Christian Cyclopedia

About the Cyclopedia

Lea, Henry Charles

(1825–1909). B. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; mem. of a Philadelphia pub. firm. Works include History of Sacerdotal Celibacy in the Christian Church; A History of Auricular Confession and Indulgences in the Latin Church; A History of the Inquisition of Spain; A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages; The Inquisition in the Spanish Dependencies.

Lead(e), Jane

(nee Ward; 1623–1704). B. Norfolk, Eng.; mystic at ca. 16; m. William Lead 1654; influenced by writings of J. Böhme*; claimed prophetic visions; with T. Bromley,* J. Pordage,* and F. Lee* organized The Philadelphian* Soc. for the Advancement of Piety and Divine Philos.; Lee helped spread her doctrines in Eur. See also Millennium, 5.

League and Covenant, Solemn.

Agreement drawn up 1643 in Edinburgh, Scot., bet. the Eng. Parliament and the Scots. Pledged subscribers to maintenance of Ref. Ch. of Scot., to Reformation in Eng. and Ireland, to common endeavor toward uniformity of discipline and doctrine, to loyalty to Parliament and crown, and to extirpation of popery and prelacy. Renewed in Scot. 1648. Signed 1650 and 1651 by Charles II (“Merry Monarch”; 1630–85; king of Eng., Ireland, and Scot.). See also Covenanters; Presbyterian Confessions, 1, 3.


(ca. 549 [early as 540?]–ca. 600). B. probably Cartagena, Sp.; bp. (or abp., or metropolitan) Seville ca. 577/578 [584?]; brother of Isidore* of Seville; friend of Gregory I (see Popes, 4); won Visigoths of Sp. from Arianism* for orthodoxy; presided at 589 Council of Toledo.*

Lebanon Evangelical Mission.

Known 1860–81 as Ladies' Assoc. for Soc. and Religious Improvement of the Syrian Females, 1882–88 as Brit. Syrian Schools and Bible Miss., 1889–96 as Brit. Syrian Schools and Bible Work, 1897–1903 as Brit. Syrian Miss. and Bible Work, and in more recent yrs. simply as Brit. Syrian Miss. Est. 1860 to rehabilitate women and children widowed and orphaned by Druzes and Muslim (by massacres in Syrian hinterland). Interdenom., conservative, ev. Field was Syria, but 1959 legislation obliged move of its center of activity to Lebanon. Established village schools, larger institutions, and special schools (e.g., for blind); sends out miss. evangelists; relates groups of believers to existing nat. ev. chs. See also Middle East, C, D.


(Lebwin; Lebuinus; Libuinus; Liafwin[e] [OE “dear friend”]; d. perhaps ca. 780). Anglo-Saxon Benedictine priest; miss. in Frisia and Saxony.

Lecerf, Auguste

(1872–1943). B. London, Eng.; pastor Lunéville, Fr., 1895; Ref. prof. dogmatics Paris 1938. Works include studies of Calvinism.*

Lechler, Gotthard Victor

(Viktor; 1811–88). Brother of K. Lechler*; Luth. theol.; b. Reichenbach, near Freudenstadt; Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; prof. Leipzig 1858. Works include Geschichte des englischen Deismus; Das apostolische und das nachapostolische Zeitalter; Johann von Wiclif und die Vorgeschichte der Reformation.

Lechler, Karl

(1820–1903). Brother of G. V. Lechler*; Luth. pastor Württemberg; gen. supt. Ulm; in theory derived ministerial office from office of bp.; worked for union of Luth. and Ref. chs.

Lechler, Rudolf

(1824–1908). With Knut Theodor Hamberg (1819–54) of Swed. to Hong Kong as coworkers of K. F. A. Gützlaff* 1846/47; Lechler and Hamberg est. the China miss. of the Basel* Miss. Soc.; Lechler led the miss. 1854–99.

Lechner, Leonhard

(Lehner; Lehener; Athesinus [from Athesis, Lat. name of the Etsch]; ca. 1553–1606). Luth. composer; b. Etsch (Adige) valley, S Tirol; pupil of O. di Lasso*; held positions at Nürnberg, Hechingen, Tübingen, and Stuttgart. Works include Deutsche Sprüche von Leben und Tod; a Passion acc. to John. See also Passion, The.

Leclercq, Henri

(1869–1945). Benedictine scholar; b. Tournai, Belg.; became Fr. citizen; to Eng. 1896; priest 1898; in London 1914–45. Wrote extensively, esp. on Lat. Christianity; ed. with F. Cabrol,* Monumenta ecclesiae liturgica and Dictionnaire d'archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie; issued an enl. but somewhat unreliable Fr. ed. of K. J. v. Hefele,* Conciliengeschichte; other works include hist. of Christianity in Afr. and Sp.; manual of Christian archaeol. to 8th c.

Lecot, Victor Lucien Sulpice

(1831–1908). B. Montescourt, near St. Quentin, Fr.; bp. Dijon 1886; abp. Bordeaux 1890; cardinal 1893; active in soc. reform and in behalf of the working class.


Book containing Scripture readings as lessons for the ch. yr. Some lectionaries are elaborately embellished. The earliest Lat. lectionary (comes, “companion”) has been ascribed to Jerome* but is probably of later origin; Gallican lectionaries are dated as early as the 5th or 6th c.; Gk. lectionaries are traced at least to the 6th c. See also Pericope; Service Books.


1. Martin de (d. 1574). Sp. Dominican 1525; Thomist; prof. Coimbra, Port. 2. Pedro de (ca. 1550–1616). B. Salamanca, Sp.; Dominican 1563; strict Thomist; taught at Segovia, Ávila, and Salamanca; defended D. Báñez*; opposed Luis (de) Molina.*

Ledóchowski, Mieczyslaw Halka

(Miecislaus Johann; 1822–1902). Uncle of W. Ledóchowski*; b. Klimontów, near Sandomierz, Poland; papal diplomat in Port. and S. Am.; nuncio in Brussels; abp. Gnesen-Posen; imprisoned 1874 for opposing May* laws; cardinal 1875; spent last yrs. in Rome; supported papal infallibility.*

Ledóchowski, Wladimir

(Wlodzimierz; 1866–1942). Nephew of M. H. Ledóchowski*; b. Loosdorf, Austria; Gen. of Society* of Jesus 1915; extended the order, esp. with a view toward the E Ch.

Lee, Ann

(Lees; “Mother Ann”; “Ann the Word”; 1736–84). B. Manchester, Eng.; joined Shaking Quakers in Eng. Ca. 1758; their leader 1770; m. blacksmith Abraham Standerin (Stanley; Standley) 1762; to US 1774; settled with followers at present Watervliet, New York, founding 1st Shaker community in US 1776; arrested for treason 1780, soon released. See also Shakers.

Lee, Francis

(1661–1719). B. Cobham, Surrey, Eng.; educ. Oxford; nonjuror (see Nonjurors); left Eng. 1691; studied medicine; entered U. Leiden, Neth., 1692; practiced medicine at Venice, It.; on way home 1694 became acquainted with writings of J. Lead(e)*; became her disciple in London; m. her daughter. Became head of The Philadelphian Soc. for the Advancement of Piety and Divine Philosophy. Works include Horologium Christianum; The Labouring Person's Remembrancer; Considerations concerning Oaths.

Lee, Frederick George

(1832–1902). Angl. theol. writer; b. Thame, Oxfordshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; helped found A. P. U. C. 1857; vicar All Saints', Lambeth, 1867–99; RC 1901; advocated reunion of RC Ch. and Ch. of Eng. Ed. The Union Review 1863–69; other works include A Glossary of Liturgical and Ecclesiastical Terms; Historical Sketches of the Reformation.

Lee, Jason

(June 28, 1803–March 12, 1845). Meth. miss.; b. near Stanstead, Quebec, then considered part of Vermont; conversion experience at 22; minister in and near Stanstead; ordained deacon 1832, later elder; miss. to Flathead country (Montana and Brit. Columbia) 1833, but soon went instead to Williamette, 10 mi. NW of Salem, Oregon; est. missions at The Dalles and elsewhere in Oregon See also Indians, American, 6.

Leeson, Jane Elizabeth

(1809–81). Hymnist; b. London, Eng.; active in Catholic* Apostolic Ch.; RC late in life. Hymns include “Gracious Savior, Gentle Shepherd”; tr. include “Christ the Lord Is Risen Today.”

Leeward Islands.

Part of the Lesser Antilles, E West Indies; name derived from their comparatively sheltered position from prevailing NE winds. Govt. division of W Indies Fed. (1958–62): Antigua, St. Christopher [Kitts]-Nevis-Anguilla, and Montserrat. See also Carribean Islands, E 5, 7, 8.

Lefèvre d'Étaples, Jacques

(Jacobus Faber; Fabri; surname Stapulensis; ca. 1450-ca. 1537). Reformer, humanist, and Aristotelian philos.; b. Étaples, Fr.; educ. Paris; settled near Paris; condemned for heresy; fled to Strasbourg because of Reformation sympathies; recalled; lived under royal protection. Works include tr. of Bible into Fr.; commentary on Paul's epistles. See also Bible Versions, K; France, 7.


(a) Seeking salvation through works rather than grace; (b) emphasis on the letter rather than the spirit of the law. See also Luther, Chief Writings of, 3.


(from Lat. legare, “send as deputy”). Emissaries or deputies. Papal legates represent the pope. Legates a latere (“from the [pope's] side”) are always cardinals. When their function pertains only to local chs. they are known as apostolic delegates. When to a legation of a religious or ecclesial nature there is added legation to states and govts., the title of nuncio, pronuncio, or internuncio is given to the legate.

Lehmann, Gottfried Wilhelm

(1799–1882). B. Hamburg, Ger.; leader of Bap. movement in Eur.; poet; active in miss., temperance, and soc. work.

Lehmann, Wilhelm Friedrich

(October 16, 1820–December 1, 1880). B. Markgröningen, Württemberg, Ger.; to Am. 1824; educ. Theol. Sem. of the Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States, Columbus, Ohio; licensed 1839; ordained 1843; assumed duties as prof. Sem. at Columbus 1847; pastor Trin. Luth. Ch., Columbus, Ohio; pres. Capital U. 1857–80; pres. Joint Syn. of Ohio 1854–60, 1878–80; pres. The Ev. Luth. Synodical* Conf. of N. Am. 1873–76, 1877–80. Ed. in chief Lutherische Kirchen-Zeitung 1860.

Lehmus, Adam Theodor Albert Franz

(1777–1837). Grandson of J. A. Lehmus*; b. Soest, Ger.; Luth. theol. of Erlangen School (see Lutheran Theology After 1580, 11); influenced by J. G. Fichte*: moved from romantic idealism toward confessionalism; valued M. Luther* and Luth. Confessions highly; tried to maintain contact with philos. and contemporary sciences; helped reest. Luth. confessionalism in Bav.

Lehmus, Johann Adam

(Lehms; 1707–88). B. Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Bav., Ger.; educ. Jena; Luth. pastor, active in Scheckenbach and Rothenburg; hymnist; grandfather of A. T. A. F. Lehmus.*

Lehr, Leopold Franz Friedrich

(1709–44). B. Cronenburg (Cronberg; Kronberg), near Frankfurt am Main; educ. Jena and Halle; tutor; served Halle orphanage; active in Köthen; hymnist. Hymns include “Mein Heiland nimmt die Sünder an” (“My Savior Sinners Doth Receive”).

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm von

(Leibnitz; Lubeniecz; 1646–1716). Prot. philos. and polymath; b. Leipzig, Ger.; educ. Leipzig, Jena, Altdorf; held various positions; held that the universe is made up of “monads,” units endowed with physical and psychical properties, God being the Supreme Monad; tried to unite Prots. and RCs, Luths. and Ref. Works include Hypothesis physica nova; De concursu corporum; De principio individui; Discours de métaphysique; Essais de Théodicée sur la bonté de Dieu, la liberté de l'homme, et l'origine du mal; La Monadologie; Nouveaux Essais sur l'entendement humain. See also Harmony, Pre-Established; Logic, Symbolic; Lutheran Theology After 1580, 8; Time.

Leighton, Robert

(1611–84). Scot. Presb. prelate; b. probably London, Eng. (or Edinburgh, Scot., or Ulishaven, Forfarshire, Scot.); educ. Edinburgh; prof. Edinburgh 1653; Angl. bp. Dunblane 1661, abp. Glasgow 1670, resigned 1674 after failing to harmonize Presbs. and Angls. Works include Rules and Instructions for a Holy Life; A Practical Commentary upon the First Epistle of St. Peter.

Leipzig Colloquy.

Conference at Leipzig, Ger., 1631 bet. Luths. (John* George I and Saxon theologians M. Höe* v. Höenegg, P. Leyser* the Younger, and H. Höpfner*) and Calvinists (Georg Wilhelm [1595–1640; elector of Brandenburg 1620–40; son of John* Sigismund; father of Frederick* William of Brandenburg] and his court preacher J. Bergius*; Wilhelm V [1602–37; landgrave of Hesse-Cassel 1627–37], his court preacher T. Neuberger,* and J. Crocius*) to prevent execution of the Edict of Restitution.* The colloquents agreed on most of the AC but disagreed on the communication of attributes, Lord's Supper, and predestination.

Leipzig Debate.

In 1518 J. Eck* challenged A. R. B. v. Karlstadt* to a pub. debate on matters involving Luth. doctrine. The debate was held 1519 in the great hall of castle Pleissenburg, Leipzig. Disputants: June 27–July 3, Eck and Karlstadt; July 4–13, Eck and M. Luther*; July 14–16, Eck and Karlstadt. Luther said that popes and councils were fallible and rested his case on Scripture alone. The univs. of Erfurt and Paris were to render a verdict on the debate, but Erfurt asked to be excused and Paris issued no statement till 1521, when it rendered a verdict adverse to Luther based on his writings, without mention of the Leipzig Debate. See also Agricola, Johann(es).

W. H. T. Dau, The Leipzig Debate in 1519 (St. Louis, 1919).

Leipzig Disputation.

Disputation resulting from the inaugural address of A. Hahn* in Leipzig 1827; he held that rationalism* has no legitimate place in the ch.; he was opposed by K. A. v. Hase,* J. F. Röhr,* et al.

Leipzig Evangelical Lutheran Mission

(Evangelischlutherische Mission zu Leipzig). Began 1819 as Dresden Ev. Luth. Miss. (Evangelisch-lutherische Mission zu Dresden), which was largely supported by pietists and sent money and missionaries to the Basel* Miss. Soc. Largely as a result of reaction against the Prussian* Union the Dresden soc. est. its own miss. school 1832, which developed into a sem. 1836. The soc. also became an indep. Luth. miss. soc. 1836. In 1848 its miss. bd. moved to Leipzig. Under K. F. L. Graul* it became the most important Luth. miss. in Eur.

The Leipzig Miss. was pledged to the Luth. confessions. Its purpose was not only to win converts but also to gather the converts into congs. loyal to the Luth. confessions and to develop indigenous, self-supporting chs. Missionaries were trained in the religious, scientific, literary, pol., and soc. aspects of their field.

Fields included India 1847, Kenya 1886, Tanganyika 1893, New Guinea 1955. It also est. a miss. at Station Bethany, St. Louis, Michigan (see also Baierlein, Eduard Raimund), which was given to the Mo. Syn. 1849.

See also Hardeland, Julius.

Leist, Jacob

(January 8, 1788–November 7, 1870). B. probably Snyder Co., Pennsylvania; moved to Ohio; licensed by Ministerium of Pennsylvania 1812; ordained 1818 at organization meeting of the Ohio Syn. (see Ohio and Other States, Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of); pastor in the area bet. Lancaster and Circleville, Ohio; pres. Ohio Syn. 1825–27; retired by 1854.

Lela, Chundra

(ca. 1825–1907). Indian evangelist; Brahman (see Brahmanism); married at 7; widowed at 9; learned Sanskrit and Shastra from her father; converted to Christianity after father's death; preached in gateways of native temples.

Leland, John

(1691–1766). Presb. cleric, polemicist; b. Wigan, Lancashire, Eng.; wrote against M. Tindal,* T. Morgan,* H. Dodwell* Jr., H. St. J. Bolingbroke,* and other deists (see Deism). Works include A View of the Principal Deistical Writers That Have Appeared in England in the Last and Present Century.

Leland, John

(1754–1841). Bap. cleric; hymnist; b. Grafton, Massachusetts; preacher from age 20, first in Virginia, then in Massachusetts (mostly at Cheshire); restless and eccentric. Hymns include “The Day Is Past and Gone.”

Le Maister.

Jansenist (see Jansenism) brothers at Port* Royal, Fr. 1. Antoine (1608–58). B. Paris, Fr.; lawyer; Bible translator. 2. Issac Louis (de Saci, or Sacy [anagrams of Isaac]; 1613–84). B. Paris, Fr.; priest; Bible translator; ed. Heures du Port Royal. 3. Simon (de Sericourt; 1611–58). Strict ascetic.

Le Maistre, Mattheus

(Le Maitre; Meistre; Maystre; perhaps ca. 1505–ca. 1577). B. possibly Roclengesur-Geer, Liège, Belg.; composer; kapellmeister Dresden 1554. Works include Catechesis (settings of Lutheran catechism).

Lemaître, Georges Édouard

(1894–1966). B. Charleroi, Belg.; astronomer, astrophysicist, math., and cosmologist; priest; prof. U. of Louvain; popularized the Big* Bang Theory.

Lemme, Ludwig

(1847–1927). Prot. theol.; b. Salzwedel, Ger.; educ. Berlin; prof. Breslau, Bonn, and Heidelberg; theol. position allied to that of I. A. Dorner* and R. Rothe.* Works include Christliche Ethik; Christliche Glaubenslehre.

Le Neve, John

(1679–1741). Eng. antiquary. Works include Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae; The Lives, Characters, … and … Benefactions of All the Protestant Bishops of the Church of England Since the Reformation.

Lenker, John Nicholas

(November 28, 1858–May 16, 1929). B. Sunbury, Pennsylvania; educ. Wittenberg Coll. and Hamma Divinity School, Springfield, Ohio, and Leipzig, Ger.; ordained 1880; pastor Grand Island, Nebraska, 1882–86; with Bd. of Christian Extension of Gen. Syn. 1886–94; prof. Trin. Sem. of the United Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. (see Danish Lutherans in America, 5), Blair, Nebraska, 1900–04; settled in Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1904, and served as pastor and miss. in and near the city; founded Luther Press. Founded and ed. Northern Review; other works include Lutherans in All Lands; Lutherans in All Lands, Supplement; Die Lutherische Kirche der Welt; tr. of M. Luther's works into Eng.

Lenoir Rhyne College,

Hickory, North Carolina Named after Col. W. W. Lenoir, who donated the grounds, and Daniel Rhyne, who richly endowed it 1922. See also Lutheran Church in America, V; Ministry, Education of, VIII B; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 16.

Le Nourry, Denis Nicholas

(1647–1724). B. Dieppe, Fr.; Benedictine (see Benedictines); Maurist (see Maurists) hist. Helped prepare standard eds. of ch. fathers, esp. F. M. A. Cassiodorus* and Ambrose*; other works include Apparatus ad bibliothecam maximum veterum patrum et antiquorum scriptorum ecclesiasticorum Lugduni editam.

Lenski, Richard Charles Henry

(September 14, 1864–August 14, 1936). Luth. cleric; b. Greifenberg, Prussia, Ger.; to Am. 1873; educ. Capital U. and its Theol. Dept., Columbus, Ohio; ordained 1887. Ev. Luth. Joint Syn. of Ohio* and Other States pastor successively at Baltimore, Maryland; Trenton, Springfield, and Anna, all in Ohio, till 1911. Prof. Capital U. and its Theol. Dept. 1911. Ed. Lutherische Kirchenzeitung 1904–24; other works include The Active Church Member; The Eisenach Gospel Selections; The Eisenach Old Testament Selections; The Epistle Selections of the Ancient Church; The Gospel Selections of the Ancient Church; The Sermon: Its Homiletical Construction; Saint Paul; commentary on the NT.

Leo, Heinrich

(1799–1878). Prot. hist.; b. Rudolstadt, Ger.; first influenced by G.W.F. Hegel,* later, in reaction against the “Hegelian Left,” became conservative under influence of E. W. Hengstenberg,* F. J. Stahl,* et al.


(ca. 680–741). “The Isaurian”; b. perhaps N Syria, rather than Isauria, as formerly thought; E Roman emp. 717–741; forced Suleiman (Arab.: Sulayman; d. 717; Umayyad caliph 715–717) to give up siege (begun 716) of Constantinople 717; defeated Muslim 726 and 739; iconoclast; confiscated papal lands.


(perhaps ca. 750–816). Father of Constantine* V; b. probably Rome; popo 795–816; crowned Charle-magne.* See also Adoptionism.

Leo IX

(Bruno of Egisheim; 1002–1054). B. Egisheim, Alsace; pope 1048 (crowned 1049); enjoined clerical celibacy; declared war against Normans in S It. 1053; defeated 1053 at Civitate (Civitella del Tronto), on the Fortore R. and detained. See also Schism, 6.

Leonardo da Vinci

(1452–1519). Florentine artist, scientist; b. Vinci, Tuscany, It. Architect of Milan cathedral; paintings include Last Supper; Mona Lisa.

Leonine City.

Part of Rome, It., fortified 848–852 by Leo IV (ca. 800–855; b. Rome; pope 847–855); contains Vatican* and Castel Sant' Angelo (which includes Hadrian's tomb [see Persecution of Christians, 3]).

Leonine Prayers.

In RCm, prayers in vernacular at end of mass recited by priest and people.

Leontius of Byzantium

(Byzantinus; Scholasticus; ca. 500–ca. 543). Anti-monophysite theol.; probably distinguished from Scythian monk of same name and from one Leontius of Jerusalem; probably the monk whom Sabas* took from the New Laura* in Palestine to Constantinople ca. 530; defended Chalcedonian Christology against Monophysites. Wrote against Nestorianism* and Eutychianism.*

MPG, 86, 1185–2100.


(fl. early 5th c.). B. probably Trier; monk in S Gaul; originally Nestarian and perhaps somewhat Pelagian; recanted under influence of Augustine* of Hippo.

MPL, 31, 1215–32.


(Hansen's Disease). Bacterial disease that causes nodules to appear on body surface; nerves become involved; eventually paralysis results.

In the NT (except Lk 17:15) removal of leprosy is spoken of as cleansing. The Gk. word lepra (found in LXX and NT) was used also for psoriasis or similar ailment. Leprosy was known in India ca. 1400 BC. It is apparently mentioned in the Egyptian papyrus Ebers ca. 1550 BC Leprosy of the body, and its symptoms, are alluded to Ex 4:6; Lv 13; Nm 12:10; 2 Sm 3:29; 2 K 5; 15:5; 2 Ch 26:23; leprosy in garments is mentioned Lv 13:47–59, in houses Lv 14:34–57.

Leprosariums were est. early. Sometimes lepers were banished into desert and outlying districts. Jesus' attitude toward lepers (Mk 1:40–45) led to humane treatment of them by Christians.

1983 est.: 11 million lepers, most in equatorial parts of Afr., Asia, and S. Am. and in China and India; more than 4,000 in the US. Since the early 1940s dapsone, a sulfone drug, has been used effectively against leprosy, but in the early 1980s leprosy seemed to be “building around” it.

Socs. which have worked among lepers include Am. Leprosy Missions, Inc. (organized 1906 as Am. Committee of the Mission to Lepers, inc. 1917 as Am. Mission to Lepers; headquarters NYC); Internat. Christian Leprosy Missions (organized 1944; Internat. Council formed 1961; headquarters Portland, Oregon); The Leprosy Mission (organized 1874; headquarters London, Eng. Also known as The Mission to Lepers in India; The Mission to Lepers in India and the East; Mission to Lepers).

Leps, Johan(n) Christian

(Lepps). B. Den.; to Am. via W Indies 1770; studied theol. under J. C. Kunze*; prof. pre-theol. school est. by Kunze; pastor Loonenburg, New York; mem. Pennsylvania Ministerium, retired to a farm in Pennsylvania 1782; attended 1783 conv. of the Pennsylvania Ministerium. See also Danish Lutherans in America, 1.

Lepsius, Johannes

(1858–1926). Pastor Jerusalem 1884; Friesdorf, Ger., 1887. Est. Dr. Lepsius' Deutsche Orient-Mission in Berlin for work among Muslim ca. 1895; this miss. was dissolved 1965 and its work integrated with Berlin* Miss. Soc. I. Persecution of Armenians in Turkey led him to est. agencies to aid Armenians in various countries.

Le Quien, Michel

(1661–1733). B. Boulogne-sur-Mer, Fr.; patristic scholar; Dominican. Ed. works of John* of Damascus; other works include Oriens christianus.

Lercheimer, Augustin

(Hermann Wilcken; Hermann Witekind; pseudonym A. L. v. Steinfelden; 1522–1603). Educ. Frankfurt an der Oder and Wittenberg; friend of P. Melanchthon*; rector Lat. school Riga; taught Gk. at Heidelberg 1551; taught at academy in Neustadt 1579–83.

Leslie, Charles

(1650–1722). B. Dublin, Ireland; educ. Dublin; Angl. nonjuror (see Nonjurors); controversialist; wrote against deism,* RCm, Soc. of Friends,* Presbs., Jews, Socinians. Works include The Snake in the Grass; The Wolf Stript of His Shepherd's Cloathing; A Short and Easie Method with the Deist; The Truth of Christianity Demonstrated.

Leslie, John

(Lesley; 1527–96). B. Kingussie, Invernesshire, Scot.; educ. Aberdeen, Scot., and Paris, Toulouse, and Poitiers, Fr.; ordained priest Scot. 1554; opposed Reformation in Scot.; disputed with J. Knox* at Edinburgh 1561; supported Mary (Queen of Scots; Mary Stuart; 1542–87; RC); bp. Ross 1566, Coutances, Normandy, Fr., 1593; hist. Works include De origine, moribus, et rebus gestis Scotorum; The Historie of Scotland.

Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim

(1729–81). Critic and dramatist; b. Kamenz, Saxony; librarian Wolfenbüttel 1770; promoted Enlightenment*; criticized shallowness of rationalistic theol., but became one of the greatest promoters of rationalism; engaged in controversy with J. M. Goeze* over H. S. Reimarus'* Fragmente eines Ungenannten; gave a liberal, soc., and humanitarian interpretation to Christianity. Works include Nathan der Weise; Minna von Barnhelm; Laokoon; Die Erziehung des Menschengeschlechts. See also Philosophy. WS.

Lessius, Leonard(us)

(Leys; Leonhard; 1554–1623). B. Brecht, near Antwerp; educ. Louvain; Jesuit; engaged in RC controversy on grace and inspiration. Works include Theses theologicae; De iustitia et iure; De gratia efficaci. See also Humanism.


(Liturgical). See Lectionary; Pericope.

Letter of Jeremiah

(Epistle of Jeremiah). See Apocrypha, B 3.

Letters of Obscure Men

(Epistolae obscurorum virorum). In 1514 J. Reuchlin* pub. Clarorum virorum epistolae, a collection of letters upholding his defense of Jewish literature and studies. In 1515–17 there appeared, in 2 parts, a series of satirical letters, Epistolae obscurorum virorum, lampooning Cologne Dominicans, esp. their leader Ortwin Gratius (van Graes; ca. 1480–1542; b. Holtwick, near Münster, Ger.; educ. Deventer, Neth.; prof. Cologne), to whom most of them were addressed, for attacks on Reuchlin. Crotus* Rubianus wrote most of the 1st part of Epistolae obscurorum virorum. U. v. Hutten* probably wrote most of the 2d part. A papal brief against authors, publishers, and possessors of Epistolae obscurorum virorum did little to dull the satire's cutting edge. See also Humanism, Sixteenth-Century German.

Leuba, James Henry

(1868–1946). B. Neuchâtel, Switz.; educ. Neuchâtel, Clark U. (Worcester, Massachusetts), Leipzig, Halle, Heidelberg, Paris; prof. psychol. Bryn Mawr (Pennsylvania) Coll. 1899–1933. Works include A Psychological Study of Religion; The Psychology of Religious Mysticism; God or Man?: A Study of the Value of God to Man.

Leube, Hans

(1896–1947). B. Leipzig, Ger.; ch. hist.; prof. Leipzig, Breslau, Rostock; student of H. Böhmer*; interested in Ref. thought in Lutheran* theol. after 1580 and in humanistic ideas in the ch. of Fr. and Eng.

Leuchter, Heinrich

(1558–1623). Luth. theol.; b. Melsungen, Ger.; studied under A. Hunnius* at Marburg; pastor Kirtorf 1586; preacher and supt. Marburg 1588; supt. Hesse-Darmstadt 1608; among those delegated 1621 to settle the Crypto-Kenotic* Controversy.


(5th c. BC). Gk. philos.; held that being is infinity of homogeneous atoms in infinite variety of forms and in infinite space; becoming results from the motion of atoms and their combinations. See also Atomism; Deism, I.

Leusden, Johann(es)

(January; 1624–99). Hebraist; b. Utrecht, Neth.; prof. Oriental languages Utrecht; ed. Heb. OT and pub. it in collaboration with Joseph ben Abraham Athia(s) (Atia; d. 1700; Jewish printer at Amsterdam); other works include Onomasticum sacrum; Philologus Hebraeus; ed. Gk. NT.


Faction in O. Cromwell's* army with radical ideas on govt. and religion. In religion they sought freedom of conscience and liberty for everyone to act acc. to his best knowledge; religion has 2 sides, or aspects: (a) right understanding of revelation (and this is a private matter), (b) works of righteousness and mercy (subject to approval by mankind, esp. authorities); all controversy about religious faith and practice is wrong. See also Diggers.

Levertoff, Paul

(1878–1954). B. White Russ.; Jew trained in Hasidism* and Cabala*; Christian 1895; taught in Institutum* Judaicum Delitzschianum 1911–19; dir. East London Fund for the Jews 1922–54; tried to est. Jewish branch of universal ch. in which Christian faith would be expressed in Jewish forms.

Levi ben Gershon

(Gerson[ides]; Leo de Bagnolas; Maestro Leon; Leo Hebraeus; called Ralbag from the initials of “rabbi” and of his name [though he may not have been a rabbi]; ca. 1288-ca. 1344). B. Bagnols, Languedoc, Fr.; Jewish Bible commentator, astronomer, mathematician, Aristotelian philos.; held that that part of the soul which contains the sum of exalted thoughts is immortal; God knows things in gen. but not in particular. Works include Milhamot Adonai (“Wars of the Lord”); commentaries on Bible and Talmud; treatises on astronomy and trigonometry.

Levirate Marriage.

OT requirement under which the widow of a man without male descendants married her husband's brother; the 1st son of this union was reckoned as the son of the deceased (Dt 25:5–10). Under other circumstances Lv 18:16 and 20:21 applied.

Levita, Elijah

(Elias; Elijah ben Asher ha-Levi; also called Ashkenazi [“the German”], Bachur, or Bahur [“the youth” or “student”], and Tishbi; ca. 1469–1549). B. Neustadt an der Aisch, Middle Franconia, W Bav., near Nürnberg and Erlangen, Ger.; Jewish scholar; active esp. in Padua, Venice, and Rome, It.; proved post-talmudic origin of Heb. vowel points; teacher of J. Eck*; collaborator of P. Fagius.* Works include Sefer ha-bahur; Tishbi (a talmudic lexicon); Massoret ha-massoret.

Lévy-Bruhl, Lucien

(1857–1939). Comtian philos.; b. Paris, Fr.; educ. Paris; prof. Paris; investigated primitive mentality of non-literate peoples. See also Primitive Religion.

Lewis, Clive Staples

(1898–1963). B. Belfast, N Ireland; educ. Oxford; in military in WW I; classical scholar Oxford; fellow and tutor Oxford 1925–54; prof. Medieval and Renaissance English at Cambridge 1954–63. Works include The Screwtape Letters; The Problem of Pain; Mere Christianity; The Last Battle; Poems; Studies in Words; Of Other Worlds: Essays and Stories.


A. Old Testament. Earliest known Heb. lexicon is Agron (or Egron; from Heb. agar, “to collect”), now lost, of Saadia* ben Joseph. Mahbereth, compiled by Menahem ben Saruk (ca. 910ca. 970; Sp. Jew) is a complete lexicon. Rabbi Jonah's* Sepher ha-dikduk (“Book of Grammar”) includes enterprising use of Arab. and Talmudic materials and an alphabetic list of Heb. roots. 17th c. Christian scholars include Valentin Schindler (d. 1604 [1610?]; b. Meissen, Ger.; prof. Wittenberg and Helmstedt), J. Hottinger,* and Edmund Castell (1606–85; b. Cambridgeshire, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; prof. Cambridge 1667). H. F. W. Gesenius'* Hebräsch-Deutsches Handwörterbuch über die Schriften des Alten Testaments appeared 1810–12; its “ed. altera,” Thesaurus philologicus criticus linguae Hebraeae et Chaldaeae veteris testamenti, became a standard reference work. Neues hebräischdeutsches Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament mit Einschluss des biblischen Chaldäismus: Ein Auszug aus dem grösseren Werke [of 1810–12] appeared 1815; its 17th ed., prepared by F. P. W. Buhl,* appeared 1921 under the title Wilhelm Gesenius' hebräisches und aramäisches Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament. The 1st Eng. tr. of Gesenius' Handwörterbuch: C. Leo, A Hebrew Lexicon to the Books of the Old Testament (1825–28). S. P. Tregelles,* Gesenius' Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures, Translated with Additions and Corrections from the Author's Thesaurus and Other Works, designed to combat rationalistic and neologistic tendencies, appeared London 1847. E. Robinson,* A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, including the Biblical Chaldee, tr. of Gesenius' 1833 Lexicon manuale Hebraeicum et Chaldaeicum in Veteris Testamenti libros, became basis of A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament (Part I 1891; complete ed. 1907), ed. F. Brown,* S. R. Driver,* and C. A. Briggs.* L. H. Köhler* and Walter Baumgartner (b. 1887), Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti libros, appeared 1948–53, suppl. 1958; 3d ed., W. Baumgartner et al., Hebräisches und aramäisches Lexikon zum Alten Testament (197– ). See also Pagninus, Santes.

B. New Testament. Vol. 1 of the Complutensian Polyglot (see Polyglot Bibles) includes a rudimentary Gk.-Lat. glossary of words of the NT, Ecclus, and Wisconsin M. Flacius* Illyricus issued Clavis scripturae s. seu de sermone sacrarum literarum 1567. G. Pasor's* Lexicon appeared 1619. Modern NT lexicography begins with C. A. Wahl,* Clavis Novi Testamenti philologica (1822), superseded 1840–41 by C. G. Wilke,* Clavis Novi Testamenti philologica, which K. L. W. Grimm* ed. and reissued beginning 1862 and called Lexicon graeco-latinum in libros Novi Testamenti beginning 1868. J. H. Thayer's* 1886 Eng. tr. of Wilke-Grimm's 2d ed. (1879) added material reflecting new emphasis on etymology. Thayer's 1889 corrected ed. became a standard tool. Papyri discoveries stimulated fresh lexicographical studies. E. F. W. F. Preuschen,* Vollständiges Griechisch-Deutsches Handwörterbuch zu den Schriften des Neuen Testaments und der übrigen urchristlichen Literatur (1910), was thoroughly revised by W. Bauer* (5th ed. 1963). Bauer's 4th ed. (1952) was tr. with modifications by W. F. Arndt* and Felix Wilbur Gingrich (b. 1901 Annville, Pennsylvania; educ. Lafayette Coll., Easton, Pennsylvania, and U. of Chicago; prof. Albright Coll., Reading, Pennsylvania; mem. The Ev. United Brethren Ch.) and appeared 1957 as A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. J. H. Moulton* and G. Milligan,* The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament Illustrated from the Papyri and Other Non-Literary Sources (1914–29; 1-vol. ed. 1930) offers a fascinating picture of life in NT times. A. H. Cremer,* Biblisch-theologisches Wörterbuch der neutestamentlichen Gräcität (1868; tr. W. Urwick from the latest Ger. ed., Biblico-Theological Lexicon of New Testament Greek, 4th Eng. ed., with supplement, 1895), rev. J. Kögel* (11th ed. 1923), is basis of Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Neuen Testament; the latter work, first ed. by G. Kittel,* then Gerhard Friedrich (b. 1908 Jodszen, E Prussia; prof. Kiel 1953, Erlangen 1954), is useful for its discussion of selected words with theol. significance and for its extensive reference to Heb., LXX, and classical usage; some articles have appeared in Bible Key Words (1949– ; various editors and translators); an unabridged Eng. version, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, ed. and tr. G. W. Bromiley, is in progress since 1964.

Beginners in NT Gk. will benefit from Bruce Manning Metzger (Presb. cleric and educator; b. 1914 Middletown, Pennsylvania; educ. Lebanon Valley Coll., Annville, Pennsylvania, and Princeton [New Jersey] Theol. Sem.; prof. Princeton Theol. Sem.), Lexical Aids for Students of New Testament Greek (1946; new ed. 1969).

See also Encyclopedias and Dictionaries; Grammars.

F. W. Danker, Multipurpose Tools for Bible Study, 3d ed. (St. Louis, Missouri, 1970), pp. 97–132. FWD

Lex talionis.

OT law that punishment should be the same in kind as the offense (Ex 21:23–25).

Leyser, Polykarp

(Leiser; Lyser; Polycarp[us]; 1552–1610). The Elder; father of P. Leyser* the Younger and of W. Leyser*; Luth. theol.; b. Winnenden, Württemberg, Ger.; pastor Göllersdorf (Gellersdorf), NE Lower Austria, 1573; prof. and gen. supt. Wittenberg 1577–87; helped restore sound Lutheranism in Wittenberg after 1st stage of Crypto-Calvinistic* Controversy; coadjutor and supt. Brunswick 1587–93; court preacher Dresden 1594. Ed. M. Chemnitz,* Loci theologici. See also Cölestin, Johann Friedrich; Harmony of the Gospels, 1.

Leyser, Polykarp

(Leiser; Lyser; Polycarp[us]; 1586–1633). The Younger; son of P. Leyser* the Elder; b. Wittenberg, Ger.; prof. Wittenberg and Leipzig. Works include Disputationes theologicae de aeterna Dei electione credentium et reprobatione incredulorum; commentaries on G1, AC, and FC.

Leyser, Wilhelm

(Lyser[us]; 1592–1649). Son of P. Lyser* the Elder; b. Dresder, Ger.; supt. Torgau; prof. Wittenberg 1627. Works include Trifolium verse religionis veteris testamenti.

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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