Name of 3 electors of Brandenburg. 1. Joachim I Nestor (Cicero Teutonicus; 14841535). Elector 14991535; father of 2; founded U. of Frankfurt an der Oder 1506; opposed M. Luther; helped organize League of Dessau.* See also Pack, Otto von. 2. Joachim II Hektor (150571). Elector 153571; son of 1; Prot. 1539. See also Interim, I. 3. Joachim Friedrich (15461608). Elector 15981608; son of John* George, elector of Brandenburg; bp. Havelberg 1553, Lebus 1555; 1st ev. abp. Magdeburg 156698; disbanded cloisters; removed RC ceremonies; unwillingly yielded to requests of Magdeburg nobility to introd. FC; desired union bet. Luths. and Ref.
(de Floris; of Fiore [or Flora]; ca. 1130 [1145?]ca. 1202). B. Celico, near Cosenza, Calabria; mystic; Cistercian*; founded monastery of St. John in Fiore, on Montenero, in La Sila mountains, S It. Best known for dividing hist. into 3 ages, of the Father (OT), of the Son (from Christ to ca. 1260), and of the Holy Ghost (beginning ca. 1260), the latter the time of the eternal Gospel, of prayer, song, and contemplation, the monastic age par excellence. Followers called Joachimites. Influence declined when 1260 failed to usher in the age of the Holy Ghost. See also Apocalyptic Literature; Spirituals, Franciscan.
(Jeanne d'Arc; 141231). The Maid of Orleans; Fr. La Pucelle (d'Orleans); b. Domremyla-Pucelle, Fr., of peasant parents. On the basis of alleged visions she led a Fr. army against the Eng.; raised the siege of Orléans 1429; captured by Burgundians 1430; sold to English, who persuaded Fr. to join in convicting her of witchcraft and heresy; burned at the stake at Rouen on May 30, made a Fr. nat. holiday 1920.
Assoc. of RC factory workers (Jeunesse Ouvrière Chrétienne; acronym JOC; hence the terms Jocist and Jocism; Eng.: Young Christian Workers) formed in Belgium beginning 1912 and esp. after WW I; spread to Fr. and in various forms throughout the world.
(Johann Pupper; Capupper; ca. 1400ca. 1475). B. Goch (Geldern), Lower Rhine; adherent of Brethren* of the Common Life; Augustinian in theol.; opposed Scholasticism; theol. convictions summarized: from God, through God, to God. Works include De libertate christiana; Dialogus de quatuor erroribus circa legem evangelicam exortis, et de votis et de religionibus facticiis.
(Beccos; Beccus; Veccus; b. early in the 13th c.; d. ca. 1293). B. Constantinople; patriarch Constantinople 127582; convinced of validity of W Church's position on procession of the Holy Spirit (see also Filioque Controversy), he worked for union.
The name Johanneum is also applied to an older institution at Hamburg which combined a Gymnasium and Realschule, and to schools elsewhere, e.g., Breslau and Lüneburg.
See also Hübner, Johann(es).
(Comma Johanneum; Three Witnesses; comma is Lat. for phrase). That part of 1 Jn 5:78 which is regarded by many as interpolation, namely the italicized words in the following (KJV): For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost; and these three are one. And there are three that bear witness in earth, the spirit, and the water, and the blood: and these three agree in one.
(18441930). B. Ylvieska, Fin.; educ. Helsinki and in Ger. and Switz.; prof. ethics and dogmatics Helsinki 187785; abp. Fin. 1899. Works include Pyhä Uskomme (Swed.: Vaar heliga tro). See also Dogmatics, B 9.
MPG, 88, 5791248.
(Johann Friedrich; 150354). Called the Magnanimous (Ger. der Grossmütige) because of his spirit and bearing under misfortune. B. Torgau, Prussia; son of John* the Constant; educ. by G. Spalatin*; early supporter of M. Luther*; went with his father to Diet of Augsburg 1530 (see Lutheran Confessions, A). Elector of Ernestine Saxony 153247. Impulsive; not a far-sighted politician. Unity of the Schmalkaldic* League suffered from disagreements bet. John Frederick and Philip* of Hesse, leaders of the League; e.g., John Frederick took a strict Luth. position, Philip favored union with other evangelicals; John Frederick disliked Philip's bigamy. He set aside the 1541 election of RC J. v. Pflug* as bp. Naumburg-Zeitz and substituted N. v. Amsdorf,* an avowed Luth. He antagonized Maurice,* duke of Saxony, 1542, by unilaterally trying to introd. the Reformation into the city of Wurzen, whose see was under joint protection of electoral and ducal Saxony; war bet. the 2 Saxonies was averted only by efforts of Luther and Philip. He was suspicious of colloquies and rejected papal overtures for a council. Helped drive Heinrich II (the Younger; 151468; duke of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel; RC) from his duchy 1542. Failed to support the Cologne Reformation (see Hermann von Wied). Did not attend diets and similar meetings from the diet (or convention) of the ev. states at Schmalkald 1537 (he had asked Luther for a positional paper; result: the Schmalkaldic Articles [see Lutheran Confessions, B 2]) to the 1544 Diet of Speyer.* When Charles* V prepared to attack the Schmalkaldic League, John Frederick was duped and was slow in taking counter-measures. With the outbreak of the Schmalkaldic* War July 1546, John Frederick left his realm with an army to engage the imperial forces, but returned when Maurice, who had joined the cause of Charles V, invaded electoral Saxony. John Frederick reconquered most of his land, repelling Maurice, but was defeated and captured by imperial forces at Mühlberg April 24, 1547. Condemned to death by Charles V; sentence commuted to life imprisonment when Wittenberg surrendered; released 1552 by Maurice (who had defeated and almost captured Charles V and forced him to conclude the Convention of Passau*) but did not regain title.
See also Alva, Duke of.
B. Rogge, Johann Friedrich, Kurfürst von Sachsen, genannt der Grossmütige (Halle, 1902); W. G. Tillmanns, The World and Men Around Luther (Minneapolis, 1959), pp. 300302.
(Johann Friedrich der Mittlere; 152995). Duke of Saxony; father of John* Casimir; b. Torgau, Prussia; son of John* Frederick the Magnanimous; allowed to rule small part of his father's land by Charles* V after 1547; deposed 1566; imprisoned 1567. See also Konfutationsbuch; Synergistic Controversy.
(Johann Georg I; 15851656). Elector of Saxony of the Albertine line 161156; son of Christian* I; b. Dresden; in Thirty* Years' War first sided with Ferdinand II (15781637; king Boh. 161719 and 162037; Holy Roman emp. 161937), later with Gustavus* II; concluded treaty with emp. 1635; fought Swed. 1636; defeated at Wittstock. Promoted culture.
MPG, 97, 9790.
(d. 721). Anglo-Saxon bp. Hexham, Eng., 687, York 705; disciple of Hilda (614680; founded double monastery 657 at Streoneshalh [later called Whitby]) at Whitby (where the famous Syn. of Whitby* was held); ordained Bede* deacon 692, priest 703; resigned 720 and retired to abbey at Inderawood (later Beverley), which he had founded and where he died.
(Johannes Damascenus; John Damascene; b. perhaps ca. 675 [as early as 645? as late as 700?]; d. ca. 750). Called Chrysorrhoas (Gk. Golden Speaker). B. Damascus; monk in a monastery near Jerusalem; priest; hymnist. Involved in iconoclastic* controversy. Works include De haeresibus; Expositio accurata fidei orthodoxae; De sacris imaginibus; Sacra parallela; hymns Come, Ye Faithful, Raise the Strain and The Day of Resurrection. See also Abu Qurra, Theodorus; Fathers of the Church.
(Juan Ciudad; Juan de Dios; Joao de Deo; 14951550). B. Montemor-o-Novo, Port.; Sp. religious; after life of dissipation he devoted himself to caring for sick (see Brothers Hospitallers of St. John of God).
(Johannes de Janduno; ca. 12751328). B. Jandun, Fr.; educ. Paris; taught at U. of Paris; proponent of philos. of Averroes (see Arabic Philosophy); championed king's claims against papacy's. Helped Marsilius* of Padua write Defensor pacis.
(Jan Beuckelszoon; Bockelson; Beuckels; Ger.: Johann Bockholdt; other variant spellings; (150936). B. near Leiden, Neth.; tailor; merchant, innkeeper; Anabap. fanatic; leader at Münster; proclaimed himself king; introd. polygamy and community of goods; imprisoned 1535 by bp. of Münster; executed. See also Münster Kingdom.
(Pomuk; Welflin, or Wölflin; ca. 1340ca. 1393). B. Nepomuk (or Pomuk), Boh.; martyr; patron saint of Boh.; vicar-gen. Prague; opposed attempts of Wenceslaus IV (Wenzel ; king of Ger. and Holy Rom. emp. 13781400; king of Boh. as Wenceslaus IV 13781419) to suppress an abbey and create a see for a favorite; drowned in Moldau.
(Jean de Paris; Joannes Parisiensis; Quidort; ca. 1269 [or as early as 1240?]1306). B. Paris, Fr.; Dominican; promoted conciliar* movement; formed theory of consubstantiation or impanation. Works include Tractatus de potestate regia et papali; Determinatio de modo existendi corporis [or corpus] Christi in sacramento altaris.
MPL, 199, 11040.
(Juan de la Cruz; Juan de Yepis y Alvarez; 154291). B. Fontiveros, Ávila, Sp.; mystic; poet; with Teresa* founded discalced (reformed) Carmelites* ca. 1568. Works include The Ascent of Mount CarmelThe Dark Night; The Spiritual Canticle; The Living Flame of Love.
(September 20, 1863January 21, 1923). B. Stavanger, Norw.; educ. U. of Oslo (Christiania); private instructor in theol. at Christiania 188891; to US 1892; prof. theol. Red Wing (Minnesota) Norw. Ev. Luth. Sem. 189297; pastor Hudson, Wisconsin, 18971900; prof. theol. at the sem. of The United Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am. 190017, Luther Theol. Sem. 191723, both in St. Paul, Minnesota Works include En kort udredning; Paulus; I kirke.
(15721619). Elector Brandenburg 160819; b. Halle, Ger.; educ. as Luth. but became Ref. 1613; 1st duke Duchy of Prussia 161819. As a result of his conversion to Calvinism and his reluctance to est. it by force, his successors followed a union ch. policy.
(182294). B. Fredrikshald, Norw.; educ. Christiania (Oslo); engaged in further studies and travel in Eur.; prof. systematics and ch. hist. Christiania. Influenced by S. A. Kierkegaard*; held that the function of dogmatics is to analyze the Christian's self-consciousness. Loyal to Luth. Confessions. Revival preacher. Ed. Luthersk Kirketidende: other works include Grundrids af den systematiske Theologi; Dogmehistorie; Kristelig Ethik. See also Lammers, Gustav Adolph; Norway, Lutheranism in, 11.
(October 8, 1870March 9, 1946). B. Cleburne, Kansas; educ. Augustana Coll. and Theol. Sem., Rock Island, Illinois; pastor McKeesport, Pennsylvania, 18991901; pres. Luther Coll. and pastor Wahoo, Nebraska, 190113; pres. Gustavus Adolphus Coll., St. Peter, Minnesota, 191342.
(170984). B. Lichfield, Eng.; lexicographer, essayist, critic, conversationalist, romancer. Some of his writings reflect the theol. of the Ch. of Eng. Works include A Dictionary of the English Language; Prayers and Meditations; The Lives of the English Poets. See also High Church. EEF
(the Steadfast; 14681532). B. Meissen, Ger.; brother of Frederick* III (the Wise); father of John* Frederick; received scholarly educ.; knight; elector Saxony 1525; early partisan of M. Luther.* After pub. of Luther's NT 1522, John read the Bible daily. Luther preached at his court in Weimar October 1522 and wrote for him the treatise Von weltlicher Obrigkeit 1523. John was tolerant toward T. Münzer* and A. R. B. v. Karlstadt,* did not interfere with abolition of the Corpus* Christi procession, and permitted Prot. observance of the Lord's Supper. After becoming elector he refused to make common cause against Luths. with his cousin, George* the Bearded. Issued a directive on August 16, 1525, making Ernestine Saxony evangelical. Signed treaty with Philip* of Hesse February 27, 1526 (see Gotha Covenant), and led Luth. party at 1526 Diet of Speyer*; approved ch. visitations suggested by N. Hausmann*; at 1529 Diet of Speyer* he defended the ev. interpretation of the recess of the 1526 diet and protested with others the resolution of the RC majority; at the 1530 Augsburg Diet (see Lutheran Confessions, A) he took a heroic stand against Charles* V; led Schmalkaldic* League 1531. His motto: Verbum Dei manet in aeternum (Lat. The Word of God abides forever). See also Pack, Otto von; Visitations, Church. WGT
1. Baldassare Cossa (d. 1419). Neapolitan; elected pope (now gen. regarded antipope) 1410 at Bologna by cardinals who honored the action of the Council of Pisa*; convoked the Council of Constance*; promised to resign if Gregory* XII and Benedict XIII (see Benedict XIII, 1) would do likewise; fled March 1415 when his sincerity became suspect; suspended, imprisoned, and deposed May 1415; released ca. 1418; bp. Tusculum (Frascati), It., 1419.
2. Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli. See Popes, 34.
(Arab.: Abul Walid Merwan ibn-Janah; Abulwalid; ibn Ganach; R. [Rabbi; Rab] Marinus; ca. 990ca. 1050). Heb. grammarian and philol.; physician; b. Córdoba, Sp.; later settled in Saragossa. Works include Sefer Harikmah; Sefer Hashorashim. See also Lexicons, A.
(originally Jodocus [or Jodokus] Koch; Jodocus became Justus and he adopted his father's given name as family name; 14931555). B. Nordhausen, Ger.; educ. Erfurt and Wittenberg; prof. and canon at Erfurt 1518, rector of U. of Erfurt 1519; provost Castle Ch. and prof. canon law U. of Wittenberg 1521; colaborer of M. Luther*; supt. Halle 154147, Eisfeld 155355. Hymnist; wrote Wo Gott der Herr nicht bei uns hält; stanzas 4 and 5 of Erhalt uns, Herr, bei deinem Wort. See also Lutheran Confessions, B 1.
M. E. Lehmann, Justus Jonas: Loyal Reformer (Minneapolis, 1964); T. Pressel, Justus Jonas, in Leben und Ausgewählte Schriften der Väter und Begründer der lutherischen Kirche, ed. J. Hartmann et al., VIII, in vol. 4 (Elberfeld, 1862).
(18841973). B. Clarksville, near Baltimore, Maryland; educ. Asbury Coll.; taught at Asbury Coll.; Meth. evangelist to high castes of India 1907; bp. 1928, resigned to continue miss. work; exponent of social* gospel. Works include The Christ of the Indian Road; Victory Through Surrender.
(18631948). B. South China, Maine; Quaker; educ. Haverford (Pennsylvania) Coll., U. of Heidelberg, Ger., and U. of Pennsylvania; principal Oak Grove Sem., Vassalboro, Maine, 188993; prof. Haverford Coll. 190434. Wrote extensively on the Quaker religion.
(Sam Jones; 18471906). B. Oak Bowery, Chambers Co., Alabama; Confederate soldier in Civil War; lawyer, drunkard; converted and became Meth. Episc., S, pastor 1872; agent of N. Georgia Orphanage 188092; revivalist.
(Jordanis; Jordannis; Jornandes; Jornandez; 6th c.). Goth; notary; after conversion probably priest or monk; wrote hist. of Goths (condensed from F. M. A. Cassiodorus* and extended to 551) and a universal hist.
1. Alfred Theodor (18741953). B. Vejle, Den.; churchman; gen. secy. LWC Copenhagen 1929; active in ecumenical movement; helped form cong. welfare projects. Works include Luther studies. 2. Jens Johannes (18661956). B. Svendborg, Den.; poet, naturalist, symbolist; first Luth., then atheist, then (1896) RC Works include biographies of Francis of Assisi and Catherine of Siena.
(Jan Jorisz; Joriszoon; ca. 150156). B. Flanders; Anabap.; spiritualist; self-styled prophet; advocated ascetic practices; lived under pseudonym Jan van Brugge in Basel after 1522. Followers called Davidists or Jorists.
Name of many RC communities of women, including those that derive from the foundation made 1648 at the Le Puy, Velay, Fr., by Bp. Henry de Maupas (160680) and John Peter Médaille (Jesuit; 161069); specialize in educ. and hosp. work.
(Josephism). Joseph II (174190; king of Ger. 176490; Holy Roman emp. 176590; coregent of Austria with his mother 176580, sole ruler 178090) tried to make the ch. subordinate and subservient to the state and to separate the ch. from Roman authority. Issued an edict of toleration 1781; it granted a large measure of freedom of religion to Prots., imposed restrictions on RC activities, and removed religious bars to civil offices. These and other similar measures raised RC protest. Pius VI (see Popes, 26) visited Joseph II in vain 1782. But disturbances gradually induced Joseph II to revoke his legislation. After his death the old constitution and privileges were restored. See also Church and State; Josephinism; Roman Catholic Church, The, D 2.
(ca. 762ca. 832). Known in Gk. hymnody as Joseph of Studion. Younger brother of Theodore* of Studion, with whom he was at the monastery Studion at Constantinople since 798. Abp. Thessalonica 807; exiled ca. 809 in controversy concerning the adulterous marriage of Constantine VI (771ca. 797; E Roman emp. 780797).
(ca. 81086). B. Syracuse, Sicily, It.; Gk. hymnist; ca. 830 to Thessalonica, where he became monk and priest; later to Constantinople; captured by pirates and enslaved on way to Rome 841; ransomed; est. monastery ca. 850 at Constantinople.
MPG, 105, 9251426.
(Joseph ben Matthias; ca. 37ca. 100). B. Jerusalem; of Jewish royal and priestly descent; joined Pharisees; commander in Galilee during Jewish* War; policy clash aroused hostility of John* of Galilee; captured by Romans; freed by Vespasian*; to Rome after war. Works include De Maccabeis; De bello Judaico; Antiquitates Judaicae; Contra Apionem; Vita Flavii Josephi. See also Whiston, William.
L. Bernstein, Flavius Josephus (New York, 1938); A. H. Tamarin, Revolt in Judea (New York, 1968); G. A. Williamson, The World of Josephus (London, 1964).
(variants include Després; des Prés; Despréz; Jodocus Pratensis; a Prato; a Pratis; del Prato; ca. 1440ca. 1521). Leading Franco-Flemish composer in the transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance; precursor of G. P. de Palestrina*; regarded by some as having been a pupil of J. d' Okeghem,* with whom he holds common ground in counterpoint.
(fl. 4th c. AD). It. heretic known only from writings of his opponents, including Jerome.* His views developed from his opposition to E monasticism and included: married people have equal merit with unmarried and widows; fasting not better than thankful feasting; Mary conceived, but did not bear Christ as a virgin, since childbearing ends virginity; the regenerate are essentially sinless. Excommunicated by Siricius (b. Rome; pope [bp. Rome] 384ca. 399) and a syn. at Rome and by Ambrose* and a syn. at Milan, all in 390.
(181793). B. Camberwell (London), Eng.; educ. Oxford; master Balliol Coll. 1870; regius prof. Gk. 1855 and vice-chancellor 188286 Oxford; exponent of Broad* Ch. theol.; best known for tr. of Plato's* Dialogues.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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