Christian Cyclopedia

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(Libanios; 314–ca. 393 [or 404?]). Gk. Sophist; b. Antioch, Syria; educ. Athens; head Antioch rhetoric school ca. 354; students included J. Chrysostom,* Amphilochius,* and perhaps the Cappadocian* theologians; tried to reest. Gk. culture; opposed Christianity. Works include orations; life of Demosthenes.

Liberal Catholic Church.

Formed ca. 1916–18 by theosophist mems. of the Old* Cath. Ch. in Gt. Brit.; Charles Webster Leadbeater (1847–1934) was consecrated bp. 1916 by an Old Cath. bp. Holds that there are various paths to truth; claims apostolic succession through Old Caths. and has 7 sacraments: baptism, confirmation, eucharist, absolution, unction, matrimony, orders. The Province of the USA was est. 1919.

Liberal Evangelicalism.

View held by some in Ch. of Eng. who try to restate classic doctrines (e.g., atonement) in harmony with modern thought. Promoted by Anglican* Evangelical Group Movement.

Liber censuum.

Official RC register drawn up 1192 by Cencio Savelli (b. Rome, It.; pope Honorius III 1216–27); recorded clues payable by various institutions to Roman see.

Liber pontificalis

(Lat. “book of popes”). Collection of lives of popes from Peter to Pius II (see Popes, 15); its origin traced to 6th or 7th c.; continued by various hands to 886; then continued by catalog of popes to the time of Gregory VII (see Popes, 7), when biographies were resumed.

L. Duchesne. Le Liber pontificalis: Texte, introduction et commentaire, 2 vols. (Paris, 1886, 1892); T. Mommsen, Gesta pontificum romanorum (Berlin, 1898).


1. Mems. of a synagog at Jerusalem who opposed Stephen (Acts 6:9). 2. Antinomian, pantheistic party in the Neth. and Fr. ca. the time of the Reformation. See also Spirituels. 3. Perrinists; pol. party in Geneva which, under leadership of Ami Perrin (Amy Pierre; d. 1561; condemned to death 1554; fled to Berne), opposed moral reforms of J. Calvin.* 4. Those who indulge appetites without restraint. 5. Disparaging term for freethinkers, usually religious.


One licensed to practice a profession. In early Luth. chs. in Am., e.g., many candidates were licensed for interim service before ordination (see Ministerial Office, 5).

Lichtenberg, Karl Wilhelm Franz

(1816–83). B. Hanover, Ger.; pres. Hannoverian Consistory; est. syn. form of ch. govt.; furthered missions; introd. new hymnal.

Lichtenberger, Frédéric Auguste

(Friedrich August; 1832–99). B. Strasbourg, Fr.; educ. Strasbourg and various Ger. univs.; Prot. prof. systematic and practical theol. Strasbourg 1864–70; first orthodox, later liberal; to Paris after Franco-Ger. war of 1870–71; cofounder theol. faculty Paris 1877; active in S. S. movement. Ed. Encyclopédie des sciences religieuses; other works include Histoire des idées religieuses en Allemagne (tr. and ed. W. Hastie, History of German Theology in the nineteenth century).

Lichtenstein, Friedrich Wilhelm Jacob

(1826–75). B. Munich, Ger.; son of a Jew; Luth. 1842; educ. Erlangen and Halle; pastor Pegnitz 1856, Kulmbach 1863. Wrote Lebensgeschichte des Herrn Jesu Christi in chronologischer Uebersicht.


(Ger. “friends of light”). Popular name of Protestantische Freunde, organized 1841 at Gnadau, Ger., by liberal theologians; gained support of many schoolteachers; objective: to defend the Enlightenment.*


(Valerius Licinianus Licinius; ca. 270–325 AD). Roman emp. 308–324; b. Dacia; made Augustus in E 308 by Galerius (see Persecution of Christians, 4); sole E emp. 311; married Constantia, half sister of Constantine* I; agreed with Constantine I in granting equal toleration to all religions; defeated 324 by Constantine I; executed.

Liddon, Henry Parry

(1829–90). High Ch. Angl. theol.; b. N Stoneham, Hampshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; prof. exegesis Oxford 1870–82, canon St. Paul's, London, 1870–90, chancellor St. Paul's 1886; defended Nicene Christology; opposed Lux* Mundi. Works include The Divinity of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ; Life of Edward Bouverie Pusey.

Lidenius, John Abraham

(Johan[n]; b. 1714 or '15; d. ca. 1765). B. near Raccoon Creek (a river and settlement), New Jersey; to Swed. ca. 1724 with his father, who had come from Swed. 1712; educ. and ordained Swed.; returned to US 1751; pastor Raccoon Creek (later called Swedesboro) and Pennsneck (later called Pennsville) 1756–62.

Lidgett, John Scott

(1854–1953). Meth. divine; b. Lewisham, London, Eng.; est. a settlement (see Settlements) of cultured people 1891–92 in Bermondsey, S London, to help underprivileged by friendship. cooperation, and educ.; 1st pres. newly united Meth. Ch. (see Methodist Churches, 1) 1932; advisor of several abps. of Canterbury; influenced by theol. of J. F. D. Maurice.*

Lidman, Jonas.

B. Swed.; ordained Skara, SW Swed., 1719; to US 1719 with S. Hesselius (see Hesselius, Andreas); pastor Gloria Dei Ch., Wicaco (Philadelphia) 1719–30; provost* (or supt.) ca. 1723; returned to Swed.


Statement or act made to deceive, often to benefit the deceiver. The Bible condemns lying (Ps 40:4; 62:4; Pr 14:5, 25; 19:5; Is 59:4; Eph 4:25).

Liebenzeller Mission.

Organized 1899 in Hamburg, Ger., by H. Coerper* as branch of CIM; moved to Bad Liebenzell, Württemberg, S Ger., ca. 1902; called Liebenzeller Mission since 1906; Am. branch organized 1941 on Schooley's Mountain, New Jersey: Mission Home Eben-Ezer (name changed 1951 to Liebenzell Miss. of USA, Inc.); fields included China, Japan, Taiwan, New Guinea, Admiralty Islands, Caroline Islands.

Lieberkühn, Samuel

(1710–77). Moravian theol.; b. Berlin, Ger.; educ. Halle and Jena; with Salzburgers to Prussia 1733 (see Salzburgers, Banishment of) returned to Jena 1733; worked as Herrnhut miss. among Jews in Holland and Eng. 1739–42. Works include Geschichte unsers Herrn und Heilandes Jesu Christi; Der Hauptinhalt der Lehre Jesu Christi.

Liebermann, Bruno Franz Leopold

(1759–1844). Jesuit theol.; b. Molsheim, Alsace; head 1st Mainz School of Theol.; forerunner of neo-scholasticism. Works include Institutiones theologiae.

Liebich, Ehrenfried

(1713–80). B. Probsthain, near Goldberg, Liegnitz, Silesia, Prussia, Ger.; educ. Schweidnitz, Breslau, and Leipzig; pastor Lomnitz and Erdmannsdorf, near Hirschberg. Issued (with J. F. Burg*) Hirschberger* Bibel; hymnist.

Liebner, Karl Theodor Albert

(1806–71). Luth. mediating theol. (see Mediating Theology); b. Schkölen, near Naumburg, Ger.; educ. Leipzig, Berlin, and the Wittenberg Theol. Sem.; prof. and U. preacher Göttingen 1835; prof. Kiel 1844, Leipzig 1851; court preacher and vice-pres. high consistory of Saxony 1855. Works include Die christliche Dogmatik aus dem christologischen Princip dargestellt.

Liechtenstein, Principality of.

In the Alps. Area: 62 sq. mi. Became sovereign 1866. Ethnic composition: Alemannic. Official language: Ger.; others: Alemannic dialects. Religions: RC 88%, Prots. 7%.

Lietzmann, Hans

(1875–1942). Prot. theol.; b. Düsseldorf, Ger.; educ. Jena and Bonn; prof. Jena 1905, Berlin 1924. Ed. Handbuch zum Neuen Testament; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche; Die Bekenntnisschriften der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche; other works include Catenen; Catenenstudien; Apollinaris von Laodicea und seine Schule: Texte und Untersuchungen; Petrus und Paulus in Rom: Liturgische und archäologische Studien; Messe und Herrenmahl; Geschichte der Alten Kirche.

Life and Work.

Branch of the ecumenical* movement concerned with implications of the Gospel for daily life and work. See also Christian Socialism, 5; Union Movements, 15.

Ligarius, Johannes

(1529–96). Luth. theol.; b. Nesse, Ostfriesland; educ. Wittenberg; pastor Uphusen, Norden, and Wolthusen; helped M. Flacius* Illyricus, C. Spangenberg, et al. est. Lutheranism in Antwerp; army chaplain; pastor Wertherbruch, then in Nesse (1569–77); court preacher Aurich 1577–85; pastor Woerden, Neth., 1586–91. Issued a hymnal and 2 catechisms.

Light and Darkness

(symbolic). The Bible uses both terms not only in a physical sense (e.g., Gn 1) but also metaphorically or symbolically. It refers to God as Light, the Source of light, or as dwelling in light (Ps 27:1; 104:2; 1 Ti 6:16; Ja 1:17; 1 Jn 1:5; Rv 21:23). Christ is called “the Light of the world” (Jn 1:4–9; 8:12; 9:5; 12:35–36, 46). The Word of God, esp. the Gospel, is given to man to serve him as a light unto salvation (Ps 119:105, 130; Pr 6:23; Is 8:20; Mt 4:16; 2 Ptr 1:19). All believers are to function as lights in the world (Mt 5:14–16; Lk 16:8; Eph 5:8; Ph 2:15; 1 Th 5:5; 1 Ptr 2:9). “Light” figuratively designates holiness and purity (Pr 6:23; Is 5:20; Ro 13:12), spiritual illumination (2 Co 4:6; Eph 5:14), the heavenly state (Is 60:19–20; Cl 1:12; Rv 21:23; 22:5).

“Darkness” is opposed to “light” (Jn 3:19–21; 12:35–36; Acts 26:18; Eph 5:8), esp. in reference to ignorance and spiritual blindness (Is 9:2; Jn 1:5; 1 Jn 1:6; 2:8), powers of evil (Lk 22:53; Eph 6:12; Cl 1:13; 1 Th 5:5; Rv 16:10), love of sin (Ro 13:12), sphere of evil deeds (Eph 5:11), despair and misery of the lost in hell (Mt 8:12; 22:13; 25:30), sorrow and distress (Jl 2:2). JMW

Lightfoot, John

(1602–75). Hebraist; b. Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; vice-chancellor Cambridge U. 1654; prebendary Ely 1668. Works include Horae hebraicae et talmudicae.

Lightfoot, Joseph Barber

(1828–89). Angl. theol.; b. Liverpool, Lancashire, Eng.; educ. Birmingham and Cambridge; ordained 1858; prof. Cambridge 1861; canon St. Paul's, London, 1871; bp. Durham 1879; mem. committee for rev. of Eng. NT 1870–80. Ed. The Apostolic Fathers; coauthor The Fourth Gospel; other works include commentaries on Paul's Epistles.

Liguori, Alfonso Maria de'

(Alphonsus Liguori; 1696–1787). RC moralist; b. Marianella, near Naples, It.; priest 1726; bp. Sant' Agata de' Goti 1762–75. Founded Redemptorists*; developed theory of equiprobabilism.* Works include Theologia moralis; Le Glorie de Maria.

Liliencron, Rochus von

(1820–1912). Luth. scholar and musicologist; b. Plön, E Schleswig-Holstein, N Ger.; educ. Kiel and Berlin; prof. Kiel 1851, Jena 1852; supt. ducal chapel and library, Meiningen, 1855. Coed. Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie; other works include Deutsches Leben im Volkslied um 1530; Über den Chorgesang in der evangelischen Kirche.

Lilienthal, Theodor Christoph

(1717–82). Luth. theol.; b. Königsberg, E Prussia, Ger.; educ. Königsberg, Jena, and Tübingen; prof. and pastor Königsberg. Works include Die gute Sache der in der heiligen Schrift alien und neuen Testaments enthaltenen Göttlichen Offenbarung.

Lilje, Hanns

(1899–1977). B. Hanover, Ger.; educ. Göttingen, Leipzig, and Zurich; student pastor Hanover 1925; gen. secy. Ger. Christian Student Movement (Deutsche Christliche Studenten-Vereinigung) 1927; vice-pres. World Student Christian Fed. (Christlicher Studenten-Weltbund; see Students, Spiritual Care of, A 5) 1927–34; gen. secy. LWC 1935; arrested 1944 because of his ecumenical connections and his activity in the Bekennende Kirche (see Confessing Church); continued ecumenical connections after WW II; mem. superior provincial consistory 1945; bp. Hannover 1947; activ in EKD; helped form LWF 1947; abbot Loccum (see Molanus, Gerard Walter) 1950; pres. LWF 1952–57; bp. VELKD 1955. Works include Im finstern Tal; Das letzte Buch der Bibel; Luther: Anbruch und Krise der Neuzeit; Luthers Geschichtsanschauung; Martin Luther in Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten; Das technische Zeitalter: Grundlinien einer christlichen Deutung. See also Kirchenkampf.


(from Lat. limbus, “border; hem; fringe”). In RCm, region on border of hell. Limbus patrum (“fathers' limbo”): place and/or state of souls of OT saints while they awaited redemption and release by Christ. Limbus infantum (infantium; puerorum; “infants' limbo; children's limbo”): everlasting place and/or state of unregenerate, unbaptized infants (or children).

Lindberg, Conrad Emil

(June 6, 1852–August 2, 1930). B. Jönköping, Swed.; to US 1871; educ. Augustana Coll. and Theol. Sem., Paxton, Illinois, and Lutheran Theol. Sem., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; ordained 1874 Augustana Syn. (see Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church); pastor Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, 1874–76, Philadelphia 1876–79, NYC 1879–90; prof. Augustana Theol. Sem., Rock Island, Illinois, 1890–1930. Chief ed. Augustana Theological quarterly 1900–02; other works include Apologetics; Christian Dogmatics and Notes on the History of Dogma, tr. C. E. Hoffsten.

Lindberg, Jakob Christian

(Jacob; 1797–1857). B. Ribe (Ripen), Jutland, Den.; follower of N. F. S. Grundtvig*; opposed H. N. Clausen.* Helped est. Theologisk maanedsskrift.

Lindemann, Friedrich

(Frederick; January 12, 1851–December 13, 1907). Son of J. C. W. Lindemann*; b. Baltimore, Maryland; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri Pastor Decorah, Iowa, 1874; Champaign, Illinois, 1875; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1878; Boston, Massachusetts, 1885; Fort Wayne, Indiana, 1890. Prof. Ev. Luth. Teachers Sem., Addison, Illinois, 1893–1907. Works include Was sagen die Worte? (Eng. tr. Scholia).

Lindemann, Johann Christoph Wilhelm

(January 6, 1827–January 15, 1879). Father of F. Lindemann*; b. Göttingen, Hannover, Ger.; educ. privately and at the Hanover teachers' sem.; to US 1848; teacher Baltimore, Maryland, 1848; studied theol. at the Luth. Sem. in Fort Wayne, Indiana, 1852–53; asst. to H. C. Schwan* in Cleveland, Ohio, 1853; later pastor Trin. Luth. Ch., Cleveland; pres. Ev. Luth. Teachers Sem., Addison, Illinois, 1864–79. Coed. Evangelisch-Lutherisches Schulblatt; ed. Amerikanischer Kalender für deutsche Lutheraner and Dr. Martin Luther als Erzieher der Jugend. Other works include Amerikanisch-Lutherische Schul-Praxis; Evangelisch-Lutherische Katechismus-Milch.

A. C. Stellhorn, “J. C. W. Lindemann,” CHIQ, XIV (October 1941), pp. 65–92.

Lindenau, Paul

(1489–1544). B. Chemnitz, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; entered Benedictine cloister; left it 1522. Pastor Ehrenfriedersdorf, and then (1523) Zwickau; at Zwickau he helped further Reformation and, for a time, from 1526, with his wife, supervised a Ger. school for girls; resigned 1529. Pastor Werdau, Elsterberg, Neumark, and Auerbach; court preacher Freiberg (1537), where he opposed J. Schen(c)k*; court preacher Dresden; fostered Reformation in Annaberg, Meissen, and Sagan.

Linderholm, Johannes Emanuel

(1872–1937). B. Hakarp, Swed.; theologian of Religionsgeschichtliche* Schule. Ed. Religion och kultur; other works include Fraan dogmat till evangeliet.


Also called Holy Is.; peninsula (is. at high water) off NE coast of Northumberland, Eng.; miss. center est. there by Aidan,* who arrived there from Iona* 635 AD.


1. Thomas Martin (1843–1914). Father of 2; cleric, ch. hist., and educ.; b. Lesmahagow, Lanark, Scot.; educ. Glasgow and Edinburgh; prof. ch. hist. Free* Ch. of Scot. Coll., Glasgow, 1872; principal United* Free Ch. of Scot. Coll., Glasgow, 1902. Works include Luther and The German Reformation; A History of the Reformation; The Church and the Ministry in the Early Centuries.

2. Alexander (1879–1952). Son of 1; Master of Balliol Coll., Oxford, 1924–49. Wrote on personal, soc., pol. ethics.

Lindsey, Theophilus

(1723–1808). B. Middlewich, Cheshire, Eng.; educ. Leeds and Cambridge; vicar Catterick; favored latitudinarianism (see Latitudinarians); friend of J. Priestley*; participated in petition to Parliament against subscription to Thirty-nine Articles (see Anglican Confessions, 6); Unitarian (see Unitarianism) 1773/74. Works include An Historical View of the State of the Unitarian Doctrine and Worship from the Reformation to Our Own Times.

Lingard, John

(1771–1851). RC hist. Works include A History of England, from the First Invasion by the Romans (to 1688); A New Version of the Four Gospels.

Link, Georg

(March 19, 1829–September 21, 1908). B. Thalmessing, Bav.; educ. Luth. Sem. at Fort Wayne, Indiana; excellent preacher. Pastor Neu-Bielefeld (Black Jack), St. Louis Co., Missouri, 1851; Pleasant Ridge, Madison Co., Illinois, 1856; Lebanon, near Watertown, Wisconsin, 1860; St. Louis, Missouri, 1873. Compiled Luthers Tügliche Hausandacht; other works include sermons.

Link, John Thomas

(November 23, 1873–December 20, 1936). B. Chicago, Illinois; educ. Ev. Luth. Teachers Sem., Addison, Illinois; teacher St. John Luth. School, Decatur, Illinois, 1895; prof. Conc. Teachers Coll., Seward, Nebraska, 1908. Works include Outlines in Geography; A Short Course in Physiology; Origin of the Place Names of Nebraska.

Link, Wenzeslaus

(Wenceslaus; Wentzeslaus; Wenzel, Vincilaus; Linck; 1483–1547). B. Colditz, near Leipzig, Saxony, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Wittenberg; Augustinian at Waldheim; to Wittenberg perhaps ca. 1503; dean Wittenberg faculty 1512; preacher Nürnberg 1517; zealous friend of M. Luther*; succeeded J. v. Staupitz* 1520 as vicar-gen. of Ger. Augustinians; hymnist.

H. W. Caselmann, “Wenzeslaus Link's Leben,” Das Leben der Altväter der lutherischen Kirche, III, ed. M. Meurer et al. (Leipzig and Dresden, 1863), 321–428.

Linsenmann, Franz Xaver von

(1835–98). RC theol.; b. Rottweil, Ger.; prof. moral and pastoral theol. Tübingen 1867; elected bp. Rottenburg 1898; emphasized freedom of children of God. Works include Der ethische Charakter der Lehre Meister Eckhardt's; Lehrbuch der Moraltheologie.

Lintner, George Ames

(Lintener; February 15, 1796–December 21, 1871). B. Minden, Montgomery Co., New York, educ. Union Coll. (of The Dutch Ref. Ch. in N. Am. (see Reformed Churches, 4 b), Schenectady, New York; licensed 1818, ordained 1819, Ministerium of New York; pastor Schoharie and Cobleskill (one parish), New York, 1819; helped organize Hartwick* Syn.; its pres. 1830; pres. Gen. Syn. 1841. Ed. The Lutheran Magazine; issued a liturgy.


(d. ca. 79 AD). In RC lists, successor of Peter as pope (bp. Rome) perhaps ca. 67–ca. 79. Succeeded by Anacletus.*

Linzner, Georg

(fl. ca. 1680). B. Kamenz, Saxony, Ger.; private teacher Breslau ca. 1680. Hymnist: “Meinen Jesum lass' ich nicht, denn er ist allein mein Leben.”


(Leoba; Leobgyth[a]; Leobgyta; Truthgeba; ca. 710–ca. 782). B. Wessex, Eng.; to Ger. to help Boniface,* to whom she was related; ca. 735 abbess Tauberbischofsheim, which became center for training women missionaries.


In Christian symbolism,* type of God's redemption of His people (cf. Dn 6); also symbol of Mark (cf. Eze 1:10; Rv 4:7).


(Lipiteshtar). See Law Codes, 1.

Lippi, Fra Filippo

(Lippo; Filippo del Carmine; ca. 1406–69). Painter; b. Florence, It.; Carmelite ca. 1421; released from vows ca. 1461. Works include frescoes and canvases portraying many religious subjects.

Lipsius, Richard Adelbert

(1830–92). Prot. theol.; b. Gera, Thuringia, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; taught at Leipzig 1855, Vienna 1861, Kiel 1865; prof. systematic theol. Jena 1871; tried to create speculative theol. which rejected both old orthodoxy and Ritschlianism (see Ritschl, Albrecht); moved toward idealism* of I. Kant*; held that “Christian principle” existed in Christ. Wrote on early Christian apocryphal literature; other works include commentaries on Ro, G1, and Ph; Lehrbuch der evangelisch-protestantischen Dogmatik; Philosophie und Religion.

Liscow, Salomo

(Lischkow; Liscovius; 1640–89). B. Niemitsch, near Guben (or Gubin), Lower Lusatia, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Wittenberg; pastor Otterwisch, near Grimma and Bad Lausick (or Lausigk) 1644; Diakonus (2d pastor) Wurzen 1685; hymnist. Hymns include “Nun freue dich, o Christenheit”; “O Jesu, treuer Hirte”; “Schatz über alle Schätze”; “ Bedenke, Mensch, das Ende.”

Lismanini, Franz

(d. ca. 1566). B. Corfu; educ. It.; Franciscan provincial in Krakow, Poland; court preacher of Polish Queen Bona Sforza (1493–1557; m. Polish King Sigismund 1518) 1546; won for Protestantism by writings of J. Calvin* and Bohemian* Brethren; to Geneva 1553; became Calvinist; served ch. in SE Poland; helped draw it closer to Calvinism; rejected error of F. Stancarus*; accused of Arianism.*

Lismore, The Book of.

Collection of lives of Irish saints; found at Lismore, Scot., 1814.

Liszt, Franz

(1811–86). Piano virtuoso, conductor, composer; b. Raiding (Dobotjan), near Sopron, Sopron Co., W Hung.; Franciscan 1865. Works include oratorios “Die Legende von der heiligen Elisabeth” and “Christus”; masses.


(Gk. litaneia, Lat. litania, “entreaty; supplication”). Liturgical prayer consisting of petitions and supplications spoken or sung, usually alternately, by worship leader and cong. OT background in such passages as Ps 136. 1st NT use traced to early ch.

Literature, Lutheran.

1. The Luth. Reformation* began as a literary movement, to capitalize on the invention of printing. M. Luther* was the most widely read publicist of his time (see Luther, Chief Writings of). His Bible tr. standardized the Ger. language for centuries. The Luth. movement stirred all levels of literature esp. in Ger. and Scand. It produced works for professionals and for the common people.

2. Luther's style was concrete and idiomatic. His preaching was in the tradition of late 15th c. folk preachers, his polemic in the manner of satire current at that time.

3. Some outstanding Ger. literary figures were sons of Luth. pastors. But the influence of popular Luth. literature reached out into the masses. Luther's SC and selected Bible stories formed Ger. and Scand. primers. Standard devotional vols. were the average household library's nucleus. They included prayer books (some large and used for many occasions in family and community life), a hymnal, used for daily and Sunday worship, postils (see Postil) beginning with Luther's, and devotional material written for family use. Beginning in the 17th c., romances with religious content competed for the reading interest of Christian families. In the 19th c., family magazines with religious emphases were developed in Eur. and Am. They often provided pol. comment, fiction, devotional material, and features of gen. interest. With the beginning of special activity in missions and charity fostered by Pietism,* popular books and magazines tried to stimulate interest in and support for these projects.

4. Since Luther's time the chief religious vernacular literature to achieve a high degree of excellence has been the hymn (see Hymnody, Christian). Vernacular worship helped make this possible.

5. The Luth. Ch. has always been aggressive in publishing professional literature. 16th c. doctrinal controversies climaxing in the Confessions (see Lutheran Confessions) produced many doctrinal, exegetic, and polemic writings. In keeping with the humanist emphasis, early literature was predominantly Latin. Ger. and Scand. univs. provided more and more technical material. Orthodoxy (see Lutheran Theology After 1580), Pietism,* Rationalism,* Enlightenment,* and various 19th c. trends produced much exposition, propaganda, and debate. Beginning in the late 18th c., technical journals provided special studies, usually pub. under auspices of theol. faculties.

6. By the middle of the 20th c., theol. literature of Scand. influenced the theol. of Luths. and many other chs.

7. Since the middle of the 19th c. a literature of critical review and restudy of Luth. origins has emerged, stimulated by critical eds. of works of the reformers and scientific hist. studies and resulting in heightened appreciation of the Luth. Reformation (see Luther Renaissance; Luther, Works of, Editions of) extending also through Ref. circles. Stress and questions connected with 20th c. wars and their aftermath led to further reexamination of Luth. thought. RRC

Literature and Theology.

Literature of the day is of concern to a Christian theologian. M. Luther*: “I am persuaded that without knowledge of literature pure theology cannot at all endure, just as heretofore, when letters have declined and lain prostrate, it [theology] too has very wretchedly fallen and lain prostrate; on the other hand, I see that there has never been a great revelation of the Word of God unless He has first prepared the way by the rise and flowering of languages and letters, as though they were forerunner [John the] Baptists. … Certainly it is my desire that there be as many poets and rhetoricians as possible, because I see that by these studies, as by no other means, people are wonderfully fitted for grasping sacred truth and for handling it skillfully and effectively. … Therefore I beg you that at my request (if that has any weight) you will urge your young people to study poetry and rhetoric diligently” (cf. WA-Br 3, 50).

Many problems arise as a Christian examines a work of literary artistry. The author's intention and the work's integrity must be considered. A critic must beware of the “heresy of paraphrase” and observe the rules of literary criticism. The besetting question is when, if at all, a statement of Christian “judgment” should be made on the Weltanschauung of an artist or of his protagonists.

Major concerns involved include the inherent quality of the work itself. In contrast to most contemporary writing, which only mirrors life as some authors see it, are those works which some call “great.” For purposes of analysis, “great” literature is sometimes regarded as that which honestly comes to grips with man's existential problems (see Existentialism) and which, if written by a Christian, does not ignore tension and struggle in the life of one who is both saint and sinner (Lat. simul justus et peccator).

Literature dealing with man's ultimate destiny and responsibility to the Creator is sometimes called religious writing. It may be held that though the question of a God is raised and His existence denied, an author's coping with the issue makes his writing “religious.” Some authors hold that they need not deal with man's responsibility to any being extrinsic to his world.

Much ostensibly Christian writing is not great, and in a sense not “religious” or “Christian,” because it does not come to grips with life; some of it depicts an unreal, saccharine world.

Another issue is the question whether a theol. can be a writer, and vice versa. A theol. may be tempted to sit in judgment on literature and be inclined to be didactic. But some hold that the more veiled a literary work is, the “greater” it is.

Those who feel constrained to make a Christian judgment on literature raise such questions as whether man's problems are seen in relation to his Creator and whether evil and guilt are simply seen as “the state of us all” or an adequate picture is drawn of personal guilt and of one's radical, individual rebellion against God. Others hold that though some writers do not do justice to ethical questions, they may perform a service in grappling with the question of existence itself. An increasing number of students of the interrelationship of literature and theol. hold that Christ-man (one who claims assoc. with Christ) must begin his dialogue with pagan man in the realm of the ontological and ethical.

Despite disagreement as to meaning, such terms as “truths,” “values,” “law-affirmations,” and “Biblical insights” are often used in discussing “great” writing. At what point an author's statements on the nature of man and his condition become “Christian” truths is debatable; but Christian ideas and insights may appear in works of one who is not a professed Christian.

Another concern is that of a possible “Christ-figure” (character with qualities of Christ) in an author's work and the concomitant need to distinguish bet. imitation of Christ and substitution for Him, bet. reflection of Christ-like qualities and replacement of the need for Christ and His work, bet. a follower of Christ and a substitute for Him.

Theologians are increasingly interested in contemporary writing. More and more literature is being viewed as a “prophetic voice,” a “handwriting on the wall,” indicating what our culture is and may become. Besides gaining rich insights into internal struggles of man, Christians have also seen enlightening images of themselves in writings of perceptive contemporary authors, esp. in depictions of the Old Adam plaguing the Christian in this life. Many hold that lack of a full portrayal of the “new man” (Eph 4:24; Cl 3:10) drives one back to the Christ of the Gospels where one finds the true Christ-figure, who is at once the person like whom man is to be, and in whom one finds the power to become Christian man. DLD

E. Fuller, Man in Modern Fiction (New York, 1949); R. M. Frye, Perspective on Man: Literature and the Christian Tradition (Philadelphia, 1961); R. W. B. Lewis, The Picaresque Saint: Representative Figures in Contemporary Fiction (Philadelphia, 1958); N. A. Scott Jr., Modern Literature and the Religious Frontier (New York, 1958); R. Stewart, American Literature & Christian Doctrine (Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1958).


1. Christianity before Reformation. Grand Duke Mindaugas (crowned king 1253; d. 1263), his family, and many of his people were bap. RC 1251. Jagela (Jagello; Jagiello; Jogaila; ca. 1350–1434; Grand Duke; bap. RC February 15, 1386; m. Jadwiga [Ger.: Hedwig (von Anjou) 1370(1374?)–99; queen Poland 1384–99] February 18, 1386) was crowned king of Poland (including Lith. and Ruthenia) March 4, 1386, as Ladislas II (or V; Ladislaus; Vladislav; Wladislaus; Wladislaw; Wladyslaw). Many other Lithuanians became Christian 1387. Christianization of the country continued under RC influence.

2. Reformation and subsequent history. During the Reformation nearly all Lith. became Protestant. Ev. ideas penetrated the country from Prussia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Switzerland. Among those who helped the ev. cause: Abraomas (Abraham) Kulvietis (ca. 1510–45; 1st rector of academy at Vilnius) and Martynas Mazvydas (Martin[as] Mosvidius; issued SC 1547). The 1st Lith. Bible tr. (by Jonas Bretkunas; 1536–1602) remained unpub. The NT was pub. 1701, the whole Bible 1735. In Königsberg (in Prussia; later called Kaliningrad) a sem. for training Lith. Luth. pastors was est.

Jesuits carried the Counter* Reformation to Lith. in the 2d half of the 16th c. and recaptured most of the Prots. for RCm Princes, nobles, and the small minority under their influence remained Prot.

Lith. came under Russ. control in the 2d and 3d partition of Poland (1793, 1795). The Congress of Vienna recognized the Czar as Grand Duke of Lith. and King of Poland. After the unsuccessful Polish revolution of 1863–64 Russification was extended to every aspect of pub. life, including worship. RCs were persecuted.

The Lietuvos taryba (Council of Lith.) renounced all previous foreign ties and proclaimed independence 1918. A brief Russ. occupation was followed 1919–23 by an extensive border dispute with Poland. In 1925 a Prot. theol. faculty was est. in Kaunas; it functioned till 1936. The liturgy of Liths. is that used by E Prussian and Baltic Luths.

The 1st Prot. Conf. of Liths. in exile after WW II met at Hanau, Ger., May 30, 1946. The 1st Lith. Prot. Syn. for W. Ger. met at Lebenstedt, near Brunswick, November 10, 1946, and elected a Lith. Ev. Ch. Council. Since 1948 the Lith. Luth. Ch. Council and the Ref. Ch. of Lith. have maintained a brotherly but separate existence. The Lith. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Exile is a mem. of LWF It published Tiesos Balsas (“The Voice of Truth”), Evangeliku Ke'ias (“The Evangelical Way”), and Sandora (“Unity”).


Lithuania became part of the Union* of Soviet Socialist Reps. 1940 as the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Rep.

See also Lutheran Confessions, A 5.

C. R. Jurgela, History of the Lithuanian Nation (New York, 1948); F. W. Pick, The Baltic Nations (London, 1945).

Lithuanian National Catholic Church.

Organized Scranton, Pennsylvania, 1914, under guidance of Francis Hodur, bp. Polish Nat. Cath. Ch., with which it is connected since ca. the early 1960s.

Littmann, Enno

(1875–1958). Semitist; b. Oldenburg, Ger.; prof. Strasbourg, Göttingen, Bonn, Tübingen; participated in archaeological expeditions to Syria and Abyssinia. Works include Geschichte der äthiopischen Litteratur; Semitic Inscriptions; Morgenländische Wörter im Deutschen.


(from Gk. leitourgia, “pub. service; divine service”). Study of liturgy, i. e., of the hist. and practice of pub. worship.* “Liturgy” in a narrow sense denotes the order of service for celebration of Communion. In a wider sense the term denotes the whole system of formal worship.

Types of worship distinguished in the NT: (1) Jerusalem type (Acts 2:42, 46; 5:42; 6:2–4; preserved certain Jewish forms; added Christian features); (2) Gentile-Christian type (Acts 20:7; 1 Co 16:2; emphasized Lord's Day and Eucharist; developed esp. in Asia Minor and Corinth). For elements of worship cf. Cl 3:16; 1 Ti 2:1. The agape (see Agape, 2) usually preceded the Eucharist.

2d c. writings show a connection bet. the service of the Word and the Eucharistic service. The former included readings from the OT and the gospels, homily, common prayers, kiss* of peace. The Eucharistic service included a prayer of thanksgiving and consecration (including words of institution). The liturgy was essentially congregational and included spontaneous responses. The agape and prophecy disappeared. At the beginning of the 3d c. a formal ritual pattern for the Eucharist was recognized.

E liturgies, marked by objectivity and repetition, are of 2 main types: Syrian and Egyptian. Egyptian includes Coptic and Abyssinian. Syrian (Antiochene) includes W Syrian (Antioch and Jerusalem), E Syrian (Persia and Mesopotamia), and Cappadocian-Byzantine (Armenian and Byzantine). The Byzantine rite became the rite of Eastern* Orthodox Chs.

In the W, Rome (esp. under Gregory I [see Popes, 4]) and Carthage developed a liturgy called Roman. Another form, called Gallican and influenced by E liturgies, developed in Sp., Fr., Ger., Brit., Swed., and elsewhere. The Roman, marked by simplicity and strength, finally prevailed in the W.

In the Middle Ages the Eucharist became the most important part of worship as it came to be regarded as a sacrifice rather than a sacrament (see also Mass, 4).

M. Luther* stressed the importance of the Word in the service 1516 (WA 1,444–445). Von Ordnung Gottesdiensts in der Gemeine (WA 12, 31–37), issued 1523, criticized the silencing of God's Word, unscriptural material, the idea that a service is a meritorious work. On Formula missae 1523 and Deudsche Messe (“German Mass”) 1526 see Chant; Luther, Liturgies of.

16th c. Luth. liturgies have been classified as Saxo-Luth. (to which Luther's belonged), ultraconservative, and mediating or radical.

The Thirty* Years' War, Pietism,* and rationalism* affected liturgical development adversely. Frederick* William III, C. F. v. Böckh,* and J. K. W. Löhe* worked for a return to hist. types of liturgies.

The 1st Am. Luth. liturgy of note was prepared by H. M. Mühlenberg,* P. Brunnholtz,* and J. F. Handschuh* and adopted 1748 by the Pennsylvania Ministerium. It was in gen. the hist. Luth. liturgy.

By the 1780s liturgical decline had begun, largely as a result of close relation bet. Luths. and Ref. In 1855 the Pennsylvania Ministerium, New York Ministerium, Joint Syn. of Ohio, and The Ev. Luth. Gen. Syn. of the US of N. Am. issued a liturgy which in gen. restored old Luth. forms. The 1868 Church Book of the Gen. Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in (N) Am. made further improvements.

Mems. of the Gen. Council, Gen. Syn., and The Ev. Luth. Gen. Syn. S. met 1884 to initiate work toward a “Common Service.” Liturgies based on work of a joint committee, which first met 1885, were pub. 1888 by The United* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the S. and the Gen. Syn., 1892 by the Gen. Council. The Common Service Book of the Lutheran Church, authorized by the Gen. Syn., the Gen. Council, and the United Syn., appeared 1917, was authorized without delay by the ULC. The Service Book and Hymnal of the Lutheran Church in America, authorized by AELC, The ALC, Augustana Ev. Luth. Ch., ELC, Finnish Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am., LFC, UELC, and ULC, appeared 1958.

The Mo. Syn. first used orders of service brought from Ger., adopted the Common Service 1914, approved production of a common service book and hymnal to unify the worship of all Luths. 3 in N. Am. 1971. Lutheran Book of Worship, pub. 1978, was not adopted by the Mo. Syn., which 1979 authorized Lutheran Worship, pub. 1982.

J. Calvin* was more conservative than H. Zwingli.* Both greatly modified the hist. liturgy.

The Book* of Common Prayer benefited from Luth. liturgies. Some of its translations were used in liturgies of Am. Luths. EL

See also Chant; Divine Liturgy; Mark, Liturgy of Saint; Theology; Worship, Orders of; Worship, Parts of.

L. D. Reed, The Lutheran Liturgy, rev. ed. (Philadelphia, [1960]); F. Lochner, Der Hauptgottesdienst der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Kirche (St. Louis, 1895); Y. T. Brilioth, Eucharistic Faith & Practice, Evangelical and Catholic (London, 1930); G. Dix, The Shape of the Liturgy (Westminster, 1945); W. D. Maxwell, An Outline of Christian Worship: Its Development and Forms (London, 1936); J. A. Jungmann, The Mass of the Roman Rite, tr. F. A. Brunner, 2 vols. (New York, 1951–55); Liturgy and Worship, ed. W. K. L. Clarke and C. Harris (New York, 1932); G. Rietschel, Lehrbuch der Liturgik, 2d ed. P. Graff (Göttingen, 1951); Leiturgia, ed. K. F. Müller and W. Blankenburg (Kassel, 1954– ); O. Cullmann, Early Christian Worship (Chicago, 1953); A. O. T. Hellerström, Liturgik (Stockholm, 1954); L. D. Reed, Worship (Philadelphia, 1959); P. H. D. Lang, Ceremony and Celebration (St. Louis, 1965). Periodicals and serials: Monatschrift für Gottesdienst und kirchliche Kunst (1896– ); Jahrbuch für Liturgiewissenschaft (1921– ); Liturgiegeschichtliche Quellen (1918– ); Liturgiegeschichtliche Forschungen (1918– ); Liturgiewissenschaftliche Quellen and Forschungen (1928– ); Pro Ecclesia Lutherana (1933– ); Sursum Corda (1939– ); Una Sancta (1940– ); Jahrbuch für Liturgik und Hymnologie (1955– ).


(Ludger; probably ca. 742–809). B. Suecsnon (now Zuilen, on the Vecht, near Utrecht, Frisia) of Christian parentage; pupil of Gregory* of Utrecht and Alcuin*; miss. Neth., Frisia, and Westphalia; 1st bp. Münster, Westphalia, ca. 804; est. monastery of Werden. Works include a life of Gregory of Utrecht.


(Liudprand; Luitprand; ca. 922–ca. 972). B. perhaps Pavia, Lombardy, N It.; deacon Pavia; chancellor of Berengar II (d. 966; king of It. 950–961; overthrown by Otto I [912–973; “the Great”; king of Ger. and Holy Roman emp. 936–973; crowned 962]); made bp. Cremona by Otto I 961. Works include Antapodosis (“Retribution”).

MPL, 136, 769–1180.

Livingston, John Henry

(1746–1825). Dutch Ref. cleric and educ.; b. near Poughkeepsie; educ. Yale U. (New Haven, Connecticut) and U. of Utrecht, Neth.; pastor NYC 1770; left NYC in Revolution and served chs. at Kingston, Albany, Livingston Manor, Poughkeepsie, and Red Hook; returned to NYC 1783; prof. theol. Gen. Syn. of Dutch Ref. Ch. 1784–1825; pres. Queen's Coll. (now Rutgers U.) 1810–25.

Livingstone, David

(Livingston; 1813–73). Scot. miss. and explorer; b. Blantyre, Lanark, Scot.; d. Chitambo's Village, on the Lulimala, in Ilala, N. Rhodesia, Afr.; studied med. and theol. at Glasgow; volunteered to LMS 1838; left Eng. for Bechuanaland, S Afr., December 1840; arrived Cape Town March 14, Kuruman July 31, 1841; traveled 2 yrs.; miss. 9 yrs.; exploration predominated 1852–73; in Eng. 1856–58; severed connection with LMS 1857; Brit. consul 1858. Lost contact with outside world 1868 while exploring cen. Afr.; found November 1871 by H. M. Stanley.* Buried in Westminster Abbey, London. Works include Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa. See also Africa. B 2, 5; Moffat, Robert; Susi.

Lizet, Petrus

(Lizetus; Lisset; Liset; ca. 1482–1554). B. Clermont, Fr.; priest 1553. Works include De Sacris Scripturis in linguas vulgares non vertandis per modum dialogi.

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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