(16401704). B. Stoke-Hammond, Buckinghamshire, Eng.; Calvinistic Bap.; introd. cong. singing into Bap. congs. Works include The Progress of Sin; Spiritual Melody; The Travels of True Godliness; War with the Devil; Tropologia.
(17921866). Angl. cleric and poet; b. Fairford, Gloucestershire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; prof. Oxford 183141; vicar (priest) Hursley 183666. Launched Oxford* Movement (see also Tractarianism). Hymns include Word Supreme, Before Creation; Sun of My Soul, Thou Savior Dear; The Voice that Breathed O'er Eden; One Thy Light, the Temple Filling.
(ca. 15711609). B. Danzig; educ. Wittenberg, Leipzig, and Heidelberg; Ref. philos.; prof. Heb. Heidelberg; rector and prof. philos. Ref. Gymnasium, Danzig, 1601. Works include Systema theologiae. See also Dogmatics, B 5; Grace, Means of, IV 3; Maccovius, Johannes.
(180788). B. Lauterbach, near Ölsnitz, Saxony; educ. Dorpat (Tartu) and Berlin; prof. OT and NT exegesis Dorpat 183358; moved to Leipzig 1859; concentrated on literary work and on practical affairs of the Luth. Ch.; belonged to the orthodox conservative school of E. W. Hengstenberg*; regarded so-called scientific theol. as a passing phase. With Franz Delitzsch (see Delitzsch, 1) he wrote an OT commentary; other works include Lehrbuch der historisch-kritischen Einleitung in die kanonischen und apokryphischen Schriften des Alten Testaments.
(December 27, 1894June 13, 1952). B. Richville, Michigan; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; asst. pastor Immanuel Luth. Ch., Grand Rapids, Michigan, 191826. Prof. Conc. Teachers Coll., Seward, Nebraska, 192643; Conc. Teachers Coll., River Forest, Illinois, 194352. Works include My Church: A History of the Missouri Synod for Young People.
(185687). B. Edinburgh, Scot.; educ. Harrow and Cambridge; interested in evangelistic work in Cambridge and London; studied Arabic and Koran*; to Aden 1885 and 1886; est. Keith-Falconer miss. See also Middle East, L.
(ca. 16391716). B. Peterhead, Aberdeen, Scot.; educ. Aberdeen; became Quaker in the early 1660s; to Eng. ca. 1682 for several yrs.; to Am.; denied sufficiency of light within; founded Christian Quakers; to Eng. ca. 1694; joined Angl. Ch. 1700; SPG miss. to Am. 1702. See also Friends, Society of.
(181248). B. near Middletown, Maryland; educ. Pennsylvania Coll. (later called Gettysburg Coll.) and Gettysburg Sem.; traveling miss. of Ministerium of Pennsylvania (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 22); 1st pres. Wittenberg Coll., Springfield, Ohio, 184548. See also Miami Synod.
(18561924). B. St. Petersburg, Russ.; educ. Dorpat (Tartu); Luth. pastor S Russ.: revivalist; supported miss. work; fled to Ger. 1891; pastor Düsseldorf 1892. Works include devotional literature. See also Eisenacher Bund.
(17691855). B. Kellyville, near Athy, Queen's Co. (later called Laoighis, or Leix), Ireland; educ. Dublin; studied law in London, Eng.; developed deep consciousness of sin; became ascetic; ordained Angl. 1792; seceded, after assoc. with ev. movement in Dublin; built chapels at Athy, Portarlington, Wexford, Waterford, and elsewhere; hymnist. Hymns include Stricken, Smitten, and Afflicted; Who Is This that Comes from Edom; Zion Stands by Hills Surrounded.
(18731951). B. Rawalpindi, India; educ. Washington and Allegheny (Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania, Berlin, and Leipzig; Presb. cleric 1898; prof. Heb. at Western Theol. Sem., Allegheny, Pennsylvania, 1901, pres. 190943; lecturer Am. School of Oriental Research at Jerusalem 192223. Works include Hebrew-English Vocabulary to the Book of Genesis; The Hebrew Prophet and His Message.
(16371711). B. Little Berkhampstead, Hertfordshire, Eng.; educ. Winchester and Oxford; bp. Bath and Wells; was 1 of 7 bps. imprisoned in Tower of London 1688 on charges of disloyalty; acquitted; among nonjurors*; deprived of see 1891; hymnist. Hymns include Awake, My Soul, and with the Sun and All Praise to Thee, My God, This Night, each of which ends with Praise God, from Whom All Blessings Flow.
(1660&&;nd;1728). B. Dover, Eng.; Angl. bp. Peterborough; Low Churchman (see High Church); antiquary. Works include The Christian Scholar; The History of England from the Commencement of the Reign of Charles I. to the End of the Reign of William III., in A Complete History of England, III.
(171883). B. Totnes, Devonshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; canon Christ Ch., Oxford. OT scholar. Ed. Vetus Testamentum hebraicum cure variis lectionibus; other works include The State of the Collation of the Hebrew Manuscripts of the Old Testament.
(Gk. an emptying, from kenos, empty). Term based on Ph. 2:7: Christ emptied (ekenosen) Himself; applied esp. to the view (e.g., of G. Thomasius,* K. F. A. Kahnis*) that the Son of God in His incarnation emptied Himself of such operative, or relative divine attributes as omnipotence, omnipresence, and omniscience, and to the view (e.g., of W. H. C. F. Gess,* J. C. K. v. Hofmann*) that He emptied Himself of all divine attributes, or that a human personality replaced His divine personality. Orthodox Luths. hold that Christ in His state of humiliation did not always and fully use the divine properties communicated to His human nature by virtue of the personal union (see Christ Jesus). See also Crypto-Kenotic Controversy; Decisio Saxonica.
1. Pastors in Kentucky who favored the strict confessionalism of the Henkels* held conventions 1822 and 1823; no permanent syn. was organized, but the name Kentucky Syn. (or Ev. Luth. Syn. of Kentucky) is sometimes used in connection with this venture.
2. Pastors favoring the modified confessionalism of The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA held a conv. 1834 at Jeffersontown, Kentucky This venture also has been called Kentucky Syn. (or Ev. Luth. Syn. of Kentucky); adopted the name Ev. Luth. Syn. of the West* 1835. See also Indiana Synod (I).
3. A Kentucky Syn. (Ev. Luth. Syn. of Kentucky) was formed 1854, joined The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA 1855, and was absorbed 1865 by the Olive Branch Ev. Luth. Syn. of Indiana (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 8). See also Southwest, Synod of the.
(Keppler; 15711630). B. Well der Stadt, near Stuttgart, Württemberg, Ger.; astronomer and mathematician; educ. Tübingen; pupil of M. Hafenreffer*; held Copernican theory (see Copernicus, Nicolaus); discovered 3 laws of planetary motion; held that the conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn 747 A. U. C. indicated the birth of Christ to the Magi, and that a new celestial sign ca. 748 A. U. C. guided them to Christ; denied Luth. doctrine of ubiquity*; opposed Calvinistic doctrine of double predestination; held that God created world in accord with a Pythagorean pattern of harmony (see Pythagoreanism).
(181986). B. Bield farm, Tweedsmuir parish, Peeblesshire, Scot.; educ. Edinburg, Halle, Berlin; United Presb. pastor Alnwick, Eng., and Barrhead and Glasgow, Scot.; prof. Edinburgh theol. sem. 1876. Works include Lectures on the History of Preaching; The Psalms in History and Biography.
(18711950). B. Elora, Ont., Can.; educ. Toronto, Ont., and Western Theol. Sem., Allegheny (Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania; pastor Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Hutchinson, Kansas, Chicago, Illinois, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; moderator Gen. Assem. of Presb. Ch. in the USA 192031. Works include Children's Story-Sermons; Old Things New; A God-Centered Faith.
(15951643). B. Coburg (Koburg), Ger.; educ. Coburg and Jena; taught at Wittenberg; prof. logic Coburg 1623; pastor and supt. Eisfeld 1625; supt. and dir. of the school at Sohweinfurt 1633; gen. supt. Coburg 1635. Works include Logicae Fhotinianae examen.
Annual interdenominational meetings held at Keswick, Eng., since 1875 to promote practical holiness by prayer, Bible study, discussion, and personal conversation.
(Emanuel; 181177). B. Münster (Harkotten), Westphalia; RC priest 1844; bp. Mainz 1850; ultramontanist (see Ultramontanism); tried to strengthen the ch. in Ger. and free it from state control; opposed dogma of papal infallibility* but submitted after its promulgation.
(April 22, 1906September 24, 1964). B. Elgin, Illinois; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; Mo. Syn. pastor Wollaston, near Boston, Massachusetts Ed. Advance 195464; other works include Evangelism in the Sunday School; Adventures in Evangelism; A Closer Walk with God; Living with My Lord; Elders at Work.
(May 22, 1804August 4, 1872). Father of S. Keyl*; b. Leipzig, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; pastor Niederfrohna, near Penig, 1829; adherent of M. Stephan* the elder; to US 1839 (see Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod, The, II, 1). Pastor Frohna, Missouri, 183947; Freistadt and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 184750; Baltimore, Maryland, 185069; Willshire, Van Weft Co., Ohio, 186971. Indefatigable student of M. Luther.* Works include Katechismusauslegung; Predigt-Entwürfe über die Sonn- und Festtags-Evangelien.
J. F. Köstering, Leben und Wirken des Ernst Gerhard Wilh. Keyl (St. Louis, 1882).
(June 27, 1838December 15, 1905). Son of E. G. W. Keyl*; b. Niederfrohna, near Penig, Saxony, Ger.; to US 1839 with his father and other Saxons (see Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, The, II, 1); educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 186267; immigrant* and emigrant miss. 18691905.
1. The Office of the Keys (Mt 16:19; 18:1520; Jn 20:2223; Rv 1:18) is a peculiar, special, unique, spiritual power given by Christ to the ch.
2. Christ is Master (Mt 23:810), Head of the ch. (Eph 1:22; 4:15; 5:23; Cl 1:13, 18); His Word is authoritative (Jn 12:4850; 1 Ti 6:35). The ch. should not go beyond His Word or allow other authority to est. its doctrine and creeds (Gl 1:89; Cl 2:8).
3. The Office of the Keys is spiritual (Mt. 20:2526; Jn 18:36; 2 Co 10:4; Eph 6:1017); it includes all spiritual rights, duties, and privileges necessary for the welfare of the ch. on earth, e.g., the conveying of grace to mankind through preaching, administering Baptism and Lord's Supper, and through mutual conversation and consolation. In particular, the Office of the Keys gives power to forgive and retain sins (loosing and binding), i. e., not merely to announce and to declare to men the remission or retention of sins, but actually to give forgiveness to penitent sinners and to deny forgiveness to impenitent sinners (Jn 20:23; 2 Co 2:10). See also Justification, 6.
4. The whole Gospel of Christ is an absolution.* Absolution does not exist outside the Gospel, but is a special form of administering the Gospel in which a minister or other Christian forgives the sins of others. It is not a better or more powerful forgiveness, but a special application which conveys reassurance (Lk 7:4748).
5. Only God can forgive sins (Is 43:25; Mk 2:7). Christ gave the Office of the Keys to the ch. on earth; the ch. delegates and transfers the pub. exercise of the Office of the Keys to called servants of the Word (Acts 20:28; 1 Co 4:1; 2 Co 2:10; Eph 4:1012). See also Ministerial Office, 5.
6. When the Office of the Keys is properly administered, the act is as valid and effective in the sight of God as though Christ Himself had performed it (Jn 20:23). The validity does not depend on faith, repentance, worthiness, good works, satisfaction of the one who pronounces absolution. Unbelief does not annul validity of forgiveness (Ro 3:3), but forgiveness is received through faith (Acts 10:43).
7. Possession of the Office of the Keys obligates Christians to observe all corresponding duties, e.g., to proclaim the Word publicly (Mt 28:1820) and privately (Cl 3:16), to maintain purity of the Word (Jn 8:3147; 1 Ti 6:20), to express faith (Ro 10:9), to forgive sins (Mt 18:2135; Eph 4:32), to practice discipline (Mt 18:17; 1 Co 5:25; 1 Ti 1:20; Tts 3:1011), to judge doctrine (Mt 7:15; 1 Jn 4:l; Acts 17:1011).
8. RC interpretation refers the Office of the Keys to supremacy of spiritual jurisdiction vested in the pope and including unqualified executive power, universal legislative power, supreme judicial power, infallibility,* primacy (see Vatican Councils, 1 b). RCm holds that this supremacy originally belonged to Peter (but see, e.g., Mt 18:14; Lk 22:2426; Acts 15:631; Gl 2:711; Eph 2:20; 1 Ptr 5:1; 2 Ptr 1:19) and that the popes are Peter's successors. CCS
9. Ban, or excommunication, is the process whereby impenitent sinners are excluded from Communion and other fellowship of the ch. In the Middle Ages a distinction was made bet. lesser ban, which excluded from the Sacraments, and greater ban, or interdict, which included civil penalties and excluded from all blessings and graces of the ch. The Luth. Confessions recognize only lesser ban as truly Christian and of concern to ministers (SA-III IX; cf. AC XXVIII 2; Ap VIIVIII 3; XI 4; XXVIII 12; Tractatus 60, 74). The RC Ch. distinguishes bet. tolerati (tolerated) and vitandi (to be avoided) excommunicates. The faithful need not shun the tolerati either in profane or religious matters. The vitandi are to be avoided as much as possible. The vitandi are excommunicated by being named in a pub. decree of the papal see. In 1971 a papal-appointed commission recommended dropping the vitandi category.
See also Priesthood.
C. C. Stephan, The Office of the Keys, The Abiding Word, I, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1946), 342365; W. H. Bouman, The Practical Application of Matthew 18:1518, CTM, XVIII (March 1947), 178204; O. Cullmann, Peter: Disciple-Apostle-Martyr, tr. F. V. Filson, 2d ed. (Philadelphia, 1962); H. Frhr. v. Campenhausen, Kirchliches Amt und geistliche Vollmacht in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten, 2d ed. (Tübingen, 1963), tr. J. A. Baker, Ecclesiastical Authority and Spiritual Power in the Church of the First Three Centuries (Stanford, California, 1969); G. Ebeling, Kirchenzucht (Stuttgart, 1947); R. Bohren, Das Problem der Kirchenzucht im Neuen Testament (Zurich, 1952).
(March 13, 1856October 18, 1937). Leading theol. in The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA; b. Tuscarawas Co., Ohio; educ. Wittenberg Coll. (Sem.), Springfield, Ohio (see Hamma Divinity School). Pastor La Grange, Indiana, 187981; Elkhart, Indiana, 188389; Springfield, Ohio, 188995; Atchison, Kansas, 18971903; Dover, Ohio, 190311. Prof. systematic theol. Hamma Divinity School 1911. Works include A System of Natural Theism; A System of Christian Evidence; In the Redeemer's Footsteps; In the Apostles' Footsteps; Contending for the Faith; The Problem of Origins; Our Bird Comrades.
(18001946). B. Könno, Livonia (now Estonia); philos.; beginning with free, spiritual Christianity, he tried to est. an ecumenical basis for all religions, esp. RCm and Buddhism; called religious forms human; held that God reveals Himself in human religious presuppositions and errors.
(Keyszer; March 7, 1877December 14, 1961). B. Geroldsgrün, Bav., Ger.; Neuendettelsau* Miss. Soc. miss. at Sattelberg, near Finschhafen, New Guinea, ca. 190020; proposed evangelization of tribes, rather than making first approach to individuals. Works include Wörterbuch der Kâte-Sprache; Eine Papuagemeinde.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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