(17751830). B. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; educ. Coll. of Philadelphia (now the U. of Pennsylvania) and Coll. of New Jersey (now Princeton); ordained Prot. Episc. deacon 1798, priest 1801; asst. bp. Diocese of New York 1811, bp. 1816. Championed conservatism. Supported S. S. Founded Prot. Episc. Theol. Soc., NYC, 1806 (became Gen. Theol. Sem. 1817), New York Sunday School Soc. 1817. Works include A Companion for the Altar; The Clergyman's Companion; A Collection of Essays on the Subject of Episcopacy; An Apology for Apostolic Order and Its Advocates; The Christian's Manual of Faith and Devotion; The State of the Departed.
(15881679). Philos.; b. Westport (Malinesbury), Wiltshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford. Rationalist (see Rationalism); held that sensation is the only source of knowledge; held that man emerges from a state of nature in which he is free, but exchanges his freedom for security by social contract (see Government). Best statement of his pol. and soc. philos. is in Leviathan; other works include Behemoth; The Art of Rhetoric; The Elements of Law; Elementa philosophica de cive. See also Deism, III 1.
(January 2, 1816July 28, 1839). B. Welford, Eng.; LMS med. miss. in China 1839; worked at Macao, Hong Kong, Canton, and Shanghai. Wrote and tr. into Chinese treatises on natural philos. and medical subjects. Works include A Medical Vocabulary in English and Chinese.
(Hohburg; pseudonyms Elias Praetorius, Bernhard Baumann, Christianus Montaltus, Andreas Seuberlich; 160775). Ev. theol. and spiritualist; b. Lüneburg, Ger.; educ. Königsberg; in ch. and school work at various places; proofreader Lüneburg; Mennonite preacher Altona (now part of Hamburg). Works include Der unbekannte Christus; Theologia mystics. See also Breckling, Friedrich.
(16681718). Luth. theol.; pietist; b. Tübingen; son of J. A. Hochstetter*; educ. Maulbronn and Tübingen; prof. eloquence and poetry 1697, moral philos. 1698, theol. 1705 Tübingen; mem. of consistory and court preacher Stuttgart 1711; returned to Tübingen ca. 1715.
(April 1, 1828June 12, 1905). B. Lorch, Württemberg, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; to US 1853; served Ohio Syn. (see Ohio and Other States, Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of) congs. in Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Toledo, Ohio; asst. to J. A. A. Grabau* and joined Buffalo* Syn. 1857; present on side of Buffalo Syn. at Buffalo* colloquy NovemberDecember 1866; joined Missouri* Syn. ch. in Buffalo, New York, 1867. Pastor Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1867; Indianapolis, Indiana, 1868; Frohna, Missouri, 1877; Humberstone and Stonebridge, Welland Co., Ont., Can., 1879; Wolcottsville, New York, 1883; Jordan, Lincoln Co., Ont., Can., 1900. Writings show interest in doctrinal discussion; emphasized unity through purity of doctrine. Ed. Lutherisches Volksblatt 188283; other works include Werdet nicht der Menschen Knechte!; Erinnerungen an D. C. F. W. Walther, aus dessen hinterlassenen Briefen und anderweitigen vorliegenden Urkunden (in Lutherisches Volksblatt, XXVIII, 7 [April 7, 1898], 52XXIX, 26 [December 28, 1899], 205, and Zeuge und Anzeiger, IV, 51 [May 22, 1904], 399-VI, 18 [October 1, 1905], 140); Die Geschichte der Evangelisch-lutherischen Missouri-Synode in Nord-Amerika, und ihrer Lehrkämpfe von der sächsischen Auswanderung im Jahre 1838 an biz zum Jahre 1884.
(18731966). B. Cleveland, Ohio; educ. Harvard, Göttingen, Berlin, Heidelberg; taught at Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem., U. of California, Yale, Harvard. Tried to bring philos. out of the academy into the surrounding world; his system is classified as objective idealism and affirms the other mind or God; Cong. Works include Science and the Idea of God; The Meaning of God in Human Experience; Strength of Men and Nations; Thoughts on Death and Life; Types of Philosophy. See also It and I-Thou.
(182386). Son of C. Hodge*; b. Princeton, New Jersey; educ. Princeton; miss. in India 184750; pastor Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylvania; prof. theol. Western Theol. Sem., Allegheny (Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania; assoc. and successor of his father at Princeton; helped found Presbyterian Review.
(17971878). Conservative Presb. theol.; father of A. A. Hodge*; b. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; educ. Princeton, New Jersey; prof. Princeton Theol. Sem. Founded and ed. Biblical Repertory (later called Biblical Repertory and Theological Review, and after 1836 Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review); other works include A Commentary on the Epistle to the Ephesians; Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans; Systematic Theology.
(18321912). B. Boston, Lincolnshire, Eng.; 1st pres. Aristotelian Soc. (founded 1880 for systematic study of philos.); claimed to continue and expand the philos. of D. Hume* and I. Kant*; held that experience is both consciousness and content. Works include The Metaphysic of Experience; Time and Space; The Philosophy of Reflection. See also Automatism; Metaphysical Society, The.
(181170). Slovak Lutheran pastor; educ. Bratislava and Vienna; pastor Vrbicko-Svätomikulás; with Ludevít (L'udovít) ##túr (181556; Slovak writer, philos., pol.) and J. M. Hurban* unsuccessfully opposed union of Slovakia with Hung. See also Slovakia, Lutheran Theology in, 2.
(Johannes Aepinus; 14991553). B. Ziesar, Mark Brandenburg, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; pastor Hamburg 1529; supt. and cathedral pastor 1532; signed Schmalkaldic Articles (see Lutheran Confessions, B 2). Involved in controversy on Christ's des¢ into hell. See also Westphal, Joachim (of Hamburg).
(18391910). Dutch theol.; in Am. 185163; pastor 1868; prof. Amsterdam 188088; held that offices and syns. are the organs through which Christ is active in the ch. and that reform is to be sought in reorganization from within.
(Cornelius; Hoon; Honius; Honnius; d. 1524). Dutch theol.; b. probably Gouda, near Rotterdam. On basis of a treatise by J. Wessel* he developed theory that in the words of institution of the Lord's Supper is means signifies; this view found favor with H. Zwingli* and his followers (see also Grace, Means of, IV 3).
(Hohenegg) (15801645). B. Vienna, Austria; educ. Wittenberg; 3d court preacher Dresden 1602; supt. Plauen 1603; dir. ev. chs. and schools Prague 1611; 1st court preacher Dresden 1613; active politically in Thirty* Years' War. Works include Evangelisches Handbüchlein. See also Decisio Saxonica.
(17981828). B. Wildbad, Württemberg, Ger.; brother of W. Hofacker*; educ. Tübingen, where he had conversion experience; vicar Stuttgart; pastor Rielingshausen. Influenced by N. L. v. Zinzendorf's* writings; powerful preacher of an awakening in Württemberg. Works include Predigten für alle Sonn-, Fest-, und Feiertage.
(180548). B. Gärtringen, near Herrenberg, Württemberg, Ger.; brother of L. Hofacker*; educ. Tübingen; pastor Waiblingen and Stuttgart; with his brother, leader in awakening. Ed. Wilhelmsdorfer Predigtbuch; other works include Predigten für alle Sonn- und Festtage.
(18431931). Dan. positivist philos.; b. Copenhagen; educ. Copenhagen; prof. Copenhagen; influenced by S. A. Kierkegaard*; sought essence of religion in conservation of value; denied basic Christian tenets.
(March 1, 1862April 11, 1926). B. Oebisfelde, Ger.; educ. Halle and at the theol. sem. of J. Paulsen* at Kropp, Ger. (see also Kropp Seminary); pastor first at North Easthope-Wellesley-Gadshill, Ont., Can., then at Hamilton 18881904, Berlin 190412, Toronto 191220, all in Ont.; pres. Waterloo (Ont.) Theol. Sem. 192026 and pastor St. James Luth. Ch., St. Jacobs, Ont.; pres. Can. Syn. (see Canada, B 79; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 1).
(Hoffmann von Fallersleben; 17981874). Poet; philologist; b. Fallersleben, Ger.; educ. Helmstedt, Brunswick, and Göttingen; prof. Ger. language and literature Breslau 1835; banished 184348 for liberal pol. views; librarian Corvey (Höxter), Ger., 1860. Works include Geschichte des deutschen Kirchenliedes bis auf Luthers Zeit.
(ca. 15381611). B. Halle, Ger.; educ. Jena; prof. ethics, dialectics, and theol. Helmstedt; opposed Philippists* and humanists; rejected a ubiquity which he alleged was in the FC; persuaded Brunswick not to subscribe to the FC; influenced by P. Ramus,* he opposed Aristotelianism (see Aristotle).
(June 5, 1822January 23, 1903). B. Herford, Kreis Minden, Westphalia, Prussia; to Chicago, Illinois, 1840; taught school at Addison 1840; prepared for ministry probably under F. Schmid* in Michigan; pastor Addison till 1847, Schaumburg 184751; helped give Luth. character to several Ger. congs. in N Illinois; ordained E. Eielsen*; joined Missouri* Syn. 1849; resigned from ministry 1851 because of illness; lawyer; banker; statesman; cofounder Rep. party; It. gov. Illinois 186165; retired from pub. life 1875; agricultural writer and ed. under pseudonym Hans Buschbauer; ed. Haus- und Bauernfreund.
K. Kretzmann, Francis Arnold Hoffmann, CHIQ, XVIII (July 1945), 3754.
(182387). B. Treppeln, Prussia; educ. Berlin* Miss. Soc. I training school; to Am. 1850; served congs. in New York state and Albany; ardently supported New York Ministerium (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 15).
(ca. 150947). B. Oberndorf am Neckar, Ger.; Augustinian hermit; prior at Colmar 1533; vicar-gen. of Ger. 1546; devoted life to defending his order against Lutheranism. See also Regensburg Conference.
(180253). Conservative Luth. theol.; b. near Bayreuth, Ger.; educ. Erlangen; pastor Nürnberg 1827; prof. practical theol. Erlangen 1833; mem. high consistory Munich 1852. Helped found Zeitschrift für Protestantismus und Kirche (also known as Erlanger Zeitschrift); other works include Grundsätze evangelisch-lutherischer Kirchenverfassung; Das Sakrament der Taufe nebst den andern damit zusammenhängenden Akten der Initiation; Von den Festen oder heiligen Zeiten der christlichen Kirche.
(170374). B. Schneeberg, Ger.; educ. Leipzig; lectured on philos. and philol., served as preacher, Leipzig; prof. theol. Wittenberg; held various offices, including that of gen. supt. Ed. Des privilegirte Vollständige und vermehrte Leipziger Gesangbuch; other works include De discrimine fidei divinae et humanae; Gegründete Anzeige derer Herrnhuthischen Grund-Irrthümer in der Lehre von der heiligen Dreyeinigkeit und von Christo; Institutiones theologiae exegeticae in usum academicarum praelectionum adornatae; Introductio in lectionem Novi Testamenti; Die in der Evangelischen Kirche gewöhnlichen Sonn- und Festtäglichen Episteln und Evangelia, mit Betrachtungen.
(181077). B. Nürnberg, Ger.; educ. Erlangen and Berlin; prof. Erlangen (see Lutheran Theology After 1580, 11) and Rostock; influenced by F. D. E. Schleiermacher,* G. W. F. Hegel,* and F. W. J. v. Schelling.* Unfolded theol. from consciousness of believer; held that Christianity is communion of God and man as mediated by the Spirit of Christ present in the ch. and that Christ suffered on our behalf, not in our stead. Works include Weissagung und Erfüllung im alten und im neuen Testamente; Der Schriftbeweis; Die heilige Schrift neuen Testaments zusammenhängend untersucht; Biblische Hermeneutik, Eng. tr. C. Preus, Interpreting the Bible; Encyclopädie der Theologie; Theologische Ethik. See also Kenosis.
P. Wapler, Johannes v. Hofmann: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der theologischen Grundprobleme, der kirchlichen und der politischen Bewegungen im 19. Jahrhundert (Leipzig, 1914); E. Hübner, Schrift und Theologie: Eine Untersuchung zur Theologie Joh. Chr. K. von Hofmanns (Munich, 1956).
(Hoffman; Hoffmann; ca. 1500ca. 1544). B. Schwäbisch Hall, Ger.; Anabap. mystic. Lay preacher; traveled in Livonia, Estonia, Swed., and N Ger.; denied Luth. doctrine of Lord's Supper; involved in controversy with J. Bugenhagen*; proclaimed advent of New Jerusalem to be located at Strasbourg; later imprisoned there; followers known as Hofmannites or Melchiorites. See also Münster Kingdom.
(180286). B. Leer, Ostfriesland, Ger.; educ. Groningen; Ref. pastor Ulrum, Groningen, Neth., 182629; prof. Groningen 1829; helped found Groningen* School. Ed. Waarheid in Liefde; other works include De moderne theologie in Nederland.
(January 26, 1894May 8, 1961). B. Peoria, Illinois; educ. Conc. Coll., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor Immanuel Luth. Ch. 1916, Christ Luth. Ch. 1919, both in St. Louis; installed as Program Dir. of Station KFUO (see Radio Stations, Religious, 24) October 11, 1925; pioneered in religious broadcasting. Ed. The Gospel Voice.
(172389). Fr. philos.; b. Edesheim, Palatinate, Ger., of Ger. parents; educ. Leiden; to Paris 1749; home became meeting place of prominent freethinkers (see Freethinker); one of the Encyclopedists*; attacked Christian religion as based on fraud and ignorance. Works include Système de la nature, which tries to combine materialism,* sensualism (see Sensationalism), determinism,* and atheism.*
1. The Elder (ca. 14601524). Painter; father of 2; b. Augsburg, Ger.; works include altar of St. Sebastian, Munich. 2. The Younger (ca. 14971543). Painter and engraver; son of 1; b. Augsburg, Ger.; court painter to Henry* VIII ca. 1536; works include OT illustrations.
(16841754. Poet, hist., philos.; b. Bergen, Norw.; educ. Copenhagen; prof. Copenhagen; traveled in Eng. and on the Continent; called founder of Dan. literature; writings emphasize tolerance. Works include Almindelig Kirke-Historie fra Christendommens förste Begyndelse til Lutheri Reformation; Jödisk Historie fra Verdens Begyndelse fortsat til disse Tider; Religion, Love, Videnskab og Handel; Moralske Tanker.
(17701843). Poet and novelist; b. Lauffen, Ger.; studied theol. at Tübingen; influenced by F. G. Klopstock,* J. C. F. v. Schiller,* J. W. v. Goethe,* J. G. v. Herder.* His earliest poetry shows influence of pietism; 2d period emphasized nature and the Kingdom of God on earth; in his prime, the spirit of nature became the spirit of hist. and he became concerned with problems of individual existence and yearning for the all. Works include Hyperion; Der Tod des Empedokles; Die Verfahrensweise des poetischen Geistes; An die Hoffnung; Heimkunft.
(180986). B. Baude, near Grossenhain, Ger.; educ. Meissen and Leipzig; taught at Zwickau and Leipzig; conservative Luth. theol. Works include Bibelstudien; Die Reden des Satan in der Heiligen Schrift.
(related to Anglo-Saxon hal, whole, well). 1. Holiness is the absolute purity of God, according to which His affections, thoughts, will, and acts are in perfect consistency and harmony with His own nature, and in energetic opposition to everything that is not in conformity therewith (A. L. Graebner,* Outlines of Doctrinal Theology, par. 36). In OT God is holy and stands utterly above the created world; He is the wholly other, the transcendent God (Ex 3:5; 19:1213, 2024). The holy God imparts Himself; He wishes men to share in His divine life within the scope of His judgment and mercy (Dt 7:6; Lv 11:44). His holiness is dynamic, manifested when He executes judgment (Ezek 28:22). The Holy One of Israel is man's Redeemer (Is 43:14). The holiness of the Lord is assoc. with the glory of the Lord and with fire (e.g., Ex 3:25; 19:1822).
2. NT understanding of holiness is built on the OT (1 Ptr 3:15; cf. Ps 99:9). Jesus is called the Holy One of God (Mk 1:24). The NT ch. is successor to the OT community of God's holy people (Ex 19:6; 1 Ptr 2:910); Christians are called to be saints, holy ones (Ro 1:7; 1 Co 1:2); the vocabulary of holiness appears, e.g., in NT statements regarding the work of the Holy* Spirit and the life and conduct of the saints and in references to holy prophets (Acts 3:21), holy apostles (Eph 3:5), holy calling (2 Ti 1:9), holy scriptures (Ro 1:2), holy covenant (Lk 1:72).
3. In the hist. of theol. the classical view associates God's holiness with His righteousness and law. The theol. of F. D. E. Schleiermacher* and A. Ritschl* reduced the content of the concept of holiness, the former saying that God's holiness in effect was His approval and disapproval of man by His law and man's conscience, the latter suggesting that holiness is of no concern to man. Current theol. is trying to grasp the Biblical idea of holiness. God's love is holy love. Holiness is more than an ethical quality; there is also an ontological aspect (see Ontology). For some this means God's opposition to sin (K. Barth*), for others, God's transcendence (H. E. Brunner*); for others, the Holy One is unapproachable (P. Tillich*).
4. Holiness is joined with love, yet is distinct from it. Holiness creates distance; love conquers distance. The holy God conquers distance. He reveals Himself as both exclusive and inclusive, unapproachable and approachable, transcendent and condescending.
R. K. Asting, Die Heiligkeit im Urchristum (Göttingen, 1930); R. Otto, The Idea of the Holy, tr. J. W. Harvey, 2d ed. (London, 1950); S. C. Neill, Christian Holiness (New York, 1960); O. R. Jones, The Concept of Holiness (New York, 1961). LDH
See also Stockmayer, Otto.
1. History. To counteract the wave of immorality and spiritual indifference that swept over the US after the end of the Civil War, a number of Meths. and others began a holiness movement. They held that camp meetings, the class system, etc. were necessary. A number of evangelistic* assocs. were formed 18801900 to propagate the doctrine of entire sanctification and related views. Pentecostals (see also Church of God; Pentecostalism), often grouped with holiness chs., gained a foothold.
2. The following are among those that have been included among holiness bodies: Apostolic* Overcoming Holy Ch. of God; Christian Nation Ch. U. S. (A.) (organized 1895 Marion, Ohio, as equality evangelists; later formed Christian Nation Ch.; reinc. 1961); Christ's* Sanctified Holy Ch.; Church* of Christ (Holiness) U. S. (A.); Church* of God; Church of God in Christ; Ch. of the Living God (Motto: Christian Workers for Fellowship) (see Church of the Living God, 1); Church* of the Nazarene; Churches* of God, Holiness; Congregational* Holiness Ch.; Gen. Conf. of the Ev. Bap. Ch., Inc. (see Baptist Churches, 32); Holiness Ch. of God, Inc. (est. 1920 Madison, North Carolina; inc. 1928 Winston-Salem, North Carolina); House of God, Which Is the Church of the Living God, the Pillar and Ground of the Truth, Inc. (see Church of the Living God, 2); Internat. Ch. of the Foursquare Gospel (see Foursquare Gospel, The); International* Pent. Assemblies; Kodesh* Ch. of Immanuel; National* David Spiritual Temple of Christ Ch. Union (Inc.), U. S. (A.); Pentecostal* Assemblies of the World, Inc.; Pentecostal* Ch. of God; Pentecostal* Fire-Baptized Holiness Ch.; Pent. Holiness Ch., International (formed by bodies organized in S and Midwest US beginning 1898); Triumph the Ch. and Kingdom of God in Christ International (organized 1902 in Georgia); United* Holy Ch. of Am., Inc.; The Wesleyan* Ch..
The following evangelistic assocs. have all the marks of holiness chs.: Apostolic* Christian Ch. (Nazarean); Apostolic* Christian Ch. of Am.; The Christian and Miss. Alliance; The Christian Cong.; Ch. of Daniel's Band; The Fire Baptized Holiness Ch. (Wesleyan); The Metropolitan Ch. Assoc., Inc.; Pillar of Fire.
3. Doctrine. Holiness bodies subscribe to the fundamental doctrines of the Bible but differ greatly concerning points of interpretation. Some hold that all forms of luxury are forbidden, others that the charismatic gifts of the apostolic ch. must be present in the ch. today, others that it is contrary to Christ's injunction to salary the ministry. All are millennialists (see Millennialism). Claiming loyalty to Wesleyan-Arminian theol., holiness bodies believe in free will, human responsibility, and man's ability to reach entire satisfaction. They hold that Christ freed man not only from the curse and guilt of sin, but also from its power, for Christ is said to have prepared a full salvation for mankind. J. Wesley* believed that Christian perfection is obtained gradually; holiness bodies teach that the Holy Spirit bestows entire sanctification instantaneously. This is known as the second* blessing, the Holy Spirit's work subsequent to and different from the work of conversion; after waiting, the Spirit-baptized believer is freed completely from inclinations to sin that come from within. The theory of entire sanctification rests on such false premises as these: only conscious sins are truly sins; God requires only relative holiness, i. e., holiness according to individual ability; God would not command holiness if He did not also enable man to be holy. FEM
See also Perfectionism.
(18471918). B. Ledbury, Herefordshire, Eng.; educ. Eton and Oxford; prof. divinity Oxford 191018; tried to relate Christian principles to soc. and economic problems (see also Christian Social Union); hymnist. Ed. Commonwealth (organ of the CSU) 18951912; contributed to Lux* mundi; hymns include Judge Eternal, Throned in Splendor.
(Hollatz; Hollatius; 16481713). Outstanding Luth. dogmatician of the classical period. B. Wulkow, near Stargard, Porecrania; educ. Erfurt and Wittenberg; preacher Pützerlin 1670, preacher 1681 and conrector Stargard, rector Kolberg (Kolobrzeg) 1684, provost Jacobshagen (Dobrzany) 1692. Works include Examen theologicum acroamaticum universam theologiam thetico-polemicam complectens.
J. J. Pelikan, Natural Theology in David Hollaz, CTM, XVIII (April 1947), 253263.
(18771955). B. Norden, Ostfriesland, Ger.; prof. Halle, Giessen, Marburg, Bonn, Heidelberg; wrote extensively on the OT. Works include Geschichte der israelitischen und jüdischen Religion; Geschichtsschreibung in Israel; Hezekiel; Die Propheten.
(15961661). B. Hamburg, Ger.; Vatican librarian; wrote on many classical and ecclesiastical writings, e.g., those of Porphyry* and Benedict* of Aniane. Works include Graecorum Geographorum catalogus.
(18321910). B. Karlsruhe, Ger.; educ. Heidelberg and Berlin; taught at Heidelberg and Strasbourg; used historicocritical* method. Works include Lehrbuch der historischkritischen Einleitung in das Neue Testament; Die synoptischen Evangelten; Lehrbuch der neutestamentlichen Theologie.
Agreement signed September 26, 1815, by Alexander I (17771825; emp. of Russ. 180125), Francis I (17681835; last Holy Roman emp. as Francis II 17921806; emp. of Austria as Francis I 180435), and Frederick* William III. It was an attempt to make Christianity basic in relations bet. nations and bet. rulers and subjects. Other nations of Eur. joined the Holy Alliance. It was regarded esp. by Russ. rulers as expressing the divine* right of kings. See also Holy Leagues and Alliances.
Formed at Oxford 1729 by C. Wesley* and a few others for systematic exercise in Christian worship. J. Wesley* and G. Whitefield* joined later. Mems. of the club were referred to as methodists (see also Methodist Churches, 1). Dispersed 1735.
Famous RC relic; kept since the Middle Ages at Treves, W Ger.; accounts vary as to when and how it got there; said to be the seamless garment of Jn 19:23; said to have been woven by Mary for Christ in His infancy and to have increased in size as He grew; first made an object of pub. veneration and pilgrimage 1512; exhibited repeatedly, e.g., 1515, 1531, 1545, 1653, 1810, 1844, 1891, 1933; ca. 20 other coats also are claimed to be the original. See also Ronge, Johannes.
Lutheran World, III (March 1957), 383385.
Also known as Holy Ghost Fathers and as Spiritans. RC soc. founded 1703 as a group that became known as the Sem. and the Cong. of the Holy Ghost; noted esp. for its work in Afr.; other fields include S Am., W Indies, US, India, China.
(derivation of grail uncertain). Term applied to a dish, possibly the chalice, used at the institution of the Lord's Supper. Origins of legends about it are lost in the midst of the mists of mystery. Many romances have been woven about the quest of the grail and about the hist. of the vessel.
1. RC holy leagues were formed in the 16th and 17th c. in qcontinuation of the Crusades.* Such a league was oreanized in It. 1470 after the is. Negropont (Euboea) fell to the Turks. Another retook Otranto, It., 1481, which had fallen to the Turks 1480. Under leadership of Alexander VI (see Popes, 18) an alliance of Fr., Poland, Boh., and Hung. was formed 1500 and a FrancoVenetian fleet sailed the Aegean. In 1538 Charles* V, Paul* III, and Venice formed a holy league that ended the same yr., when the Venetian fleet was defeated by the Turks at the Gk. seaport Preveza. Another league against the Turks, formed 1570 by Pius V (see Popes, 21), Venice, and Philip II (152798; king of Sp. 155698), won a naval battle against the Turks at the Gulf of Lepanto (Gulf of Corinth), Greece, 1571. The Holy League formed 1683/84 under leadership of Innocent* XI joined Austria, Venice, and, for a short time, Poland against the Turks; helned liberate most of Turkish-occupied Hung. by 1700.
2. Charles VIII (147098; king of Fr. 148398) invaded It. to claim rights of house of Anjou to Naples, but was repulsed 1495 by Holy League of Ferdinand II (146996; king of Naples 149596) and Sp. gen. Gonzalo de Córdoba (14531515).
3. A Holy League was formed October 1511 against Fr. by Julius II (see Popes, 19), Ferdinand of Aragon (14521516; the Catholic; b. Sos, Aragon, Sp.; king of Sicily 14681516; as Ferdinand V, joint ruler of Castile 14741504 with Isabella ; as Ferdinand II, king of Aragon 14791516), and Venice. Henry* VIII joined this league November 1511; Maximilian I (14591519; king of Ger. 14861519; Holy Roman emp. 14391519) joined 1513.
5. The Holy League of Cognac was formed 1526 at Cognac, Fr., against Charles* V by Clement* VII, Francis I (see France, 8), Florence, Venice, and the duke of Milan (Francesco Sforza II). See also Speyer, Diets of, 1, 2.
7. The Holy League (Sainte Ligue) formed against Prots. 1576 under leadership of Henri I de Lorraine and his two brothers, Charles, duke of Mayenne, and Louis, abp. Reims and cardinal, aimed to destroy Calvinism and reest. RC unity. See also France, 9.
8. Maximilian I (15731651; the Great; duke of Bay. 15971651; elector 162351) led forces 1607 against Prot. Donauwörth; Prot. princes joined hands to resist; in reply, Maximilian became head of a RC holy league 1609.
(18171906). B. Birmingham, Eng.; soc. reformer; influenced by R. Owen*; minister to Owenites at Worcester 1840; turned rationailst; first promulgated secularism* ca. 1846, coined the term itself 1851. Ed. Oracle of Reason and Reasoner; other works include Sixty Years of an Agitator's Life.
Name given (at times derisively) to mems. of some holiness* chs. because of the emotional nature of their services; worshipers sometimes fell to the ground in trances. But rolling was very rare, though leaping, shouting, and other manifestations were common. In 1915 the Church* of God (Cleveland, Tennessee) officially gave notice that reference to the Ch. of God as Holy Rollers would be considered and treated as a slanderous and malignant offense.
Former territory roughly coextensive with the RC Ch. Its roots formed among the Franks (see France, 1) and Lombards. The Lombards, in NW Ger. in the 1st c. AD, began southward migrations in the 4th century. Audoin began a new royal dynasty 546; d. perhaps 565; succeeded by his son Alboin (king ca. 565573; Lombards invaded It. 568. Cleph ruled 18 mo. until 574. Interregnum 574584. Dukes ruled independently. Authari ruled 584590. His widow Theolinda married Agilulf, who ruled 591615. He was succeeded by his son Adelwald, who died of poisoning 625 and was succeeded by his brother-in-law Ariwald. He was succeeded by Rotharis, who ruled 636652. There followed a period of contested successions, rebellions and struggles among the dukes until 712. Liutprand 712744. Hildebrand 744. Rachis 744749. Aistulf 749756; defeated by Pepin* the Short. Desiderius 757744; last king of the Lombards; defeated by Charlemagne,* king of the Franks, who became king also of the Lombards 774.
The Crowning of Charlemagne 800 marks the formal beginning of the Holy Roman Empire. This empire of W and cen. Eur. (Fr., Ger., Austria, N Sp., most of It.) perished when the Frankish state broke up in the 9th c. as a result of quarrels over succession to the throne and of barbarian invasions. But the idea of such an empire was revived with Otto I (912973; the Great; king of Ger. 936; crowned Holy Roman emp. 962 by John XI [ca. 936964; pore 955964]), whose realm, however, was essentially an empire of the Ger. and It. nations and did not include Fr. or Sp. At its greatest extent this new Holy Roman Empire included Ger., the Neth., Boh. [Czechoslovakia], Austria, Switz., Burgundy, and most of It.; Frederick* I (Barbarossa) claimed Den., Poland, and Hung. Conflicts bet. emps. and popes, empire and ch., contributed to decay (see Investiture Controversy; Frederick I [Barbarossa]; Frederick II). Loss of It. and struggle for the crown led to an interregnum 125473, in which the Ger. kingdom and the Holy Roman empire had no real head. With the accession of Rudolf I of Hapsburg (121891; king of Ger. 1273; Holy Roman emp. 127391) the empire became in effect a Ger. state. Sp. and the empire were joined under Charles* V. The rise of Napoleon* I led to the end of the empire with the resignation of Francis II (17681835; Holy Roman emp. 17921806; emp. of Austria as Francis I 180435).
(Bible; Holy Bible; [the] Scripture[s]; [the] Holy Scripture[s]; [the] Sacred Scripture[s]). Collection of writings (or part thereof) regarded by many Christians as inspired by God and of divine authority. See also Apologetics, III B; Bible Societies; Canon, Bible; Commentaries, Biblical; Grace, Means of; Hermeneutics; Inspiration, Doctrine of; Textual Criticism.
The Holy Spirit (Spirit of God; Spirit of Christ; Spirit; Holy Ghost) is identified with God (Ps 139:78; Acts 5:34; Ro 8:9; 1 Co 3:16; 2 Co 3:17). In part He is described as a person distinct from Father and Son and proceeding from them (Mt 28:19; Jn 14:26; 15:26; Gl 4:6). Also called Paraclete on basis of the Gk., e.g., in Jn 14:16; 16:7.
The work of creation, ascribed to the Father (e.g., 1 Co 8:6) and to the Son (e.g., Jn 1:3), is also ascribed to the Holy Spirit (e.g., Jb 33:4); sanctification, ascribed to the Holy Spirit (e.g., Ro 8:14; Gl 5:1725), is also ascribed to the Father and the Son (e.g., Eph 3:1419). Acts assigned specifically to the Spirit: revealing of the truth and grace of God to man (1 Co 2:1011); converting man and putting new life and spirit into him (Jn 3:5; 1 Co 12:3); preserving saving faith (1 Jn 4:13); enabling the believer to resist the flesh and produce fruits of faith in love (Gl 5:1618, 2225; Eph 4:2224; 1 Ptr 1:22).
In one sense the Holy Spirit is wholly beyond reach of man; man makes no contribution to Him or to his grasp of Him (Jn 3:8). But the Christian has received the Holy Spirit and His power through Baptism (Tts 3:5) and can continually reinforce His presence through the Word of the Gospel (1 Ptr 1:2225). Man is equipped with the Holy Spirit to communicate the grace of God in Christ Jesus, the forgiveness of sins, and the life of the Spirit to others (Mt. 28:1920; Lk 24:4549; Jn 20:2123). RRC
Governing body, usually composed of bps., in an autocephalous E Orthodox Ch.; in Russia formerly a coll. of bps. and monks, attended by a lay procurator as the emperor's representative, est. 1721 by Peter I (the Great; 16721725; coruler of Russ. 168289; sole ruler 16891725), abolished 1917.
In RC Ch., water exorcised and blessed by a priest in the name of the ch.; used in various combinations with holy oil, salt, ashes, and wine for baptism, lustration, and other functions. See also Amulets.
(160581). B. Mihla, near Eisenach, Ger.; court clerk and legal adviser Naumburg; hymnist. Hymns include Jesu, meines Lebens Leben; Ach wundergrosser Siegesheld; Kommst du, kommst du, Licht der Heiden?
Traditional Gk. poet to whom the Iliad (on Trojan War) and Odyssey (wanderings of Odysseus [Ulysses]) are assigned. Dates have been assigned to him ranging from 1200 to 850 BC The 2 epic poems, sometimes called the Bible of the Greeks, are probably composite products of many poets.
1. Homiletics is the science of preaching. The term comes from the Gk. for being together, as in a crowd or conversation. The term homily came to signify an address to a Christian cong., in contrast to evangelizing non-Christians. The term has been applied either exclusively to the sermon in the parish service or more broadly to all preaching of the Christian religion. As a science, homiletics includes a formal theory: gathering preaching materials from the Word of God, from experience and observation, and from literature; arranging the materials in logical and psychological sequence; expressing the material in apt language; directing the material to the hearer by means of speech and bodily movement. Homiletics also includes a body of insights into the source and function of the Christian religion and its impact on the human mind, and into human nature as it responds to the spoken word.
2. The Jewish synagog developed a standard form of worship that included a sermon (e.g., Lk 4:1632). Any competent mem. of the cong. was eligible to deliver such a discourse, but, if possible, the task was assigned to itinerant religious teachers. They learned the science of their craft by simple conference with, or imitation of, other rabbis or at the great rabbinical schools.
3. The NT provides no homiletical theory. Christ emphasized the content and purpose of the preaching message (e.g., Lk 24:4548). The apostles stressed the sincerity and urgency of the message (e.g., 2 Co 25; 1 Th 4; 2 Ti 2:3; 1 Ptr 4:5). The early ch. soon developed a standard service in which teaching and preaching had a part (Acts 2; 6:4).
4. Under influence of rhetorical theory, standards and principles of homiletics were crystallized. Augustine* provided a summary of them in De doctrina christiana. Under influence of Aristotelian philos., principles of rhetoric and dialectic were applied to preaching. The influence of this method was curtailed by the fact that most clerics were poorly trained and that the preaching which most stirred the people was the direct and popular message of the preaching friars.
5. The Prot. Reformation vitalized the message of the parish minister by enhancing the place of the sermon in the service, by making the pastor the responsible shepherd, and by putting the Bible in the vernacular into the center of the sermon and the hearer's interest. M. Luther* was a direct and profuse preacher who used little theoretical form in his approach to preaching. But the Luth. Ch. early emphasized a humanistically trained clergy. Thus principles of rhetoric and dialectic resumed a formal position in Luth. preaching and in training Luth. preachers. Theol. disputes and emphasis on doctrinal formulations of the 16th and 17th cents. gave more emphasis to the argumentative polemical method in Ger. Luth. preaching than elsewhere. The prestige and position of theol. faculties in Lutheranism produced a theoretical scaffolding for preaching that withstood Pietism,* rationalism,* and the Enlightenment.*
6. In Am., homiletical theory was produced also by dissenting communions that set up strong ch. organizations and sems. In the past, Prot. homiletical theory largely emphasized traditional farms and related the sermon to the parish service. This process has been reinforced by the trend in much of Prottestantism to a more adequate attention to the service as a whole.
7. Homiletic theory is under review in light of audience and persuasion psychol. The impetus for this emphasis has come in part from new channels for evangelism in radio and publicity; in part from the effort to reach the pub. mind, which is not habituated to the authority of the Word of God. This emphasis has begun with rethinking of the delivery of the message and of the speaker's total participation in his message. The principles of persuasion as applied to the intrinsic message of the Gospel and expressed to the audience by every means at the preacher's disposal are subjects of current scrutiny. The result is homiletic theory that not merely concerns itself with the preacher's address to the Christian audience, but concentrates on the individual responding to analysis of his need and sympathy for his problem. RRC
J. H. C. Fritz, The Preacher's Manual (St. Louis, 1941); J. M. Reu, Homiletics, tr. A. Steinhaeuser, 5th ed. (Columbus, Ohio, 1944); R. W. Kirkpatrick, The Creative Delivery of Sermons (New York, 1944); R. R. Caemmerer, Preaching for the Church (St. Louis, 1959); G. M. Bass, The Renewal of Liturgical Preaching (Minneapolis, 1967).
(171485). B. Rosenthal, Saxony, Ger.; organist; composer; pupil of J. S. Bach,* but followed more closely the style of K. H. Graun*; cantor Kreuzschule and music dir. in 3 chief chs. Dresden. Works include Passions-Cantate; Die Freude der Hirten über die Geburt Jesu; motets.
(18431903). Pastor in the Norw. Syn. (see Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 813); b. Telemark, Norw.; to Am. 1854; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; began pastoral work in Shawano Co., Wisconsin, 1881, founding Wittenberg and there est. an academy, normal school, orphanage, old people's home, and printshop; active in founding Bethany Indian Miss., Wittenberg, ca. 1884. Ed. For Gammel og Ung; Söndagsskolebladet; Weisenhus Kalendar; Christian Youth; Sunday School Helper. See also Wittenberg Academy.
(181392). B. Fürth, Bav., Ger.; educ. Munich, Bonn, Erlangen; assessor and legal adviser; composer of hymn tunes; through acquaintance with J. K. W. Löhe* and others he learned to appreciate Luth. music. Works include Liturgie lutherischer Gemeindegottesdienste; Der Psalter nach der deutschen Uebersetzung D. Martin Luthers für den Gesang eingerichtet; Geistliche Volkslieder.
(Gk. like, similar). Term used in stating the view of some of Arian (see Arianism) inclination in the early ch. that the Son is like the Father, without saying anything specifically about the ousia (substance). See also Acacius of Caesarea (d. ca. 366); Homoiousios; Homoousios.
(Gk. of one substance). Term used in the Nicene Creed (see Ecumenical Creeds, B) to state Christian faith that the Son is of one substance with the Father. See also Antioch, Synods of; Arianism, 23; Athanasius; Homoios; Homoiousios; Nicaea, Councils of, 1.
(February 25, 1835January 3, 1908). B. Brandenburg, Ger.; educ. Halle; influenced esp. by F. A. G. Tholuck*; tutor in the home of a certain Herr von Wattenwyl near Bern, Switz.; spent some time in Wittenberg; passed examination pro ministerio in Magdeburg; ordained there for Wisconsin* Syn. cong. at La Crosse, Wisconsin; to Am. February 1863; the La Crosse cong. had meanwhile received a pastor; Hönecke spent a little time at Racine, Wisconsin; then pastor Farmington, near Watertown, Wisconsin; prof. at the newly-founded sem. at Watertown 186670 (see Ministry, Education of, X U). Acc. to an 1868/69 arrangement whereby the Wisconsin Syn. was to place a prof. at Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, Hönecke was to teach at St. Louis, but financial difficulties in the Wisconsin Syn. and lack of a dwelling in St. Louis prevented execution of the plan. Pastor Milwaukee 187090. The sem. at Watertown, which had been closed 1870, was reopened 1878. Hönecke became dir. and prof. dogmatics while continuing his pastorate; full-time prof. 1890; taught dogmatics, ethics, homiletics, pastoral theol., and lectured on Ro. Ed. Ev.-Luth. Gemeinde-Blatt; helped found and ed. Theologische Quartalschrift; other works include Predigt-Entwürfe über die altkirchlichen Evangelien und Episteln nebst einigen Freitexten; Wenn ich nur dich habe; Ein Lämmlein geht und trägt die Schuld; Ev.-Luth. Dogmatik.
Dr. Adolf Hönecke, Ev.-Luth. Gemeinde-Blatt, XLIII, 2 (January 15, 1908), 1726; A. Pieper, Dr. Höneckes Bedeutung för die Wisconsinsynode und die amerikanisch-lutherische Kirche, Theologlsche Quartalschrifi, XXXII, 3 (July 1935), 161174; 4 (October 1935), 225244; XXXIII, 1 (January 1936), 119; 2 (April 1936), 81101.
Term which includes, or is related to, such virtues as integrity, fairness, straightforwardness, truthfulness, adherence to facts, sincerity; opposite of duplicity and subterfuge. Pr 11:1; Lk 3:13; 12:4748; 16:10; Ph 4:8; 1 Ti 2:2; Heb 13:18; 1 Ptr 2:12.
(Hongkong). For current information see CIA World Factbook. Former Brit. crown colony SE China. Area: ca. 400 sq. mi. (mostly Chinese). Official language: Eng. Came under Brit. control in 19th c.; occupied by Jap. 1941; reoccupied by Brit. 1945. Christian groups have included RCs (claim more than 200,000) and many Prots. The Lutheran ChurchHong Kong Synod, an outgrowth of LCMS miss. work, was organized 1976. See also Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, The, VII 14.
(Gras; Gross; 14981549). B. Kronstadt (Brasov), Transylvania*; educ. Vienna; opened printshop in Kronstadt ca. 1535; preacher Kronstadt 1544; pub. M. Luther's* SC 1545; Luther called him the Lord's evangelist in Kronstadt in Hung. (WA-Br 10, 565).
(ca. 15541600). Moderate Angl. defender of episcopacy; b. Heavitree, near Exeter, Devonshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; ordained 1581; held livings in Buckinghamshire, Wiltshire, and Kent. Works include Of the Laws of Ecclesiasical Polity.
(ca. 15861647). B. Leicestershire, Eng.; Cong. pastor Eng. 162030; fled to Holland 1530; to Am. with J. Cotton* and S. Stone* 1633; pastor 1633 New Towne, Massachusetts, 1636 Hartford, Connecticut; active in writing Fundamental Orders of Connecticut and organizing United Colonies of New England. See also United States, Religious History, of the, 4.
(ca. 14951555). Father of the Puritans; b. Somersetshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; probably Cistercian; became Zwinglian; fled to Continent 1539; returned to Eng. 1549; bp. Gloucester 1550 (consecrated 1551); objected to prescribed vestments and form of the oath (by the saints), but yielded on the vestments and the king yielded on the oath; the see of Worcester was given him 1552 to hold in commendam (revenues granted him temporarily during vacancy) with Gloucester; later Gloucester was made an archdeanery and he was termed bp. Worcester; imprisoned 1553 by Mary* I; deprived of bishopric as a married man 1554; charged with heresy; burned at the stake. See also Anglican Confessions, 5; Puritans; Vestiarian Controversy.
The well-grounded expectation of things desired. The ground of Christian hope is the Word of divine promise. Christian hope is essentially faith concerning things to come; faith looks into the heart of God for a promised hope which is sure and final, the crowning glory of all faith. In heaven hope will be translated into joyous experience (Ro 8:2425; 1 Co 13:13; Tts 3:7; Heb 11:1; 13:14; 1 Ptr 1:35, 13). The hope of the Christian is the fruit of justification (Ro 5:45), the anchor of his soul (Heb 6:19); it inspires to clean living (1 Jn 3:3), makes glad in trials (Ps 43:5; 146:5; Ro 12:12; Heb 3:6), and provides comfort and support in death (Pr 14:32; 2 Ti 4:18).
(Höpffner; Heinricus Hoepffnerus; 15821642). Ger. Luth. theol.; b. Leipzig; educ. Leipzig, Jena, Wittenberg; prof. Leipzig; took part in Leipzig Colloquy (see Reformed Confessions, D 3 b) 1631. Works include treatise on justification; commentaries.
(180287). Cong. theol. and educ.; b. Stockbridge, Massachusetts; physician; prof. Williams Coll., Williamstown, Massachusetts, 183037, pres. 183672; pres. ABCFM 185787. Works include Exclusive Traits of Christianity; Influence of the Gospel in Liberalizing the Mind; Lectures on Moral Science; The Scriptural Idea of Man.
(17211803). Cong. theol.; b. Waterbury, Connecticut; pupil of J. Edwards* the Elder; pastor Newport, Rhode Island; prominent in New* England theol.; developed modified Calvinism called Hopkinsianism.
(July 24, 1828May 31, 1911). B. Rostock, Mecklenburg, Ger.; d. St. Louis, Missouri; educ. Erlangen and Dorpat (Tartu); private tutor 185355; to Am. 1855; pastor New Orleans, Louisiana, 185668; taught in New Orleans at Lutheran academy 1868, Select School ca. 1878, Progymnasium 188186; to St. Louis, Missouri, 1886; edited Saint Louis ed. of M. Luther's* works 18861911.
(Horbe; Horbius; 164595). B. Colmar, Alsace; educ. Strasbourg; ev. theol.; influenced by J. K. Dannhauer* and P. J. Spener*; pietist; court preacher Bischwiller, Fr.; inspector Trarbach, Ger.; supt. Windsheim; pastor Hamburg; removed from office because of his opposition to orthodoxy.
(June 10, 1850March 4, 1915). B. Easton, Pennsylvania; educ. Lutheran Theol. Sem., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; pastor Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Charleston, S. C., and Reading, Pennsylvania; prof. Philadelphia Luth. Theol. Sem. (Mount Airy), 191115. Pres. Pennsylvania Ministerium 190911. Works include Outlines of Liturgies; Summer Sermons.
(Conrad; 15901649). Prof. Helmstedt; exponent of Melanchthonian tradition in Luth. orthodoxy; sided with G. Calixtus* in syncretistic controversy (see Syncretism). Works include Disputatines theologicae.
(18671941). Mennonite hist. and theo.; b. Giebelstadt, near Würzburg, Ger.; studied at Bav. State Agricultural School, Würzburg; arrived New York 1887; attended Indian Miss. School, Halstead, Kans: worked at Mennonite Pub. Co., Elkhart, Indiana; studied at Ev. Theol. Sem., Naperville, Illinois, Valparaiso U., Valparaiso, Indiana, Baldwin-Wallace Coll., Berea, Ohio, U. of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin; pub. monthly Farm und Haus; Ger. ed. of Mennonite Pub. House, Scottdale, Pennsylvania Works include Modern Religious Liberalism; Mennonites in Europe; Menno Simons; Infant Baptism; Communism; The Failure of Modernism.
(17331806). B. London; educ. Cambridge; Angl. bp. 1788 St. David's (Wales), 1793 Rochester (Kent), 1802 St. Asaph (Wales), Eng.; opposed J. Priestley* on doctrines of the Trin. and of Christ. Wrote extensively in area of science and philology.
(May 3, 1864Aug. 26, 1949). B. Rendsburg, Ger.; to US at age 17; contractor; cofounder Lutheran Laymen's League (see Lutheran Laymen's League, International); made comprehensive survey of Missouri* Syn. S Am. missions 1928.
(Osius; Ossius; ca. 256ca. 358). B. probably Cordova, Sp.; bp. Cordova ca. 295; friend and counselor of Constantine* I; prominent at Council of Nicaea* I 325 as defender of orthodoxy; subscribed an Arian creed under duress at Sirmium 357 which he abjured on his deathbed.
(Rudolph; Wirth; 15471626). B. Altorf (Altdorf), Switz.; educ. Marburg and Heidelberg, Ger.; teacher in Zurich and country parson; pastor Zurich 1594. Works include Concordia discors, seu de origine et progressu formulae concordiae Bergensis (answered by L. Hutter,* Concordia concors).
Kind reception and courteous entertainment of strangers or guests. In the orient it was regarded a sacred duty to receive, feed, lodge, and protect travelers who come to one's door. There are many instances of hospitality in Scripture (e.g., Gn 18:18; 19:115; 1 K 17:1024; Jb 31:32; Lk 19:110; Acts16:15; 2 Ti 1:16). It is commanded in the Mosaic law (Lv 19:34) and encouraged in the NT (Lk 14:1214; Ro 12:13; 1 Ptr 4:9).
(including sanatoria, homes for convalescents and chronically ill). Ca. 1800 the growth of such cities as Boston, NYC, Philadelphia, Newport, Charleston began to demand community action to provide pub. health services. Isolation hosps. were created in cities of the E coast of the US. Nearly all were est. under govt. auspices; most rendered basic service. Services soon improved in new hosps. est. under voluntary (ch. and community) auspices. The 1st ch. related hosps. in the US were under control of RC sisterhoods.
The 1st hosp. in the Missouri* Syn. (the 1st Prot. hosp. W of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) was the Luth. Hosp. at St. Louis, Missouri, founded 1858 by J. F. Bünger,* sold 1984 to Nat. Med. Enterprises, Inc., of Calif.
Luth. sponsorship of hosps. varies, including (1) operation of a group of indep.-owned hosps. over a broad geogr. area by a Luth. administrative organization; (2) operation of a group of hosps. owned by a single ch.-related entity serving a limited geogr. area; (3) ownership and operation of single hosp. units by an assoc. of Luth. congs, jurisdictional units of a Luth. body, or a Luth. body as such; (4) ownership and operation of single hosp. units by a corporation whose membership, by definition in the charter, consists of at least a majority of Luths.
Some Luth. hosps. have evolved into community hosps. in terms of orientation, perspective, and/or auspices. But most retain true and essential ev. Luth. characteristics: (1) interest and participation of the membership of the Luth. ch.; (2) well-oriented management by Christian people; (3) Christian administration; (4) ministry to the total personality of the patient; (5) chaplaincy services to administration, staff, and patients; (6) worship facilities in large hosps.
(Hotmannus; Hotomanus; de Villiers Saint-Paul; 152490). B. Paris, Fr.; Huguenot jurist; urged Fr. to declare indep. from Rome; fled to Switz. after Bartholomew's* Day Massacre. Works include De re numaria populi romani liber; De statu primitivae ecclesiae ejusque sacerdotiis; Francogallia; Jurisconsultus.
Afr. people allied at least in physical resemblance to Bushmen; formerly lived as far S as Cape of Good Hope; Most Hottentots now live in Eur. settlements or on reservations. Georg Schmidt* arrived Cape Town 1737, worked till 1743, when he returned to Eur. because of disagreement with the Dutch; further Moravian work has been done beginning 1792. The LMS sent J. T. Vanderkemp* 1799 and later R. Moffat* and D. Livingstone.* Meths. began work 1816. Rhenish* Mission Soc. workers arrived S Afr. 1829, their 1st station 1830. The Paris* Ev. Missionary Soc. began work 1829. The Berlin* Miss. Soc. I followed a few yrs. later. R. Gray* arrived Cape Town 1848. See also Africa, A 1, B 8.
Hours of special prayer and devotion growing out of the custom of the early ch. based on suggestions in Ps (e.g., 55:17; 119:164) and Acts 3:1; 10:9; 16:25. The Apostolic* Constitutions (VIII iv 34) name morning, 3d, 6th, and 9th hour, evening, and cockcrowing. The rule of Benedict of Nursia included (1) nocturna vigilia (matins*), 2 a.m.; (2) lauds* at daybreak; (3) prime*; (4) terce (tierce; from Lat. for 3d); (5) sext; (6) none*; (7) vespers*; (8) compline.* Lauds, usually sung at dawn, may either be combined with matins or follow as the 2d canonical hour (counting matins as the 1st). Matins may be said at any time of the day.
The Luth. Confessions speak of useless, bothersome babbling of the Seven Hours (LC, Longer Pref. 3; cf. AC XXVIII 41). Seven (based on Ps 119:164) is arrived at variously; the day hours may be listed: 1. matins with lauds; 2. prime; 3. terce; 4. sext; 5. none; 6. vespers; 7. compline. The hours survived in monasteries that became ev.; they provided content for the Luth. form of matins and vespers.
The divine office (officium divinum; daily office for canonical hours) is formal vocal prayer as developed in the W Ch. Its fixed form includes Psalms; hymns; scriptural, patristic, and hagiographic readings; prayers. It is recited in RC and other chs. by those commissioned to do so (e.g., priests, religious) as official prayer of the ch.
(18671926). B. La Flèche, Fr.; RC priest 1891; exponent of Fr. modernism (see Modernism, 1); quit the priesthood 1912. Works include Histoire du modernisme catholique; Courte histoire du Christianisme; Un vie de prêtre; Le Père Hyacinthe.
(March 25, 1863December 17, 1927). B. Northwood, Iowa; educ. Luther Coll., Decorah, Iowa, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; Norw. Luth. pastor Portland, Oregon, Astoria, Oregon, Decotab, Iowa., Mankato, Minnesota; prof. Luther Sem., Saint Paul, Minnesota (later dissolved and reest. as Luther Theol. Sem.) 1901. Works include Christian Doctrine (pub. posthumously as completed by his son, Olaf Hjalmar Hove, b. November 30, 1906).
(182397). B. Shrewsbury, Shropshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; held a number of positions as clergyman; bp. Wakefield; hymnist. Hymns include For All the Saints Who from Their Labors Rest; Jesus! Name of Wondrous Love; O Word of God Incarnate; Soldiers of the Cross, Arise!; This Day at Thy Creating Word; To Thee, Our God, We Fly; We Give Thee But Thine Own.
(ca. 172690). B. Hackney, London, Eng.; prison reformer; studied nature and treatment of plague. Works include The State of the Prisons in England and Wales, with Preliminary Observations, and an Account of Some Foreign Prisons; An Account of the Principal Lazarettos in Europe.
(16301705). B. Loughborough, Leicestershire, Eng.; educ. Cambridge and Oxford; curate Great Torrington, Devonshire; chaplain of O. Cromwell* and his son Richard; took part in reed. Westminster Confession at Savoy (October 1658); ejected 1662 from Torrington for nonconformity; chaplain at Antrim 1670; Presb. pastor London 1675; to Utrecht 1686; returned to London 1687; promoted union of Presbs. and Congs. Works include The Blessedness of the Righteous; The Carnality of Christian Contention; The Living Temple.
(18341916). B. Montgomery Co., Maryland; educ. Lane Theol. Sem. (Presb.), Cincinnati, Ohio, and Berlin, Ger.; taught at Washington U., St. Louis, Missouri, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (at Boston), Harvard U., Concord (Massachusetts) School of Philos., U. of Mich., and U. of California; opposed monism*; exponent of personal idealism, which stressed the autonomy of the free moral person. See also Idealism Personalism and Personalistic Psychology.
(181685). B. Giggleswick-in-Craven, Yorkshire, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; deacon 1845; priest 1846; taught at Liverpool Coll.; vicar Wisbech 1866; dean of Chester 186785. Wrote The Life and Epistles of St. Paul with W. J. Conybeare*; other works include The Character of St. Paul; The Metaphors of St. Paul; The Companions of St. Paul.
(November 17, 1849November 8, 1905). B. Hamburg, Ger.; to Am. at age 16; educ. Northwestern U. (see Northwestern College), Watertown, Wisconsin, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; Wisconsin* Syn. pastor Neenah, Wisconsin, 1875; Minnesota* Syn. pastor St. Paul, Minnesota, 1880; prof. and dir. Dr. Martin Luther Coll. (see Ministry, Education of, VIII B; Minnesota Synod, 3), New Ulm, Minnesota, 1885; dir. Saginaw, Michigan, sem. of the Michigan* Syn. 1893; prof. and inspector Northwestern U., Watertown, Wisconsin, ca. 1896.
(August 22, 1883October 24, 1963). B. Spring Valley, Kansas; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor 190512 Natoma, Kansas, 191227 Denver, Colorado; prof. 192730 St. John's Luth. Coll., Winfield, Kansas, 193063 Conc. Sem., St. Louis. Works include Missioncry Forward Endeavor in the Light of the Book of Acts; The Story of the Church; The Christian View of Life.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission
Internet Version Produced by
The Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod
Original Editions ©Copyright 1954, 1975, 2000
Concordia Publishing House
All rights reserved.
Content Reproduced with Permission