R. C. Eucken* as a result of the 1917 Reformation Jubilee, to promote better knowledge and understanding of M. Luther* and his work. Headquarters Hamburg, Ger.

Luther Theological Seminary.

1. Luther Theol. Sem., St. Paul, Minnesota; est. 1869 as Augsburg Sem. (see 4), which united 1963 with Luther Theol. Sem., St. Paul. The latter was est. 1876 by the Norw. Syn. (see Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 8–13) as a “practical” sem. at Madison, Wisconsin; “theoretical” dept. added 1878 (moved to Madison from St. Louis, Missouri); moved temporarily to Minneapolis, Minnesota, in the 1880s; to Robbinsdale, Minnesota, 1889; to the Hamline section of St. Paul 1899; merged 1917 with the United* Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am. sem. (see 4) and Hauge's Norw. Ev. Luth. Syn. (see Eielsen Synod) sem. to form Luther Theol. Sem., St. Anthony Park, St. Paul; ELC 1917–61; since 1961 one of the 4 units of The ALC sem. Augsburg* Theol. Sem. of the Lutheran* Free Ch. united 1963 with Luther Theol. Sem. on the latter's campus. See also Luther Northwestern Theological Seminary; Red Wing Seminary.

2. Luther Theol. Sem., Saskatoon, Sask., Can. See Lutheran Theological Seminary, Saskatoon, Sask., Can.

3. Luther Sem. of the Joint Ohio Syn., St. Paul, Minnesota See Ohio and Other States, The Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of, 8.

4. Luther Sem. (Norw.), St. Anthony Park, St. Paul, Minnesota Founded 1890 in connection with formation of The United* Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am., by merger of the Anti-Missouri* Brotherhood sem., Northfield, Minnesota; parts of Augsburg* Theol. Sem., Minneapolis; and Augustana Sem., Beloit, Iowa (begun 1874 at Springfield, near Decorah, Iowa, by the Scand. Ev. Luth. Augustana Syn. of N. Am., moved 1876 to Marshall, Wisconsin, 1881 to Beloit, Iowa, across the state line from Canton, South Dakota). The United Ch. sem. was located 1890–93 in Augsburg Sem. bldgs., after that in temporary quarters, then in more permanent quarters in Minneapolis, and moved to St. Paul 1902; merged 1917 with other schools (see 1) to form Luther Theol. Sem., St. Anthony Park, St. Paul, Minnesota

See also Ministry, Education of, X–XI.

Lütkemann, Joachim

(1608–55). B. Demmin, Pomerania; educ. Griefswald, Strasbourg, Rostock; disputed the continuation of the true humanity of Jesus in death. Works include Der Vorschmack göttlicher Güte, a book of devotions.

Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of.

In W Eur. Area: 1,034 sc. mi. Pop. (1982 est.): 400,000, predeminantly a mixture of Fr. and Germans. Languages: Fr., Ger., Luxembourgian. Religion: RC 94%.

“Lux mundi”

(Lat. “light of the world”). Series of studies in the religion of the incarnation; pub. 1889 under editorship of C. Gore* by Oxford Angl. scholars including H. S. Holland,* J. R. Illingworth,* and F. Paget.*

Luzzatto, Samuel David

(Heb. acronymic abbreviation Schedal; 1800–65). B. Trieste; conservative Jewish theol.; Heb. and Aramaic language scholar. Tr. parts of the Bible into It., with Heb. commentary; other works include studies in Targums.

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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