(18581916). B. Croydon, Eng.; sociol.; held that progress in animal and human realms comes only at great sacrifice in kind. Works include Social Evolution; Principles of Western Civilisation.
(Heb. sanctification). Jewish rite consisting of the ordinary benediction over wine or bread and a benediction proclaiming the holiness of the occasion; some hold that the Eucharist (see Grace, Means of, IV) may have the Kiddush as its background.
(November 25, 1883Apr. 25, 1937). B. near Millersburg, Pennsylvania; educ. Gettysburg* Coll. and Sem., Union Theol. Sem. (NYC), Columbia U. (NYC); pastor Rosedale, in Queens borough, W Long Is., New York, 191626; NLC statistician and reference librarian 191837. Assoc. ed. Lutheran World Almanac.
(181355). B. Copenhagen, Den.; religious philos. and author; marked by deep-seated melancholy; broken engagement affected his writings; tried to adhere to Luth. Confessions; studied theol., but never took office; attacked Est. Ch. for worldliness; held that a Christian is an isolated individual alone with God, in contact with the world only through suffering; made important contributions through self-analyses. Works include Either/Or; Philosophical Fragments; Concluding Unscientific Postscript; Edifying Discourses; Fear and Trembling. See also Existentialism.
E. Geismar, Sören Kierkegaard: Seine Lebensentwicklung und seine Wirksamkeit als Schriftsteller (Göttingen, 1929); D. F. Swenson, Something About Kierkegaard, 2d ed. (Minneapolis, 1945); W. Lowrie, A Short Life of Kierkegaard (Princeton, New Jersey, 1942); J. E. Hohlenberg, Sören Kierkegaard, tr. T. H. Croxall (London, 1954); L. Shestov, Kierkegaard and the Existential Philosophy, tr. E. Hewitt (Athens, Ohio, 1969).
(Kieszling; 17421824). Merchant in Nürnberg, Ger.; helped found Deutsche Christentumsgesellschaft.*
(January 4, 1857September 25, 1920). B. Beitstaden (Namdalseidet), Norw.; educ. Luther Coll., Decorah, Iowa, and Luther Sem., Madison, Wisconsin; pastor Minnesota and Illinois; pres. Red Wing (Minnesota) Norw. Ev. Luth. Sem. 188586 and St. Olaf Coll., Northfield, Minnesota, 18991914; prof. Luther Sem., St. Paul, Minnesota, 1914.
(January; March 22, 1811September 12, 1884). B. of Wendish parents in Dahlen, Saxony, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; pastor Kotitz, Saxony, 183748; to Texas with Wendish (Serbian) Luths. 1854, settled with them at Serbin, near Giddings, and was their pastor 185484; joined Mo. Syn. 1855. Works include tr. of AC and LC into Wendish.
(Chillen; d. 670). Irish monk; allegedly made pilgrimage to Rome and was given site for hermitage at Aubigny, near Arras, by Faro, bp. Meaux, Fr.
(Chiliam; Cilian; Killena; Killian; Kyllena; Kyllina ca. 640ca. 689). Apostle of Franconia; b. probably Mullagh, Co. Cavan, Ireland; bp.; to court of Gozbert, Thuringian duke at Würzburg; did miss. work in Franconia (e.g., at Heilbronn) and Thuringia; converted Gozbert and persuaded him to separate from Geilana, his brother's widow; in revenge, Geilana had Kilian murdered. See also Celtic Church, 9; Germany, A 1.
(d. 1279). Eng. Dominican (see Dominicans); abp. Canterbury 127278; took Canterbury registers and judicial records to It.; opposed Thomas* Aquinas. Works include De natura theologiae.
(Kimhi; Redak [from initials of Rabbi David Kimchi]; ca. 11601235). Jewish philol. and exegete; b. Narbonne, Fr. Works include Heb. grammar and lexicon; OT commentaries. See also Grammars, A.
Two words commonly tr. kindness in the Bible are chesed (Heb.; OT) and chrestotes (Gk.; NT). Both refer to kindness as a quality of God and man, 2 Sm 9:1; Neh 9:17; Cl 3:12; Tts 3:4. Kindness is akin to love, goodness, friendliness, generosity, mercy, gentleness, meekness, patience, forgiveness, and tenderheartedness; anger, crudeness, and harshness are usually excluded.
Chesed used in reference to a quality in God has been variously tr., e.g., lovingkindness, kindness, mercy, steadfast love. It is used in connection with the covenant* relationship bet. God and His people, Ps 106:45. God's kindness is intertwined with His everlasting faithfulness, Is 54:10. We praise Him for His kindness, Ps 138:2.
Chrestotes and related words used in reference to a quality in God involve His grace (Eph 2:7), love (Tts 3:4), and kindness to the unthankful and wicked (Lk 6:35). Christ not only was the vehicle of God's kindness, He is also the pattern for our kindness. His kindness appears in His dealings with the penitent, Lk 7:3750. So common was chrestotes in the ministry of Christ, that in the early ch. the word Christ was sometimes written chrestos, the Friendly. So prominent was it among early Christians that they were sometimes called chrestiani.
Kindness is commanded by God (Eph 4:32), is an essential mark of agape (Christian love; 1 Co 13:4), a vital factor in the ministry (2 Co 6:6), and a fruit of the Spirit (Gl 5:22; KJV gentleness). LEZ
1. When Christ is called kyrios (kurios, Gk. lord; e.g., Lk 7:13) or basileus (Gk. king; e.g., Jn 1:49), fulfillment of OT promise and prophecy is indicated (2 Sm 7:1113; Ps 8; 89; 110:12; Dn 7:1327).
2. Divine adoration is due Christ also acc. to His human nature (Jn 5:23; Ph 2:911). Christ was King in the state of humiliation. His miracles and such passages as Mt 11:27; Jn 5:17; 12:15 make this clear. His royal powers, hidden in His humiliation, were used fully and continually bet. His resurrection and ascension and became esp. manifest with His ascension and session at the right hand of God (Mt 28:18), His human nature participating fully in all the functions of the Godhead as King of the world and of the ch.
3. Christ is Prophet, Priest, and King. If stress is laid on one office to the exclusion of the others, justice is not done to the fullness of the Gospel.
4. Scripture exempts no part of creation from the rule of Christ (Mt 11:27; 1 Co 15:27; Eph 1:22; Heb 2:8).
5. The universal realm of Christ may be divided: kingdom of power, kingdom of grace, kingdom of glory. In His kingdom of power Christ rules over all creatures by almighty power, Mt 28:18. In His kingdom of grace He rules and protects His church* on earth, whose mems. are in the world but not of the world (Jn 17:11, 15). His kingdom of glory is the ch. in heaven, 2 Ti 4:18. See also Church Militant; Church Triumphant.
6. The 3 kingdoms are under 1 Lord. His will and purpose direct, and His power controls, all things. All in heaven and earth serves the purpose of gathering and preserving the ch.
7. For Christians the choice is not bet. ecclesiastical power-politics and withdrawal of the ch. from the world. The 3d way: by Christian life and example, by participation in civil affairs, and by Christian witness to help prepare the way of Christ the King. HFB
O. C. J. Hoffmann, Office, or Work, of Christ, The Abiding Word, II, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1947), 112144; F. A. O. Pieper, Christliche Dogmatik, II (St. Louis, 1917), 461472, Eng. tr. Christian Dogmatics, II (St. Louis, 1951), 385394; W. A. Visser 't Hooft, The Kingship of Christ: An Interpretation of Recent European Theology (New York, 1948).
(18581934). B. Hillsdale, Michigan; educ. Oberlin (Ohio) Coll., a Cong. school with a theol. department; prof. and pres. Oberlin Coll.; philos. Works include The Ethics of Jesus; Reconstruction in Theology.
(July 29, 1792May 22, 1869). B. Hawley, Massachusetts; educ. Williams Coll., Williamstown, Massachusetts, and Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; noted linguist; miss. in Syria, Egypt, Greece. See also Paris Evangelical Missionary Society.
(19291968). Bap. cleric; b. Atlanta, Georgia; educ. Crozer Theol. Sem. (Chester, Pennsylvania), and Boston (Massachusetts) U.; pastor Montgomery, Ala.; organizer and pres. Southern* Christian Leadership Conference; pres. Montgomery Improvement Assn.; recipient of Nobel Peace Prize 1964; leader of nonviolent movements and demonstrations aimed at achieving civil rights for all races. Tried to relate Christian faith to hope for oppressed. Assassinated. Works include Stride Toward Freedom; The Measure of a Man; Strength to Love; Why We Can't Wait; Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community?
Term prominent in proclamation of John the Baptist, Jesus, and apostles; evidently synonymous with kingdom of heaven. Formerly it was taken for granted that kingdom of God is equivalent to Christian ch.; contemporary scholars hold that kingdom usually means dominion or rule, and that only in a derived way, by figure of speech, does it in some passages designate subjects in God's kingdom. When Jesus said that the kingdom of God had come near (Mk 1:15), he announced that God was, through the Messiah, laying the foundation for His gracious rule in human hearts. This rule presupposes that forgiveness of sins has been procured and that people accept it in faith. Where there is such acceptance, God has entered the heart and governs human thoughts and actions. Those who heard the message of John and of Christ were informed that God was preparing something special, that the fullness of the time had come (Gl 4:4), and that the plan of God for man's salvation was now to be carried out. The term did not point to an external kingdom like that of David or Solomon or the Roman Empire, but to something spiritual, the gentle rule of God through the Holy Spirit in the hearts of men. Passages which speak of the rule of God include Mt 12:28; Mk 4:11; Lk 9:27; 11:20. Passages which speak of the sum total of the subjects include Mt 13:41; 16:19. The kingdom is at times spoken of as a future blessing (Mt 7:21; 8:11), at times as a present reality (Lk 16:16; 17:20; Jn 3:35). It should be our heart's desire to be under the gracious rule of God (Mt 13:4446).
(16341703). Poet of Eastertide; b. Slangerup, Den., perhaps of Scot. descent; Luth. pastor Slangerup; bp. Fyn 1677; composer; hymnist. Hymns include On My Heart Imprint Thine Image; Like the Golden Sun Ascending; The Sun Arises Now.
(November 22, 1786June 27, 1870). B. Alstead, New Hampshire; educ. Brown U., Providence, Rhode Island, and Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; ABCFM miss. to Choctaw Indians. See also Indians, American, 7.
Drawn up 1581 for Scot. by John Craig (ca. 15121600; Scot. reformer; co-worker of J. Knox*; Dominican friar; held Prot. tenets), signed by James VI (see James I). See also Presbyterian Confessions, 1.
(International Order of the King's Daughters and Sons). Founded 1886 by Margaret McDonald Bottome (18271906; b. NYC; married clergyman; assoc. ed. Ladies' Home Journal); interdenom.; object: to develop spiritual life and stimulate Christian activities; pub. periodical Silver Cross; membership over 50,000 in the 1960s.
(181975). B. Holne, Devonshire, Eng.; educ. London and Cambridge; Angl. rector; prof. modern hist. Cambridge 186069; canon Westminster 1873; promoted Christian* Socialism; engaged in controversy with J. H. Newman*; hymnist. Works include Hypatia.* See also Guild of Saint Matthew.
(160368). B. Breslau, Ger.; court physician of Duke of Liegnitz-Brieg. Wrote the hymn Herr Jesu Christ, du hast bereit't.
(Ger. ch. struggle). Struggle in Ger. bet. ch. and the nat. socialism (abbr. Nazism, from Ger. Nationalsozialismus) of Adolf Hitler (Schick'l-gruber? 18891945; cofounder Nat. Socialist Ger. Workers' Party 191920; Ger. chancellor [called Führer (leader)] with dictatorial powers 1933). See also Socialism, 3.
First stage in the Kirchenkampf was Hitler's attempt to incorporate the ch. into nat. socialism as a cultural factor (spring to fall 1933). A concordat was concluded July 20, 1933, with the RCs (see Concordat, 8). In the ev. chs., elections brought the Deutsche Christen (see Barmen Theses) notable victories, but many opposed Nazism and under leadership of W. Künneth (see Dogmatics, B 13), M. Niemöller (pres. WCC 196168; see also Germany, C 4), H. Lilje,* et al. formed the Jungreformatorische Bewegung May 1933. This became the Pfarrernotbund (Pastors' Emergency League) September 1933.
In the 2d stage (fall 1933fall 1934), Hitler tried to complete the assimilation of the ch. into the Nazi state. This led to opposition and the adoption of the Barmen Theses, which mark the beginning of the Bekennende Kirche (Confessing Ch.), which tried to unite evangelicals who opposed Nazism. Thereafter Hitler was no longer interested in using the ch. and increasingly opposed it.
In the 3d stage (fall 1934February 1937), the state tried to restrict activities of the ch. by controlling its finances. The Bekennende Kirche tried to maintain its own govt. It became clear that the ch. could be destroyed neither by internal nor by external forces because pastors and chs. continued to use Word and sacraments. On the other hand, the ch. found it difficult to maintain a govt. without state sanction.
In the 4th stage (February 19371939), the opponent of the ch. was no longer primarily the Deutsche Christen, but Nazism itself and its anti-Christian worldviews. Some pastors resisted the state and were imprisoned; others tried to avoid conflict with the state in their ministry.
In the 5th stage (WW II; 19391945), increasingly serious attacks were made on the ch. Niemöller was imprisoned, D. Bonhoeffer* imprisoned and executed. Pastors were called into the army, ch. publications suppressed, ch. services and functions curtailed or suppressed. Though hampered also by internal strife, the chs. tried to continue working.
Nazism collapsed 1945. God's grace preserved the Christian chs. of Ger. despite their weaknesses and failures.
See also Altona Confession.
F. Zipfel, Kirchenkampf in Deutschland 19331945 (Berlin, 1965); J. S. Conway, The Nazi Persecution of the Churches 193345 (New York, 1968); Arbeiten zur Geschichte des Kirchenkampfes 19331945, ed. K. D. Schmidt, H. Brunotte, E. Wolf (Göttingen, 1958 ). EL
See Fritschel, 1, 2; Iowa and Other States, Evangelical Lutheran Synod of, 3.
(153387). B. Döllstädt, Thuringia, Ger.; Luth. pastor; deposed 1561 at Herbsleben for opposing V. Strigel's* Melanchthonianism; prof. Jena 1572; supt. Wolfenbüttel and Gandershelm; prof. Helmstedt 1576; criticized Julius* of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel for Romanizing; deposed 1579; helped prepare Apology of the Book of Concord; prof. Heidelberg 1580; deposed 1583; supt. Weimar 1584. Made the index to the Jena ed. of M. Luther's works. See also Chemnitz, Martin; Selnecker, Nikolaus; Neostadiensium admonitio.
(formerly Gilbert Islands). Group of 16 atolls in W Pacific SSE of Marshall Is. and NE of Solomon Is.; ca. 2,800 mi. NE of Australia. Land area: ca. 100 sq. mi. Brit. protectorate 1892; made part of Gilbert and Ellice islands colony 1915; Ellice islands separated 1975 and became indep. Tuvalu 1978; Gilbert Islands became indep. 1979 as Rep. of Kiribati (pron. Kiribass). Ethnic groups: nearly all Micronesian; some Polynesians. Languages: Gilbertese and Eng. (official). Religions: RC and Prots. evenly divided. ABCFM began work 1857, LCMS 1870. After WW I the ABCFM turned its work over to the LMS.
(October 11, 1849February 16, 1925). B. Valdres, Norw.; to Am. 1874; pastor The Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. 18741900, pres. FebruarySeptember 1893; supt. Elk Horn (Iowa) Folk School. Founded and ed. Dannevirke (periodical named after a 10th c. earthen wall built by Dan. Queen Thyra for protection against invaders); ed. Kirkelig Samler; helped comp. Nordisk Folke-Sangbog.
(18571911). B. Heslach, near Stuttgart, Ger.; educ. Maulbronn, Blaubeuren, and Tübingen; prof. Basel and Leipzig. See also Atonement, Theories of, 6.
(pax [Lat. peace]). Originally actual kiss (e.g., Ro 16:16; 1 Ptr 5:14); early assoc. with Lord's Supper (Justin* Martyr, Apologia I ixv). Form has been modified in all rites. See also Agnus Dei.
(18881948). Luth. NT scholar; son of R. Kittel*; b. Breslau, Ger.; educ. Leipzig, Tübingen, Berlin, Halle; taught at Kiel, Leipzig, Greifswald, Tübingen, and Vienna; studied unique character of Christianity in its environment; traced Oriental and Jewish influences on early Christian cong. Works include Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Neuen Testament; Christus und Imperator; Die Probleme des palästinischen Spätjudentums und das Urchristentum; Die Judenfrage; Urchristentum, Spätjudentum und Hellenismus; Die Religionsgeschichte und das Urchristentum. See also Lexicons, B.
(17321809). B. Erfurt, Ger.; pupil of J. S. Bach*; organist Langensalza and Erfurt; composer. Issued Neues Choralbuch für Schleswig-Holstein; other works include organ preludes.
(18531929). Luth. OT scholar; father of G. Kittel*; educ. Tübingen; prof. Breslau 1888, Leipzig 1898. Ed. Heb. OT; other works include Geschichte des Volkes Israel; Die Religion des Volkes Israel.
(180454). B. Plymouth, Eng.; deaf ca. 1817; trained as printer at Islington (London) Miss. Coll.; CMS miss. printer Malta 182729; tutor in miss. group to Persia 182933. Ed. The Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature; other works include The Pictorial Bible; Daily Bible Illustrations.
Organized 1915 in Detroit, Michigan, for practical application of the Golden* Rule to modern life, esp. in business and professional relations.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission
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