Christian Cyclopedia

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Löber, Christian

(1683–1747). B. Orlamünde, Thuringia, Ger.; educ. Jena; gen. supt. Altenburg. Contributed to the 1736 ed. Das Weimarische* Bibelwerk; other works include Die Lehre der Wahrheit zur Gottseligkeit, d. i. Theologia positiva, deutsch, new ed. entitled Evangelisch-Lutherische Dogmatik, with preface by C. F. W. Walther.*

Löber, Christoph Heinrich

(October 11, 1828–March 18, 1897). Son of G. H. Löber*; b. Eichenberg, near Kahla, Saxe-Altenburg, Ger.; to US 1839 (see Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, The, II 1); educ. Conc. Sem., Altenburg, Missouri Pastor Frohna, Missouri, 1850; Thornton (Thornton Station; Coopers Grove), Cook Co., Illinois, 1862; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1869. Dir. Conc. Coll., Milwaukee, 1885–93. Chaplain Luth. Hosp. and Wartburg Old Folks Home, Brooklyn, New York 1894.

Löber, Gotthold Heinrich

(January 5, 1797–August 19, 1849). Father of C. H. Löber*; b. Kahla, Saxe-Altenburg, Ger.; educ. Jena; tutor 1819–24; pastor Eichenberg and Bibra, near Kahla, 1824; to US 1839 (see Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, The, II 1); pastor Altenburg, Missouri, and served neighboring congs.; instructor at the Luth. elementary and high school, Altenburg; attended 1846 meetings in St. Louis, Missouri, and Fort Wayne, Indiana, preliminary to organization of the Mo. Syn.; helped organize Mo. Syn. 1847 as advisory mem. and, with W. Sihler,* was elected examiner.

R. O. Rupprecht, “Gotthold Heinrich Loeber,” CHIQ (1938), 48–54.

Lobstein, Paul

(1850–1922). Prot. theol.; b. Épinal, Fr.; educ. Strasbourg, Tübingen, and Göttingen; prof. Strasbourg; theol. position related to that of E. G. E. Reuss,* L. A. Sabatier,* and A. Ritschl.* Works include An Introduction to Protestant Dogmatics; The Virgin Birth of Christ.

Lobwasser, Ambrosius

(1515–85). Luth. theol., poet, and educ.; b. Schneeberg, Saxony, E cen. Ger., in the Erzgebirge; educ. Leipzig; lecturer till 1550; tutor 1550–57; court councilor and chancellor Meissen 1557; prof. law Königsberg 1563–80. Works include Der Psalter dess Königlichen Propheten Davids (the so-called “Lobwasser Psalter”), a tr. into Ger. which he based on the Ref. Fr. metrical Psalter of C. Marot* and T. Beza* in order to retain the musical settings of C. Goudimel.*

Lochman, John George

(Johann Georg; December 2, 1773–July 10, 1826). B. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; educ. U. of Pennsylvania; tutored for ministry by J. H. C. Helmuth. Pennsylvania Ministerium pastor Lebanon, Pennsylvania, 1794–1815; Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 1815–26. Pres. The Ev. Luth. Gen. Syn. of the US of N. Am. 1821. Works include The History, Doctrine and Discipline of the Evangelical Lutheran Church; Principles of the Christian Religion.

C. A. Hay, Memoirs of Rev. Jacob Goering, Rev. George Lochmann, DD, and Rev. Benjamin Kurtz, DD, LL.D. (Philadelphia, 1887).

Lochner, Friedrich Johann Carl

(September 23, 1822–February 14, 1902). B. Nürnberg, Middle Franconia, Bav., Ger.; studied drawing, engraving, and music; failing eyesight and advice of J. K. W. Löhe* prompted him to change career and study for Luth. ministry at Preparatory School in Nürnberg, sem. at Schwabach, and sem. at Neuendettelsau, where he studied liturgical singing under F. E. Hommel*; to Am. 1845. Pastor Salem United Luth. and Ref. Cong., Toledo, Ohio, 1845–46; failed in efforts to have cong. constitute itself a Luth. cong. Served parishes in Madison and Macoupin Cos., Illinois, 1846–50; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1850–76; pastor Springfield, Illinois, and instructor at Conc. Sem. there 1876–87; asst. pastor Trin. Luth. Ch., Milwaukee, 1889. With P. Fleischmann* et al. est. a training school for teachers in Milwaukee 1855; this school later moved to Fort Wayne, Indiana, then to Addison, Illinois, then to River Forest, Illinois (see Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, The, V 6). Issued Notwehrblatt to counteract the influence of J. A. A. Grabau*; other works include Feste und Gebräuche in der lutherischen und katholischen Kirche; Der Hauptgottesdienst der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Kirche; Liturgie für einen Kinder-Gottesdienst zur Feier der heil. Weihnacht; Liturgische Formulare; Osterbuch; Passionsbuch; Predigten über die Episteln der Sonn- und Festtage des Kirchenjahres nebst ein paar Gelegenheitspredigten. See also Detzer, John Adam; Michigan Synod, 2. FLP

“Friedrich Johann Carl Lochner: An Autobiography,” tr. W. Lochner, CHIQ, VI (1934), 110–117; O. F. Hattstädt, “The Life and Works of Pastor Frederick Lochner,” CHIQ, XXI (1949), 166–174.

Lochner, Karl Friedrich

(1634–97). B. Nürnberg, Ger.; educ. Breslau, Altdorf, and Rostock; vicar Fürth 1659; pastor Fürth 1663. Hymn “Was gibst du denn, o meine Seele” ascribed to him.

Lochner, Louis

(April 7, 1842–November 9, 1909). B. Nürnberg, Ger.; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; vicar Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1864. Pastor Rich, near Matteson, Cook Co., Illinois, 1864; Richmond, Virginia, 1867; Chicago, Illinois, 1877. Active promoter of home and for. miss.

Lochner, Martin

(February 7, 1883–February 6, 1945). Son of F. J. C. Lochner*; Luth. pastor, educ., organist. B. Springfield, Illinois; educ. Conc. Coll., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; prof. Immanuel Coll., Greensboro, North Carolina, and pastor of a Negro ch. at Meherrin, Virginia; prof. Addison (Illinois) Teachers Sem. and Conc. Teachers Coll., River Forest, Illinois, 1912–45; taught Eng., Ger., music, hymnology, liturgics; organist 20 yrs. Grace Luth. Ch., River Forest. Ed. music dept. Lutheran School Journal; other works include Handbook for Organists.

Lochner, Stephan

(Lochener; Loechener; formerly misread Loethener; Stephen; Stefan; perhaps ca. 1405/15–1451/52). Ger. painter; b. Meersburg, S Baden, Ger., on Überlinger See, a branch of Lake Constance; active in Cologne 1442–51; combined strong realism with excellent perspective. Works include Altar of the Patron Saints; Last Judgment; Adoration of the Magi; Presentation in the Temple.


(short for Lat. loci classici, literally “classical places,” i. e. passages). Passages standard for elucidating a subject or word. Theol. works entitled Loci were produced in the 16th and 17th cents. by P. Melanchthon,* M. Chemnitz,* J. Gerhard,* A. Praetorius,* V. Strigel,* M. Hafenreffer,* L. Hutter.* et al. In course of time the term loci communes (“common places”) came to connote any work dealing with the sum of Christian doctrine, loci theologici (“theological places [or passages]”) came to denote the content, and thus the main passages of Scripture as included in individual loci.

Lock, Lars Carlson

(Laurentius Carolus Lokenius; d. 1688). B. Fin.; to US from Swed. 1647; Luth. pastor New Swed. See also United States, Religious History of the, 6

Locke, John

(1632–1704). Philos.; b. Wrington, Somersetshire, Eng.; exponent of empirical psychol.; held that all knowledge is acquired by experience through senses and through reflection on sense experience; denied existence of innate ideas, even moral and religious, and believed mind initially to be tabula* rasa (Lat. “blank slate”); held that faith is above, but not contrary to, reason; advocated tolerance in religious matters and unity among Christians; held Godhead as Supreme Being, virgin birth and Messiahship of Jesus, miracles, need of living a Christian life, resurrection; some of his concepts were developed by later adherents of deism.* Works include An Essay Concerning Human Understanding; The Reasonableness of Christianity, as Delivered in the Scriptures; Some Thoughts Concerning Education; Two Treatises of Government; Elements of Natural Philosophy. See also Deism, III 3.

R. I. Aaron, John Locke, 2d ed. (Oxford, 1955); J. Gibson, Locke's Theory of Knowledge and Its Historical Relations (Cambridge, Eng., 1917); S. G. Hefelbower, The Relation of John Locke to English Deism (Chicago, 1918).


Tombs in catacombs* in form of horizontal rectangular niches.

Lodenstein, Jodocus von

(Joost van Lodensteijn; Lodensteyn; 1620–77). Ref. theol., Pietist, ascetic, poet; b. Delft, Neth.; educ. Utrecht under influence of G. Voet* and Franeker under influence of J. Cocceius.* Pastor Zoetermeer, near Delft, 1644; Sluis, Flanders, 1650; Utrecht 1653. Works include Bloemlezing uit de Gedichten van J. van Lodensteyn; De Heerlykheyd van een waar Christelyk Leven.


(1) Halls or meeting places of local branches of Masons and other secret socs.; (2) groups of persons composing such branches; (3) fraternal orders or secret socs.

Modern lodges have no hist. connection with secret socs. of ancient times or of primitive, savage tribes. They are gen. patterned after Freemasonry.*

Common to all fraternal orders properly designated as lodges: (1) ritual: dialog, pantomime, and play acting to illustrate importance and teachings of the order; (2) ritualistic initiation, almost always religious or semireligious, and usually including 1 or more of the following: prayers, Scripture readings, lessons inculcating some moral principle, an altar, chaplain, and oaths in which God is invoked as witness; (3) aims: moral and spiritual advancement and mutual aid, the latter sometimes in sick benefits and death benefits. Many lodges use a burial ritual in which the hope of a blessed hereafter is offered on basis of good moral ideals and conduct.

Am. has been a fertile field for lodges; several thousand were organized in the eighties and nineties of the 19th c., each with its own ritual and most with some insurance feature. Many lodges ignored mortality tables, defaulted on payments, and passed out of existence; losses ran into billions of dollars.

Ritualistic features of men's lodges are losing drawing power because of a soc. tendency toward ready-made entertainment and emphasis on family activities. Women's organizations still tend strongly toward ceremony and ritualism. Some local lodges have instituted memberships without initiation, but this is discouraged by the governing bodies and often forbidden by lodge statute.

To provide information, literature, and advice concerning fraternal organizations, The Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod maintains a Commission on Fraternal Organizations and has engaged the services of a full-time ex. secy. Objectives of the Commission include meeting and negotiating with officials of fraternal organizations in hope of having removed from their rituals and philos. all things that are contrary to the Gospel or that require compromise of Christian convictions. The Commission also is working in the field of audio-visual aids and issues releases on fraternal organizations. TG, PHL

Lods, Adolphe

(1867–1948). OT scholar; b. Courbevoie, suburb of Paris, Fr.; prof. OT on ev. theol. faculty Paris; prof. Heb. literature on Faculté des Lettres, Sorbonne, Paris, 1906–37; used literary-critical methods of J. Wellhausen*; applied principles of archaeol. and sociol. to Biblical material.

Loesche, Georg Karl David

(1855–1932). B. Berlin, Ger.; educ. Bonn, Tübingen, and Berlin; prof. ch. hist. Vienna, Austria; active in Gesellschaft für die Geschichte des Protestantismus in Österreich, founded 1879, and ed. its yearbook beginning 1889.

Loewenthal, Isidor

(ca. 1827–64). B. Posen (Poznan), Prussian Poland, of Jewish parents; to US 1846; converted to Christianity; educ. Princeton (New Jersey) Theol. Sem.; Presb. miss. to N India 1856. Tr. NT into Pashto, language of the Afghans.

Löffler, Josias Friedrich Christian

(Loeffler; 1752–1816). Rationalist theol.; b. Saalfeld, Ger.; prof. Frankfurt an der Oder; gen. supt. and mem. of high consistory Gotha. Works include Kleine Schriften; Bonifacius; sermons.

Loftis, Zenas Sanford

(May 11, 1881–August 12, 1909). B. Gainesboro, Tennessee; educ. Vanderbilt U., Nashville, Tennessee; active in retail drug business, manufacturing laboratories, slum miss. work, and teaching in a Chinese S. S. in St. Louis, Missouri; volunteered for med. miss. work; sent by For. Christian Missionary Soc., Cincinnati, Ohio, to Tibet 1908; d. Batang, China. Wrote Message from Batang.

A. McLean, Epoch Makers of Modern Missions (New York, 1912), pp. 282–296.

Logic, Symbolic

(logistic; mathematical logic; algebra of logic). System of logic traced to G. W. v. Leibniz* and developed by F. L. G. Frege* et al.; characterized by use of symbols similar to those of mathematics and by careful deductions.

Logical Positivism

(logical neopositivism; consistent empiricism; logical empiricism; scientific empiricism). Philos. movement which fl. in the 1930s, with roots in Eng. and Austria; primarily concerned with language and epistemology; exponents tried to achieve empirical and scientific accuracy in all philos. thought. Held that a sentence is significant only if it can be empirically verified in principle; mathematical and logical propositions are tautological and do not contribute to knowledge; statements not empirical, and tautological statements, are “meaningless”; metaphysical and theol. propositions are rejected as lacking cognitive meaning. Prominent representatives of the movement include L. Wittgenstein* (in his early writings) and B. A. W. Russell.* See also Scientism.

A. J. Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic, 2d ed. (London, 1946); R. Carnap, Philosophy and Logical Syntax (London, 1935).


(Gk. “word”). Jn 1:1, 14 the term designates the 2d Person of the Trinity* (see also Christ Jesus). When one speaks a word, it comes from within and reveals his thoughts. The 2d Person of the Trin. is called Word because He is the Son of God, begotten of the Father from eternity; He reveals thoughts of God about us, e.g., His love and gracious plan of salvation. John's use of the term rests on divine inspiration, the teaching of Christ, and the OT Pr 8:22–30 wisdom (term parallel to “Word”) is personified and said to have been before the earth came into existence. Logos connotes thought, understanding, principle. The assumption that John borrowed the term from Philo* Judaeus or Stoicism* is gratuitous. See also Angel of the Lord; Apollinaris of Laodicea; Arianism, 1.

Löhe, Johann Konrad Wilhelm

(February 21, 1808–January 2, 1872). B. Fürth, near Nürnberg, Ger.; educ. Nürnberg, Erlangen, and Berlin; pastor Neuendettelsau 1837; mem. of the State Ch.; bore testimony against its rationalism and laxity and against state control of the ch.

Löhe responded to F. C. D. Wyneken's* appeals for help in support of Luth. ch. work in Am. He pub. a plea for workers 1841 and with J. F. Wucherer pub. a paper 1843 in behalf of America's need: Kirchliche Mittheilungen aus und über Nord-Amerika. He supported a theol. school for training emergency helpers (Nothelferseminar), est. 1846 at Fort Wayne, Indiana, with W. Sihler* at its head and 11 students enrolled, including C. H. R. Lange,* H. Wunder,* and C. J. A. Strasen.* The school opened in rented quarters; soon land and bldgs. were bought with money collected largely by Löhe and friends. see also Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, The, I; Teachers, 4.

On request of the Mo. Syn., Löhe turned the school over to it 1847 (see also Ministry, Education of, X F), though he did not fully agree with the Mo. Syn. const. on the doctrine of the ministry. Differences increased (to include the doctrine of the ch. and ownership of the teacher training school at Saginaw, Michigan; see also Grossmann, Georg Martin), intensified, and led to a break 1853 bet. Löhe and the Missouri Synod. Löhe and his followers taught the oneness of the visible and invisible ch., but distinguished bet. them, holding that there is a visible assem. of the called, within which is an invisible assem. of the elect (cf. Mt 22:14); these 2 assemblies are related much like body and soul; pure confession and faithfulness to Scripture are marks of that denomination which has the most truth or the complete truth, the church par excellence.

Contrary to the Mo. Syn., Löhe held that the office of the ministry is a divine institution in its own right and does not derive its right and authority from the local cong.; a cong. does not transfer its powers to bearers of the ministry but is simply the instrument of Christ for conferring the ministry; ch. governance is part of the office of the ministry. Löhe feared that C. F. W. Walther* and other Saxons placed too much power into the hands of the cong. and that chaos would result. After the split bet. Löhe and Walther, Löhe men in Am. founded the Iowa Syn. (see Iowa and Other States, Evangelical Lutheran Synod of).

In 1849 Löhe est. the Neuendettelsau* Miss. Soc.; in 1854 he est. a deaconess soc. in Bav. The Deaconess Home at Neuendettelsau opened 1854; chapel was added 1858–59, Rettungshaus 1862, Blödenanstalt 1864, Magdalenium 1865, hosp. for men 1867, hosp. for women 1869. Construction continued except during WW I and II, resulting in many bldgs., including old folks homes, a new and greatly expanded hosp., a secondary school (Augustana-Hochschule), a pub. house (Freimund-Verlag), and a sem. to train pastors for N. Am., Australia, New Guinea, and Brazil. Löhe missioners include E. A. Brauer,* J. G. Burger,* E. O. Clöter,* F. A. Crämer,* J. A. Detzer,* J. A. Ernst,* C. J. H. Fick,* A. G. G. Francke,* J. H. P. Graebner,* G. W. C. Hattstädt,* F. W. Husmann,* C. H. R. Lange,* F. J. C. Lochner,* C. A. W. Röbbelen,* J. A. Saupert,* J. M. G. Schaller,* G. E. C. F. Sievers,* W. Sihler,* W. S. Stubnatzy,* P. J. Trautmann,* C. L. A. Wolter,* H. Wunder.* See also Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, The, I 2.

Liturgical life of Lutheranism in Am. was greatly influenced by Löhe's Agende für christliche Gemeinden des lutherischen Bekenntnisses (1844; 2d enl. ed. 1853–59), esp. prepared for Luths. in N. Am. In the foreword to the 1st ed., directed to F. C. D. Wyneken, Löhe says that he examined ca. 200 old agendas (see Agenda) in search of best usage. The Order of Communion (also called Hauptgottesdienst, i. e., main service) contains specific and complete rubrics.* Also included among other things in Agende: orders for matins* and vespers*; preces for lauds,* vespers, prime, compline (see also Hours, Canonical); litany*; gen. prayers; orders for ordination and installation of pastors, for baptism, confirmation, confession and absolution, weddings, churching of women, communion of the sick, consecration of the dying. It was gradually supplanted by Kirchen-Agende issued 1856 by the Mo. Syn.

Other works include Einfältiger Beichtunterricht; Beicht- und Communion-Büchlein für evangelische Christen; Samenkörner des Gebetes, tr. H. A. Weller, Seed-Grains of Prayer; Haus-, Schul- und Kirchenbuch; Evangelien-Postille; Epistel-Postille; Martyrologium; Hausbedarf christlicher Gebete; Der Kleine Katechismus Dr. Martin Luthers, in Fragen und Antworten erklärt; Von der weiblichen Einfalt; Drei Bücher von der Kirche, tr. E. T. Horn,* Three Books Concerning the Church; Vom christlichen Hausgottesdienst; Erinnerungen aus der Reformationsgeschichte von Franken. FLP

J. Deinzer, Wilhelm Löhes Leben, 4th ed., 3 vols. in 2 (Neuendettelsau, 1935); T. Schäfer, Wilhelm Löhe (Gütersloh, 1909); H. Kressel, “Löhe als Künstler,” Allgemeine Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirehenzeitung, LX (1927), col. 1195–97; 1220–25; 1242–45, Wilhelm Löhe als Prediger (Gütersloh, 1929), Wilhelm Löhe als Liturg und Liturgiker (Neuendettelsau, 1952), and Wilhelm Löhe als Katechet und als Seelsorger (Neuendettelsau, 1955); S. Hebart, Wilhelm Löhes Lehre von der Kirche, ihrem Amt und Regiment (Neuendettelsau, 1939); Wilhelm Löhe: Gesammelte Werke, ed. K. Ganzert (Neuendettelsau, 1951–; vols. III–VII in 10 by 1966); E. H. Heintzen, “Wilhelm Loehe and the Missouri Synod, 1841–1853” (unpub. doctoral thesis, U. of Illinois, Urbana. 1964); J. L. Schaaf, “Wilhelm Löhe's Relation to the American Lutheran Church” (unpub. doctoral thesis, U. Heidelberg, Ger., 1962).

Lohman, Alexander Frederik de Savornin

(1837–1924). Neth. statesman; prof. Free U. Amsterdam 1884–96; with A. Kuyper* opposed liberalism; later broke with Kuyper.

Lohmann, Rudolf

(1825–79). Luth. theol.; b. Winsen an der Aller, near Celle, Ger.; educ. Halle and Göttingen; pastor Fürstenwalde 1853–65, Müden an der Örtze (near Hermannsburg) 1866; favored Immanuel Syn. against the Breslau Syn. in the controversy about ch. polity (see also Germany, Lutheran Free Churches in, 1–3). Works include Lutherische und unierte Kirche; Von Luther's Tode bis zur Concordienformel.

Lohmeyer, Ernst

(1890–1946). Prot. NT scholar; b. Dorsten, Westphalia, Ger.; taught at Breslau and Greifswald; was nominated rector Greifswald 1945; applied form criticism (see Isagogics, 3) to Pauline Epistles; opposed Nazism (see Germany, C 4; Socialism, 3); arrested for unknown reasons; day and place of death unknown. Works include Galilüa and Jerusalem; Das Vater-unser; commentaries on NT books.

Lohmüller, Johann

(Lomoller; ca. 1500–60). City secy. Riga; won for Lutheranism by A. Knöpken*; Reformer of Livonia; M. Luther,* Den auserwählten lieben Freunden Gottes, allen Christen zu Riga, Reval und Dorpat in Livland (WA 12, 143–150) replied to his letters.

Loisy, Alfred Firmin

(1857–1940). RC theol.; b. Ambrières, Fr.; priest 1879; prof. Heb. and exegesis Institut Catholique, Paris; influenced by L. M. O. Duchesne* and J. E. Renan*; exponent of modernism*; dismissed from Institut 1893 as result of controversy about Biblical inerrancy; 5 works placed on Index* of Prohibited Books 1903; excommunicated 1908 as vitandus (see Keys, Office of the, 9); prof. ch. hist. Collège de France 1909–26, École des Hautes Études 1924–27. Works include L'Évangile et l'Église; Les Évangiles synoptiques; La Naissance du Christianisme; tr. of Acts.


Term of uncertain origin designating (1) a 14th c. Neth. sect related to Beghards* and Beguines; (2) followers of J. Wycliffe.*

Loman, Abraham Dirk

(1823–97). Dutch Prot. theol.; b. The Hague, Neth.; educ. Luth. and Mennonite sems. Amsterdam; pastor of Luth. congs. Maastricht 1848–49, Deventer 1849–56; prof. Luth. sem. Amsterdam 1856, U. Amsterdam 1877–93. In 1881 he held that Christ was not a hist. person but the incorporation of thoughts and principles developed in the 2d c.; His death and resurrection are the death of Israel and its revival in Christianity. In 1882 he admitted the historicity of Christ but denied that He founded Christianity. Works include Symbool en werkelijkheid in de Evangelische geschiedenis; Het Vierde Evangelie.

London Confession.

Several Bap. confessions are called London Confession. See Democratic Declarations of Faith, 3.

London Jews' Society.

Organized 1809 as London Soc. for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews, commonly called London Jews' Soc.; later called Church Missions to Jews, and then (1962) The Church's Ministry among the Jews. Mission fields included Egypt, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Tunisia, Algeria. Morocco, Ethiopia. Headquarters London, Eng.

London Missionary Society, The.

Founded London, Eng., 1795 by Congs., Angls., Presbs., Wesleyans. Fundamental principle was to be interdenominational, and “not to send Presbyterianism, Independency, Episcopacy, or any other form of church order and government (about which there may be difference of opinion among serious persons), but the glorious Gospel of the blessed God, to the heathen, and that it shall be left (as it ought to be left) to the minds of the persons whom God may call into the fellowship of His Son from among them, to assume for themselves such form of church government as to them shall appear most agreeable to the Word of God.” In recent times the soc. has been maintained chiefly by Congregationalists. Fields have included S. Pacific, India, S Afr., Madagascar, China, Papua.

Löner, Josua

(Löhner; Lohner; Loner[us]; Lonnerus; 1535–95). Son of K. Löner*; b. Ölsnitz im Vogtland, Saxony, Ger.; Luth. theol.; educ. Wittenberg; positions included supt. at Altenburg. Coauthor 1593 Saxon Visitation Articles (see Articles of Visitation); other works include sermons on Daniel and Jonah.

Löner, Kaspar

(Löhner; Lohner; Loner[us]; Lonnerus; Caspar; 1493–1546). Father of J. Löner*; Ger. priest, reformer, and poet; b. (Markt) Erlbach, Middle Franconia, Ger.; educ. in monastery at Heilsbronn and at U. Erfurt; served at Nesselbach 1520, Hof 1524; removed for preaching Luth. doctrine; at Wittenberg 1526; pastor Ölsnitz im Vogtland, Saxony, 1527, Hof 1527–28, Ölsnitz 1531; preacher Naumburg 1542; pastor Nördlingen 1544. Ed. hymnals; other works include Unterricht des Glaubens.

Long, Ralph Herman

(December 3, 1882–February 19, 1948). B. Loudonville, Ohio; educ. Capital U. (coll. and Ev. Luth. Theol. Sem.), Columbus, Ohio. Joint Syn. of Ohio pastor Newton Falls-Warren, Ohio, 1909–13; Coraopolis, Pennsylvania, 1913–21; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1921–27. Ex. dir. NLC 1930–48.

Long, Simon Peter

(October 7, 1860–January 3, 1929). B. McZena, near Loudonville, Ashland Co., Ohio; educ. Capital U. (coll. and Ev. Luth. Theol. Sem.), Columbus, Ohio, and Luth. Theol. Sem., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Served congs. in Ohio and Illinois 1886–1929. Pres. Lima Coll., Lima, Ohio, 1898–1903. Prof. Chicago Luth. Bible School 1921–29; its pres. in the later 1920s. Works include The Wounded Word; The Eternal Epistle; The Crime Against Christ.

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth

(1807–82). Poet; Unitarian; b. Portland, Maine; educ. Bowdoin Coll., Brunswick, Maine; prof. modern languages Bowdoin 1829–35, Harvard 1835–54. Tr. S Dach's* “O wie selig seid ihr doch, ihr Frommen” (“Oh, How Blest Are Ye Whose Toils are Ended”); other works include Evangeline: A Tale of Acadie; The Song of Hiawatha; The Courtship of Miles Standish; Tales of a Wayside Inn.


Traditional name of soldier who pierced the side of Jesus (Jn 19:34) and of the centurion who confessed Christ (Mt 27:54; Mk 15:39; Lk 23:47).

Loofs, Friedrich

(1858–1928). Luth. ch. hist.; b. Hildesheim, Ger.; educ. Leipzig, Tübingen, and Göttingen; influenced by K. G. A. v. Harnack; and A. Ritschl*: taught at Leipzig 1882–87, Halle 1887–1926. Mem. Saxon Consistory; opposed E. H. P. A. Haeckel's* materialism.* Works include Symbolik; Wer war Jesus Christus?; Leitfaden zum Studium der Dogmengeschichte; patristic studies.

Lopez, Gregor

(Lopes; Gregorio; 1542–96). Mystic and hermit; b. Madrid, Sp.; to Mex. 1567; influenced by Teresa,* John* of the Cross, and John* of Ávila; emphasized inner love to God.

Lopez, Gregory

(native name Lo, or A-lu, Wen-tsao; 1611-ca. 1690). 1st RC native Chinese bp.; b. Fogan, Fukien, China, of heathen parents: bap. as adult by Franciscans; educ. Manila, Philippine Is.; Dominican 1651; ordained 1656; vicar apostolic Nanking, China, 1674; bp. 1685.

Lord's Day.

Sunday.* Rv 1:10 is commonly understood as referring to the 1st day of the week; the assoc. is based primarily on the resurrection of Christ (Lk 24:13–49; Jn 20:1–25). The outpouring of the Spirit apparently also took place on that day (Acts 20:7; I Co 16:1–2). The name is often used when the sacred character of the day is stressed. In Christian terminology also called sabbath,* or sabbath day.

Lord's Prayer.

Cf. Mt 6:9–13; Lk 11:2–4. Divided into Invocation, Petitions, Doxology. The Invocation summarizes the Gospel, for “Father” presupposes that the one who prays is a child of God by faith in Christ; the 7 Petitions include all spiritual and bodily needs; the Doxology states reasons for the prayer. See also Amen.

Liturgical use of the Lord's Prayer is traceable to the 2d or 3d c.

Lord's Supper.

The 1st part of a service of Holy Communion, or Eucharist, in Luth. chs. usually follows fairly closely the orders of service (Morning, Matins, or Vespers); main points of variation occur in the form of the Confession of Sins, Absolution, Creed, and music for the Offertory. The 2d part, or Communion Service proper, begins with Salutation and Prefatory Sentences. See also Worship, Parts of.

For other aspects of the Lord's Supper see Altar Bread; Covenant, 7; Eucharistic Controversies; Grace, Means of, I, IV.


(formerly also spelled Loretto). Town near Ancona, It., with RC shrine of the Holy House (Santa Casa), in which, acc. to legend, Mary lived at the time of the Annunciation*; the house is said to have been carried by angels from Nazareth first to Dalmatia 1291, then to It. 1294, where it was miraculously relocated twice 1295. The name Loreto is said to be derived either (1) from Laureto, the woman who owned the wooded spot near Recanati, where the house was brought from Dalmatia; or (2) from the woods (Lat. lauretum) itself.

Lorichius, Jodocus

(Lurkäs; Jodokus; Justus; ca. 1542–1613). B. Trarbach, on the Mosel, Ger.; RC prof. poetry 1568, theol. 1574–1605 Freiburg im Breisgau; opposed introd. of Jesuits and assoc. of profs. with a religious order. Wrote in area of dogmatics, polemics, moral theol., mysticism.

Löscher, Valentin Ernst

(1673–1749). Luth. theol. and poet; b. Sondershausen, N Thuringia, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg and Jena; pastor and supt. Jüterbog 1698; supt. Delitzsch 1701–07; prof. Wittenberg 1707–09; supt. Dresden 1709. Opposed Pietism,* syncretism,* unionism.* Works include Vollständige Reformations-Acta und Documenta; Catalogus bibliothecae viri summi; Praenotiones theologicae contra naturalistarum et fanaticorum omne genus atheos, deistas, indifferentistas, antiscripturarios, etc.; Breviarium theologiae exegeticae, regulas de legitima scripturae interpretatione succincte atque solide tradens.

Lossius, Lucas

(Loss; Lotze; 1508–82). Luth. musicologist; b. Vacha, Hesse, Ger.; educ. at schools in various cities, including Wittenberg; rector or conrector Lüneburg 1533. Works include Psalmodia, hoc est Cantica sacra veteris Ecclesiae selecta.

Los von Rom

(Ger. “away from Rome” or “free from Rome”). Movement away from Rome. The term (said to have been coined 1897 by a student in Vienna) designates various attempts to effect widespread defections from RCm, esp. in the Ger. provinces of the Austrian empire. The latter form began as a pol. movement but soon drew in religious elements to serve its purposes of nationalism and spread to countries including Belg., Ceylon, Fr., Mex., Poland; its effects are still in evidence.


Schemes for distributing prizes or making selections on the basis of lots (involving, e.g., numbers, pieces of wood, pebbles, dies, straws, wheels). Used in gambling.* Casting lots was common also in ancient times and is often mentioned in Scripture (e.g., Nm 26:55; Jos 18:10; Est 3:7; Jon 1:7; Mt 27:35; Lk 1:5–9; Acts 1:24–26).

Lotti, Antonio

(1667–1740). RC composer and organist; b. Venice, It., or Hanover, Ger.; wrote in both old contrapuntal (or polyphonic) and modern style. Works include operas, oratorios, and ch. choral works.

Lotze, Rudolph Hermann

(1817–81). Ger. philos.; b. Bautzen, Saxony, Ger.; held system of teleological idealism: ultimate substance is God, good and personal, of whom all beings are parts without losing their selfhood.

Lotzer, Sebastian

(b. ca. 1490). Lay theol.; b. Horb, S Württemberg, Ger.; influenced by C. Schappeler* and J. Eberlin*; defended lay right to speak and write about the Word of God. His Zwölf Artikel, written during Peasants'* War, based demands of peasants on the Bible, but advocated peaceful solution. After the war he fled to Saint Gall, Switz.

Louis I

(778–840). Called “le Debonnaire” and “le Pieux” (“the Pious”): king of Fr. and Ger. and emp. of the W 814–840; (crowned 816; deposed 833; restored to power 834). See also Agobard of Lyons; Ansegis.

Louis IV

(of Bav.; ca. 1282/87–1347). B. Munich. Ger.; duke of Bav. 1294–1347; king of Ger. and Holy Roman emp. 1314–47 (crowned 1328); in conflict with John XXII (see Babylonian Captivity, 2; Popes, 13) over his disputed election as emp.; invaded It. 1327–30 and arranged for election of antipope Nicholas* V. See also Michael of Cesena.

Louis IX

(1214–70). “Saint Louis”; b. Poissy, Fr.; king of Fr. 1226–70; took crusader's vow 1244; engaged in Crusades (see Crusades, 8); noted for long and gen. peaceful reign. See also France, 2.

Louis VI

(Ludwig; 1539–83). Son of Frederick* III of the Palatinate, whom he succeeded as elector of the Palatinate 1576; favored FC; tried to restore Lutheranism in the Palatinate.

Louis VII

(le Jeune [“the Young”]; ca. 1121–80). King of Fr. 1137–80; engaged in struggle ca. 1157–80 with Henry* II of Eng. over parts of Fr.; a leader in 2d Crusade (see Crusades, 3). See also Philip II.

Louisville Resolution.

Resolution adopted October 1942 at Louisville, Kentucky, by the ULC in reply to a resolution adopted October 1942 at Mendota, Illinois, by the ALC (see Mendota Resolutions, 1): “Resolved that: 1. We receive with appreciation and deep gratitude to God the resolution of the American Lutheran Church in convention assembled at Mendota, Illinois, which recognizes our fundamental agreement and proclaims their readiness to establish full pulpit and altar fellowship with The United Lutheran Church in America. 2. We instruct the President of our Church, in conjunction with the President of the American Lutheran Church, to consummate and declare at the earliest possible date the establishment of pulpit and altar fellowship.”

Louis XIV

(1638–1715). “The Great”; “le Grand Monarque”; “le Roi Soleil,” “the sun king”; b. Saint Germain-en-Laye, Fr.; king of Fr. 1643–1715; assumed power 1661 on death of J. Mazarin.* See also France, 5, 10; Gallicanism: Government; Utrecht, Treaty of.


Town SW Fr., with RC shrine marking the alleged 1858 appearance of Mary to a peasant girl.


Love is more easily described than defined. It usually involves intimate knowledge, kindness, loyalty, and responsibility. In its basic Biblical sense love is not only an emotion but a deep expression of the total personality; it is not caused by any goodness in its object but is the free, creative, and unmerited response of the one who loves.

Basic OT Heb. words for love (ahabah, “love”; ahab and aheb, “to love”) denote sexual, family, soc., and divine love. Hosea brings these words into focus as God's love for His covenant people. OT Heb. words related in meaning to love include rachamim (“tender mercies”) and chesed (“lovingkindness”). The LXX rather consistently tr. ahab and aheb with agapao. Most frequent NT Gk. words for love: agapao and the related noun agape; e.g., Jn 3:16, 35; Ro 13:8; 1 Co 13; 1 Jn 3:18. Christian love is unique in that it extends also to the unworthy. This love is not mere aspiration or desire but God's love active in the Christian. It is often distinguished from eros, a word for love in non-Biblical Gk. which usually implies egocentricity also in the approach to the divine. Divine love found fullest expression in the life and death of Christ, who loved not the righteous but the sinner, Mt 9:10–13. The word phileo is also common in the NT. It usually means brotherly love and affection (e.g., Mt 10:37), though it is also used of God's love to man (e.g., Jn 16:27) and expresses close relationship bet. Father and Son (Jn 5:20).

Love described in the Bible: God's love for man, man's love for God, man's love for man. In the OT God's love was directed esp. toward the community. It is His covenant action toward Israel by which He chose and sustained His people, Dt 4:37. This love is personal, selective, spontaneous, serving in judgment and forgiveness, Dt 7:6; Hos 3:1; Am 3:2; Is 54:8. In the NT God's love is expressed in Jesus Christ, who, by His sacrificial and willing death on the cross demonstrated that God is love and revealed the true nature of love, Ro 5:8; 1 Jn 3:16; 4:8. Christ's love was never a mere emotion; it was always connected with His work of redemption, Mt 20:28. God's love to man demands response. The proper response is love that shows itself in willing and worshipful obedience, Dt 6:5; Mt 22:27–29; Jn 21:15–17; 1 Jn 5:3. Love to one's fellowman is a proper expression of love to God, Eph 5:2; 1 Jn 4:20. Love to God is never abstract; it always centers in worship of God and service to man, Mt 25:45; Jn 14:15. Not only is love commanded (Jn 15:17); it is also a gift of the Spirit (Gl 5:22), a mark of discipleship (Jn 13:35), a sign that the believer has passed from death to life, 1 Jn 3:14. LEZ

See also Grace; Loving-kindness; Lund, Theology of; Mercy.

C. E. B. Cranfield, “Love,” A Theological Word Book of the Bible, ed. A. Richardson (New York, 1951), pp. 131–136; E. M. Good, “Love in the OT,” The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, ed. G. A. Buttrick, et al., III (New York, 1962), 168–178; A. Nygren, Agape and Eros, 2 vols. in 3 parts; rev., and in part retranslated, and pub. in 1 vol. (London, 1953).


Term expressing God's love to man, acc. to which He bestows favors of His grace and mercy on sinners, who are His enemies by nature and unworthy of His kindness (Ps 17:7; 26:3; 36:7, 10; 89:33; 103:4; Jer 31:3). See also Grace; Love; Mercy.

Low Church.

Term originating in the early 18th c.; originally applied latitudinarianism,* later to Angl. Evangelicals (see Evangelical). See also England, C 8; High Church; Protestant Episcopal Church, 7.

Löwenstern, Matthäus Appelles von

(1594–1648). B. Neustadt, Silesia; hymnist and musician; privy councillor Oels. Hymns include “Christe, du Beistand deiner Kreuzgemeine”; “Nun preiset alle Gottes Barmherzigkeit!”

Lowrie, Walter

(1868–1959). Prot. Episc. cleric; b. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; educ. Princeton (New Jersey) U., Princeton Theol. Sem., Greifswald U., Berlin U., Am. Academy in Rome; rector Trin., Newport, Rhode Island, and St. Paul's Am. Ch., Rome. Works include Christian Art and Archaeology (later issued under the title Monuments of the Early Church); Art in the Early Church; Kierkegaard; Problems of Church Unity.

Low Sunday.

1st Sunday after Easter. Name probably originated in contrast to the “high” feast of Easter. Also called Quasimodogeniti and Dominica* in albis. See also Church Year, 14, 16.

Lowth, Robert

(Louth; 1710–87). B. Winchester, Hampshire, Eng.; educ. Winchester Coll. and Oxford U.; prof. poetry Oxford 1741–50; bp. St. Davids (Pembrokeshire, Wales) 1766, Oxford 1766, London 1777; pointed out parallelism (parallelismus membrorum; synonymous, synthetic, or antithetic) of 2 or 3 rows of a period as basic structure of Heb. poetry. Treated OT from aesthetic viewpoint. Works include De sacra Poesi Hebraeorum praelectiones academicae Oxonii habitae.

Loy, Matthias

(March 17, 1828–January 26, 1915). B. Cumberland Co., Pennsylvania; educ. Luth. Theol. Sem. at Columbus, Ohio Joint Syn. of Ohio pastor Delaware, Ohio, 1849–65; prof. theol. Capital U., Columbus, 1865–1902; pres. Capital U. 1881–90; pres. Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States 1860–78, 1880–94; leader at free Luth. Conferences of the 1850s (see Free Lutheran Conferences, 1); hymnist. Ed. Lutheran Standard 1864–91, Columbus Theological Magazine 1881–88; other works include The Augsburg Confession; The Doctrine of Justification; Sermons on the Gospels; Sermons on the Epistles; Essay on the Ministerial Office; hymns include “The Law of God is Good and Wise,” “The Gospel Shows the Father's Grace,” “An Awe-full Mystery Is Here,” “Jesus, Thou Art Mine Forever.”

M. Loy, Story of My Life, 2d ed. (Columbus, Ohio, 1905).

Loyola, Ignatius (of)

(1491–1556). Founder Society* of Jesus; b. Loyola, near Azpeitia, N Sp.; injured 1521 as soldier in defense of Pampeluna (present Pamplona) against the French; converted during convalescence; ascetic and pilgrim for several yrs.; educ. 1524–35 in Spain at Barcelona, Alcalá de Henares, and Salamanca, and at Paris, Fr.; at Paris, beginning 1529, he and 6 others (P. Favre,* F. Xavier,* D. Laynez,* A. Salmeron,* S. Rodriguez* de Azevedo, and N. A. de Bobadilla*) formed a group which developed into the Soc. of Jesus; Loyola was the 1st gen. of the order. See also “Spiritual Exercises.”

Loyson, Charles

(1827–1912). “Père Hyacinthe”; b. Orléans, Fr.; RC prof. philos. Avignon 1851, dogmatics Nantes 1854; curate Paris 1856; preacher Notre Dame; 1868 Advent sermons led to breach with RC Ch.; opposed papal infallibility and was excommunicated 1869; pastor Old Cath. Ch. (see Old Catholics), Geneva, 1873–74.

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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