Christian Cyclopedia

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Haarbeck, Theodor

(1846–1923). B. Neukirchen, near Mörs, Rhineland, Ger.; became inspector Pilgermission St. Chrischona* 1883, dir. Johanneum* 1890; active in fellowship movement.

Haakanson, Magnus Fredrik

(Frederick; Hokanson; September 7 [some say 11], 1811–January 2, 1893). B. Ronneby, Blekinge, Swed.; shoemaker; tried unsuccessfully to become a miss.; to Am. 1847; est. a ch. at New Swed. (W of Burlington), Iowa, 1848, and served as pastor; ordained by Ev. Luth. Syn. of N Illinois* 1853. His cong. disturbed by Gustaf Unonius (Episc.), Jonas Hedstrom (Meth.), Gustaf Palmquist, and F. O. Nilssen (Bap.). Espoused Bap. views for short time and was rebaptized 1854. Resigned at New Swed. 1856; pastor Bergholm (later Munterville), Iowa, 1856–59, 1867–90, Swede Point (later Madrid), Iowa (serving also Swede Bend [later Stratford]), 1859–67. See also Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, 2.

Haas, Hans

(December 3, 1868–September 10, 1934). B. Donndorf, near Bayreuth, Ger.; miss. in Jap.; prof. comparative religion Jena 1913, Leipzig 1915. Wrote on missions in Jap. and on oriental religions.

Haas, John Augustus William

(August 31, 1862–July 22, 1937). B. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; educ. U. of Pennsylvania, Luth. Sem. at Philadelphia, and Leipzig; ordained 1888; pastor NYC; pres. Muhlenberg Coll., Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1904. Leader in the General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in N. Am. Works include Trends of Thought and Christian Truth; In the Light of Faith; Freedom and Christian Conduct; The Unity of Faith and Knowledge; The Truth of Faith; What Ought I to Believe: A Moral Test; The Christian Way of Liberty; Christianity and Its Contrasts; Annotations on the Gospel According to St. Mark; Bible Literature. Coed. The Lutheran Cyclopedia (1899).

Haas, Nicolas

(1665–1715). B. Wunsiedel, Bav.; Luth. pastor Saxony; voluminous ascetic writer. Works include Der getreue Seelen-Hirte; Des in Gott andächtigen Priesters Gottgeheiligte Beth-Andachten; annotated ed. of M. Luther's Ger. Bible.

Haase, Theodor Karl

(1834–1909). B. Lemberg, Ger.; ev. theol.; pres. Ev. Gen. Syn. in Vienna; noted for expanding the ev. ch. in Silesia.

Haberkorn, Peter

(1604–76). B. Butzbach, Ger.; educ. Marburg, Leipzig, and Strasbourg; prof. physics Marburg 1632; court preacher Darmstadt 1633; supt. 1643 and prof. 1650 Giessen; defended Luth. orthodoxy against RCs and Calvinists (e.g., G. Calixtus*).

Habermann, Johann(es)

(Avenarius; 1516–90). B. Eger, Boh.; pastor; prof. Jena and Wittenberg; supt. Naumburg-Zeitz; Hebraist. Works include Christliche gebet; Heb. grammar and lexicon.


Distinctive external sign (e.g., tunic, hood) of religious state.

Hackenschmidt, Karl

(1839–1915). B. Strasbourg, Fr.; Luth. pastor Jägerthal 1870, Strasbourg 1882; influenced by A. Ritschl.*

Hackett, Horatio Balch

(1808–75). B. Salisbury, Massachusetts; educ. Phillips Academy (Andover, Massachusetts), Amherst (Massachusetts) Coll., and Andover Theol. Sem.; instructor Mount Hope Coll., Baltimore, Maryland, 1834–35; became Bap. 1835; prof. Brown U., Providence, R.I., 1835–39, Newton (Massachusetts) Theol. Institution 1839–68, Rochester (New York) Theol. Sem. 1870–75. Coed. Am. ed. Smith's Bible Dictionary; other works include Exercises in Hebrew Grammar and Selections from the Greek Scriptures to be Translated into Hebrew; commentary on Acts.

Hades Gospel.

Term designating belief that heathen to whom the Gospel was not preached and those who heard the Gospel but did not accept it will have another opportunity to be saved after death. Main passages quoted for this view: 1 Ptr 3:18–20; 4:6; others: Gn 3:15; Eze 33:11; Mt 5:25–26; 11:20–24; 12:31–32; Jn 14:2; Ro 2:4; 1 Ti 2:4; 2 Ti 1:12; 2 Ptr 3:9; 1 Jn 3:8. Scripture teaches that judgment follows death without a 2d chance, Mt 7:13–14; 2 Co 6:2; Heb 9:27.

T. Engelder, “The Hades Gospel,” CTM, XVI (May 1945), 293–300, “The Argument in Support of the Hades Gospel,” CTM, XVI (June 1945), 374–396, “The Evil of the Hades Gospel,” CTM, XVl (September 1945), 591–615, and “The Hades Gospel and the Apocatastasis Gospel,” CTM, XVII (September 1946), 641–676.

Hadorn, Wilhelm

(1869–1929). B. Bern, Switz.; prof. NT and Swiss ch. hist. Bern 1912.

Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich Philipp August

(1834–1919). B. Potsdam, Ger.; zoologist; philos.; prof. Jena 1865. Popularized and expanded Darwinism (see Darwin, Charles Robert). Adopted view of “biogenetic law,” which antedated him, that development of an individual is a recapitulation* of the hist. of the race. Acc. to his carbon-theory, organic life evolved from albuminoid compounds of carbon. He regarded the seat of the soul as located in “phronetal cells” (“thought-cells”). Denied existence of personal God and immortality; exerted great influence, esp. on freethinkers; championed monism*; coined words “ecology,” “ontogeny,” “protozoa,” and “metazoa.” Works include Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte; Die Weltrütsel; Der Monismus als Band zwischen Religion und Wissenschaft; Die Lebenswunder. See also Loofs, Friedrich.

Haentzschel, Adolph Theodore Esaias

(Häntzschel; December 24, 1881–June 5, 1971). Son of C. E. Häntzschel*; b. Addison, Illinois, educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor Ohio Prof. Conc. Coll., Conover, North Carolina, 1907–17; St. Paul's Coll., Concordia, Missouri, 1917–20; U. of Wisconsin, Madison, 1920–37; Valparaiso (Indiana) U. 1937–57. Works include Learning to Know the Child; The Great Paradox; The Great Quest; How A bout Christianity?

Haering, Theodor Lorenz

(1884–1964). B. Stuttgart, Ger.; son of T. v. Haering*; educ. Halle, Tübingen, Berlin, Bonn; prof. philos. Tübingen. Works include Hegel: Sein Wollen und sein Werk; Über Individualität in Natur- und Geisteswelt; Die Struktur der Weltgeschichte; Schwabenspiegel; Der Mond braust durch das Neckartal.

Haering, Theodor von

(Häring; 1848–1928). B. Stuttgart, Ger.; educ. Tübingen and Berlin; lectured at The Tübingen Ev. theol. sem. 1873–76; pastor Calw 1876, Stuttgart 1881; prof. Zurich 1886, Göttingen 1889, Tübingen 1895; modified Ritschlianism (see Ritschl, Albrecht) in the direction of conservative theol.; ascribed strong ethical significance to life of Jesus.

Haerter, Franz Heinrich

(1797–1874). B. Strasbourg; educ. Strasbourg; pastor Ittenheim 1823, Strasbourg 1829; founded deaconess house in Strasbourg 1842.

Hafenreffer, Matthias

(1561–1619). B. Lorch, Ger.; educ. Tübingen; pastor Ehningen 1588; court preacher Stuttgart 1590; prof. theol. Tübingen 1592; also taught mathematics and natural science; teacher and friend of J. Kepler.* Works include Loci theologici; Templum Ezechielis.

Haffner, Isaac

(1751–1831). B. Strasbourg; educ. Strasbourg, Göttingen, Leipzig, Paris; pastor Strasbourg; prof. Prot. academy, Strasbourg, 1803; 1st dean of Prot. faculty of U. of Strasbourg; theol. mediated bet. rationalism* and strict Lutheranism.

Hagen, Carl Friedrich Wilhelm

(September 30, 1859–November 21, 1938). B. Sterley, Lauenburg, Ger.; to Am. 1883; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor Ludington, Riverton, and Detroit, Michigan; mem. Gen. Bd. of Control and Bd. of Dir., Missouri Syn.; proponent of confessional Lutheranism.

Hagen, Peter

(Hagius; 1569–1620). B. Henneberg, near Heiligenbeil, E. Prussia; educ. Königsberg, Helmstedt, Wittenberg; rector Lyck, Prussia, and at the cathedral school, Königsberg; hymnist. Hymns include “Freu' dich, du werte Christenheit.”

Hagenau Colloquy

(Conference). Summoned by Charles* V; met 1540; purpose: to reach understanding bet. RCs and evangelicals. RC participants included Ferdinand I (1503–64; younger brother of Charles V; king of Ger. 1531–64; Holy Roman Emp. 1556–64), G. Morone,* Johannes Faber,* J. Cochlaeus,* J. Eck*; evangelicals present included J. Brenz,* M. Bucer,* J. Calvin,* W. Capito,* C. Cruciger (see Cruciger, 1), F. Myconius,* A. Osiander* the Elder, U. Rhegius.* Differences were emphasized. Initial goals were not reached, but it was resolved to try again (see Worms, Colloquy of).

Hagenbach, Karl Rudolf

(1801–74). Ger. ch. hist. and theol.; b. Basel, Switz.; educ. Basel; prof. Basel; exponent of mediating* theol.; emphasized imitation of Christ in life; influenced by G. C. F. Lücke,* F. D. E. Schleiermacher,* and J. A. W. Neander.* Works include Encyklopädie und Methodologie der theologischen Wissenschaften; Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte; Grundlinien der Liturgik und Homiletik; contributed 3to J. J. Herzog's* Realencyklopädie.

Hägerström, Axel Anders Theodor

(1868–1939). Swed. philos.; prof. Uppsala. His analysis of metaphysics and dogmatics and his opposition to idealism influenced A. T. S. Nygren (b. Göteborg, Swed., 1890; see also Lund, Theology of; Sweden, Lutheran Church in, 6). Works include Kants Ethik im Verhältnis zu seinen erkenntnistheoretischen Grundgedanken; Religionsfilosofi.


(Gk. “sacred writings”). Equivalent to Heb. kethubim (“writings”); denotes OT books other than “Law” and “Prophets”; includes Ps, Pr, Jb, Ru, Lm, SS, Ec, Est, Dn, 1 and 2 Ch, Ez, Neh.

Hahn, August

(1792–1863). B. Grossosterhausen, near Querfurt, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Wittenberg; prof., pastor, and supt. Königsberg; prof. Leipzig; opposed rationalism; prof. Breslau; gen. supt. Silesia; gained Silesian ch. for stricter Lutheranism; tried unsuccessfully to preserve the use of the Luth. agenda* for strict Luths. and keep them in the Prussian* Union. Works include Über die Lage des Christentums in unserer Zeit; Lehrbuch des christlichen Glaubens; Bibliothek der Symbole und Glaubensregeln der apostolisch-katholischen [alten] Kirche.

Hahn, Elieser Traugott

(1848–1939). Son of K. H. Hahn* b. Komachas, South-West Afr.; grew up at Gütersloh, Ger.; Ger. Luth. theol.; pastor Estonia; forced to leave 1918; evangelist esp. in NW Ger.

Hahn, Gotthilf Traugott

(1875–1919). Son of E. T. Hahn*; b. Rauge, Livonia; Ger. Luth. theol.; prof. Dorpat (Tartu) 1908; arrested and shot by Bolsheviks.

Hahn, Johann Michael

(1758–1819). Ger. biblicistic mystic; theosophist; theol. centers in Christology; spiritual father of Hahn Soc. (also called Michelians) founded 1876.

Hahn, Karl Hugo

(October 18, 1818–November 24, 1895). B. Riga, Latvia; Luth.; sent by Rhenish* Miss. Soc. to Afr. 1841; est. Herero* missions; severed connections with Rhenish Miss. Soc. 1873; pastor Cape Town 1874–84. Works include Hereto grammar. See also Africa, B 8.

Hahn, Karl Hugo

(1886–1957). Son of E. T. Hahn*; b. Reval (Tallin), Estonia; pastor Dorpat, Worbis, and Leipzig; pastor and supt. Dresden; banished from Saxony by Nazis 1938 (see Germany, C 4; Socialism, 3); chm. Confessing* Ch. of Saxony; pastor near Stuttgart; bp. Luth. Ch. of Saxony 1947–53.

Hahn, Philipp Matthäus

(1739–90). B. Scharnhausen, near Esslingen, Ger.; theosophist; pietist; regarded the kingdom of Jesus as fundamental idea from which all else is derived; Godhead is conscious only in Christ. Emphasized humanity of Christ and divine spark in man. Works include Die Lehre Jesu und seiner Gesandten.


Exegetical writings, chiefly catena,* widely circulated 9th–12th c., were ascribed to a Haimo. They are regarded by some as in part collections by monk Haimo of Auxerre (d. ca. 855); some have been ascribed by some to Haimo (Haymo; Heimo; Aimo; Aymo; Hemmo) of Halberstadt (probably ca. 778–853; bp. Halberstadt 840–853); others have been ascribed by some to Remigius* of Auxerre.

Hale, Edward Everett

(1822–1909). B. Boston, Massachusetts; pastor Ch. of the Unity, Worcester, Massachusetts, 1846, South Congregational Ch., Boston, 1856; chaplain US Senate 1903–09. Works include poetry, short stories, essays, magazine articles, and more than 60 books, including The Man Without a Country.

Hales, John

(1584–1656). B. Bath, Eng.; educ. Oxford; chaplain to W. Laud*; canon Windsor; supported latitudinarians.* Works include A Tract Concerning Schisme and Schismaticks; Golden Remains.

Halevy, Joseph

(1827–1917). B. Adrianople, Turkey; of Jewish parentage; naturalized Frenchman; Orientalist; explorer; prof. Paris; made researches in Abyssinia and Arabia; held that Sumerians were the invention of the Babylonian priesthood. Works include Documents religieux de l'Assyrie et de la Babylonie; Recherchez bibliques; Le Sumérisme et l'histoire babylonienne.

Half-Way Covenant.

Originally New Eng. Congregationalists (see United Church of Christ, I A) held that the ch. is a fellowship of believers who professed conversion, and that only such had the right to privileges of the ch., including baptism of children. The Half-Way Covenant was an expedient initiated early in the 2d half of the 17th c. allowing 2d-gen. parents who did not profess conversion to have their children baptized, provided they themselves were baptized and of correct life, acknowledged the justice of God's claims upon them, and promised to submit to the discipline of the ch. S. Stoddard* later advocated admitting baptized people to Communion without examination and evidence of conversion. The Half-Way Covenant was opposed by J. Edwards.*

Halfdánarson, Helgi

(1826–94). B. N Iceland; Luth.; prof. and pres. of the theol. sem. at Reykjavik; hymnist. Works include a catechism; hist. and ethical studies; treatise on homiletics.

Halifax, Charles Lindley Wood

(1839–1934). B. London, Eng.; 2d Viscount Halifax; Angl. High Churchman; pres. Eng. Ch. Union (soc. formed 1859 as Ch. of Eng. Protection Soc. [renamed 1860] to promote and defend High Ch. principles and practices); advocated reunion with the RC Ch.

Hall, Gordon

(April 8, 1784–March 20, 1826). B. near Tolland, Massachusetts; educ. Williams Coll., Williamstown, Massachusetts, and Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; ABCFM miss. to India 1812; 13 yrs. in Bombay. Works include The Conversion of the World, or the Claims of Six Hundred Millions; tr. of NT into Marathi. See also Haystack Group.

Hall, Granville Stanley

(1846–1924). B. Ashfield, Massachusetts; psychol., philos., and educ.; taught at Antioch Coll. (Yellow Springs, Ohio), Harvard U., Johns Hopkins U., Clark U.; 1st pres. Clark U.; 1st pres. Am. Psychol. Assoc.; founded and ed. American Journal of Psychology. Works include Adolescence; Jesus, the Christ, in the Light of Psychology; Morale: The Supreme Standard of Life and Conduct; Aspects of Child Life and Education. See also Psychology, G 4.

Hall, Joseph

(1574–1656). B. near Ashby de la Zouch, Leicestershire, Eng.; Angl. bp. Exeter and Norwich; helped James* I introd. Anglicanism in Scot.; advocated moderation at Syn. of Dordrecht* 1618. Works include Meditations and Vowes, Divine and Morall.

Hall, Robert

(1764–1831). B. Arnesby, near Leicester, Eng.; Bap. preacher Bristol, Cambridge, Leicester; outstanding orator. Works include An Apology for the Freedom of the Press, and for General Liberty; Modern Infidelity Considered with Respect to Its Influence on Society.

Hall, Thomas

(1610–65). B. Worcester, Eng.; educ. Oxford; at first Angl.; became Presb. under Puritan influence; pastor King's Norton, Warwick, Eng. Works include The Pulpit Guarded with XVII Arguments; The Beauty of Holiness; The Font Guarded with XX Arguments.

Hall, William Nelthorpe

(April 19, 1829–May 21, 1878). B. Sheffield, Yorkshire, Eng.; miss. of Methodist* New Connection at Soochow (Wuhsien), then at Tientsin, China; founded training coll. at Tientsin.


(Heb. “praise”). Psalms or hymns of praise were used in the OT (Ez 3:11; 2 Ch 7:6). In the course of time the name Hallel came to denote various groups of Psalms, e.g., 104–107, 111–117 (or 118), 135–136, 146–150; the word Hallelujah* occurs at the beginning and/or end of most of these. The name Great Hallel has been attached to Ps 113–118, or 119–136, or 136 alone. Ps 113–118 are also called Egyptian Hallel because of special assoc. with Passover. Hallel Psalms are used in connection with the celebration of Passover, Hanukkah, Pentecost (see Church Year, 10), and Tabernacles; see also Judaism, 4.


(alleluia; alleluiah; alleluja; Heb. “praise ye the Lord”). Occurs at the beginning of Ps 106, 111–113, 117, 135, 146–150, at the end of Ps 104–106, 113, 115–17, 135, 146–150, and in Rv 19:1, 3, 4, 6. In Christian liturgies it is often used after invitatories, antiphons, Ps, versicles, responsories, Graduals, and Sentences for the Seasons; may be omitted in penitential* seasons. See also Ambrosian Music; Jahweh; Response; Schism, 6.

Haller, Albrecht von

(1708–77). B. Bern, Switz.; physician in Bern 1729–36; prof. Göttingen 1737–53; regarded by some as the most learned man of the 18th c. in Ger. next to G. W. v. Leibniz*; tried to find synthesis of faith and knowledge.

Haller, Berchtold

(1492–1536). B. Aldigen, near Rottweil, Ger.; reformer of Bern; studied theol. at Cologne; took part in conferences at Baden 1526, Bern 1528; helped compose a Prot. liturgy and the 1528 reformation edict. See also Reformed Confessions, A 2; Switzerland, 2.

Haller, Johannes

(1523–75). B. Amsoldingen, Bern, Switz.; Ref. theol.; educ. Zurich, Tübingen, Marburg, and the Neth.; visited M. Luther and P. Melanchthon at Wittenberg; pastor Zurich, Augsburg, and Bern.

Halle Resolutions.

Resolutions adopted 1937 at Halle, Ger., by the Confessing* Ch.; concerns included the principle of confessing, confessions, ordination, and the Lord's Supper. On the Lord's Supper, it was emphasized that Jesus Christ Himself is the gracious gift in the sacrament; altar fellowship bet. Luths., Ref., and Evangelicals is not justified by the situation created by the Prussian* Union; separate altars for Luths., Ref., and Evangelicals are not justified in the light of 16th-c. controversies; altar fellowship has its foundation not in our understanding of the Lord's Supper, but in the grace of Him who is the Lord of it.

Hallesby, Ole Kristian

(1879–1961). B. Aremark, Norw.; Luth. theol.; studied in Ger., esp. Erlangen; prof. systematic theol., free faculty, Oslo, 1909–51; leader of free faculty and conservative theologians; opposed Ger. occupation; arrested and placed in concentration camp 1943. Works include a dogmatics (Den kristelige troslaere) and ethics (Den kristelige sedelaere); works tr. into Eng. include Infant Baptism and Adult Conversion; Temperament and the Christian Faith; Under His Wings; Religious or Christian; Prayer; Conscience; The Christian Life in the Light of the Cross. See also Dogmatics, B 10.

Hallesche Nachrichten.

Series of reports sent to Halle by early Luth. pastors in Am. (H. M. Mühlenberg,* P. Brunnholtz,* J. F. Handschuh,* et al.).

The Journals of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, tr. T. G. Tappert and J. W. Doberstein, 3 vols. (Philadelphia, 1942, 1945, 1958).

Halyburton, Thomas

(1674–1712). B. Dupplin, near Perth, Scot.; Ref. theol.; opposed deism.*

Hamann, Johann Georg

(1730–88). “Magus in the North”; noted for his learning; devoted student of the Bible and M. Luther's* writings; brilliant defender of Christian faith in an age of rationalism; espoused a form of Christian existentialism; mem. Münster* Circle.


(from Gk. for “sin” and “account”). That part of doctrine which deals with sin.* See also Ponerology.

Hamelmann, Hermann

(1525–95). B. Osnabrück, Ger.; as priest, first opposed M. Luther*; converted 1553; promoted Lutheranism at Bielefeld, Lemgo, Rostock, Antwerp, Gandersheim, and Oldenburg.


(Hamestagan). See Zoroastrianism, 6.

Hamilton, James

(1819–96). B. Glendollar, Scot.; educ. Cambridge; held various charges, the last at Bath and Wells; hymnist. Hymns include “Across the Sky the Shades of Night.”

Hamilton, John

(ca. 1511–71). Abp. St. Andrews and primate Scot. 1546; called syns. 1548, 1549, 1552, 1559 to reform clergy; opposed Protestantism; advisor of Mary, Queen of Scots (Mary Stuart; 1542–87).

Hamilton, Patrick

(ca. 1504–28). Scot. Prot. martyr; educ. Paris and Louvain; began openly to promote Luth. doctrine in Scot. 1526; charged with heresy 1527, he fled to Ger., where he became acquainted with M. Luther* and P. Melanchthon*; matriculated at the U. of Marburg in spring 1527; returned to Scot. after 6 mo.; preached in various places; probably ordained; married; taught at St. Andrews U. 1528; executed for heresy by burning February 29, 1528. Works include Loci Communes (also called Patrick's Pleas and Patrick's Places), an epigrammatic discussion of the doctrine of justification and the distinction bet. Law and Gospel; it influenced Eng. and Scot. theol.

P. Lorimer, Precursors of Knox: or, Memoirs of P. Hamilton … A. Alane … and Sir D. Lindsay (Edinburgh, 1857). NST

Hamilton, William

(1788–1856). B. Glasgow, Scot.; philos.; prof. Edinburgh 1821; believed that the existence of a Supreme Being is at least a natural inference, but that this Being cannot be rationally known; influenced H. L. Mansel.*

Hamma, Michael Wolf

(December 25, 1836–June 3, 1913). B. Richland Co., Ohio; educ. Wittenberg Coll. and sem. (see Wittenberg University); ministry included charges at Euphemia, Bucyrus, and Springfield, Ohio, Reading and Altoona, Pennsylvania, Baltimore, Maryland, Brooklyn, New York, and San Francisco, California; pres.. The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA 1897–99. See also Hamma Divinity School.

Hamma Divinity School.

Began 1845 as the theol. dept. of Wittenberg Coll., Springfield, Ohio; name changed 1907 to Hamma Divinity School in recognition of bequests by M. W. Hamma*; name changed 1964 to Hamma School of Theol. See also General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America, The, 8; Lutheran Church in America, V; Ministry, Education of, X I, Wittenberg University.

Hammerschmidt, Andreas

(ca. 1611–75). B. Brüx (Most), Boh.; organist Weesenstein 1633–34, Freiberg 1634, Zittau 1639–75; one of the most distinguished composers of the 17th c. Works include Dialogi oder Gespräche zwischen Gott und einer gläubigen Seele; Musikalische Andachten; Fest-, Buss- und Danklieder.

Hammond, Henry

(1605–60). B. Chertsey, Eng.; educ. Eton and Oxford; Angl. canon Christ Ch., Oxford; chaplain to Charles* I. In the 1642–45 civil war he remained loyal to the king; subdean Christ Ch.; deprived of subdeanship by parliamentary visitors; imprisoned 1648. Works include A Paraphrase and Annotations upon … the New Testament; Of the Reasonableness of the Christian Religion; A practical Catechisme; A Defence of the Church of England against the Objections of the Romanists; A View of the New Directory and a Vindication of the Ancient Liturgy of the Church of England.

Hammond, William

(1719–83). B. Battle, Sussex, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; joined Calvinistic Meths. 1743, Moravians 1745; hymnist. Hymns include “Lord, We Come Before Thee Now”; tr. of Lat. hymns.

Hammurabi, Code of.

Legal code of Hammurabi, king of Babylon; promulgated perhaps ca. 1800 BC See also Law Codes.

Hampton Court Conference.

Meeting called by James* I and held January 12–18, 1604, at Hampton Court Palace, near Hampton, Eng., to discuss differences bet. Puritans* and the High* Church. Puritan hope for reform was disappointed, but one important result of the conf. was the KJV (see Bible Versions, L 8, 10–12).

Handel, George Frederick

(Georg Friedrich Händel; 1685–1759). B. Halle, Ger.; naturalized Brit. subject 1726; pupil of F. W. Zachow*; to Berlin ca. 1698; studied law at the U. of Halle and served as organist at the cathedral ch. 1702–03; devoted himself entirely to music 1703, when he went to Hamburg and became a musician in the opera house orchestra; traveled in It. 1706/07–10; kapellmeister Hanover 1710; visited Eng. 1710; settled in Eng. 1712, but traveled repeatedly and extensively in Eur.; kapellmeister to the duke of Chandos at Edgware, near London, ca. 1718–20. Works include 46 operas; 100 cantatas; 20 duets; 11 Chandos anthems; Water Music, Forest Music, Fire Music; 32 oratorios, of which Messiah (1742) is the best known. See also Jennens, Charles; Passion, The; Steffani, Agostino. WEB

N. Flower, George Frideric Handel: His Personality and His Times, rev. ed. (London, 1947); O. E. Deutsch, Handel: A Documentary Biography (New York, 1955); W. Dean, Handel's Dramatic Oratorios and Masques (New York, 1959); P. H. Lang, George Frideric Handel (New York, 1966).

Handl, Jakob

(Händl; Hähnel; Jacobus Gallus; 1550–91). Cistercian composer; b. Reifnitz, Carniola (Krain); kapellmeister to bp. of Olomouc (Olmütz), Moravia; cantor Prague. Works include Opus musicum (motets for the ch. yr.). See also Passion, The.

Handmann, Richard

(February 27, 1840–December 7, 1912). B. Oschitz, near Schleiz, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Erlangen; miss. to India 1862; returned to Ger. ca. 1887; mem. Mission Collegium, Leipzig. Ed. Leipziger Missionsblatt: wrote Die Evangelisch-lutherische Tamulen-Mission in der Zeit ihrer Neubegründung.

Hands, Imposition of.

Ceremony used in OT to place sins on scapegoat (Lv 16:21–22); to convey blessings (Gn 48:14); at the installation of Joshua (Dt 34:9); in connection with sacrifices (Lv 1:4; 3:2, 8; 4:4, 24, 29). Used in NT in connection with healing (Mk 6:5); imparting blessing (Mk 10:13–16); blessing or ordaining ministers (Acts 13:1–3; 6:1–6; 1 Ti 4:14: 5:22; 2 Ti 1:6). Included in rites of baptism, confirmation, and ordination in E and W Chs.

Hands, John

(December 5, 1780–June 30, 1864). B. Roade, Northamptonshire, Eng.; LMS miss. to India 1809; tr. Bible into Kanarese; LMS agent in Dublin, Ireland, 1843.

Handschuh, John Frederick

(1714–64). Educ. Halle, Ger.; to Am. 1748; Luth. pastor Lancaster, Germantown, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; helped found Pennsylvania Ministerium (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 22). See also Liturgics.

Hanneken, Philip Ludwig

(1637–1706). B. Marburg, Ger.; educ. Giessen, Leipzig, Wittenberg, and Rostock; Luth. theol.; prof. Giessen; opposed Pietism*; defended Luth. Confessions.

Hannington, James

(September 3, 1847–October 29, 1885). B. Hurstpierpoint, near Brighton, Eng.; educ. Oxford; CMS miss. to Cen. Afr. 1882; bp. 1884; murdered by natives of Uganda.

Hansen, Heinrich

(1861–1940). B. Klockries, N Friesland; Luth. theol.; pastor N Friesland and Schleswig-Holstein; advocated “ev. Catholicism”; issued 95 theses 1917 which criticized Protestantism; active in High Ch. movement.

Hanser, Carl Johann Otto

(September 7, 1832–January 10, 1910) B. Schopflohe, Bav.; to Am. 1851; educ. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; pastor Carondelet, Missouri, 1860, Boston, Mass, 1863; dir. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, 1872–79; pastor Trin. Luth Ch., St. Louis, Missouri, 1879, resigned 1906. Coed. Missions-Taube 1885–1900; other works include autobiography Irrfahrten und Heimfahrten.

Hanson, Östen

(July 8, 1836–August 4, 1898). B. Telemarken, Norw.; to Am. 1851; lay preacher; ordained 1861 by ELC; pastor Goodhue Co., Minnesota; pres. Hauge* Syn. 1875–76, 1887–93; helped rev. const. of Hauge Syn. 1875; one of founders of Red Wing Sem. and soc. that organized Norw. Luth. Miss. in China.

Hantzschel, Clemens Esaias

(February 27, 1837–October 21, 1890). Father of A. T. E. Haentzschel*; b. Meissen, Saxony; studied law in Leipzig; to Am.; served with the 74th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment in Civil War; parochial school teacher Sheboygan, Wisconsin, and Fort Wayne, Indiana; prof. Ev. Luth. Teachers Sem., Addison, Illinois, 1874–90.


(Hanukah). See Judaism, 4.

Harbaugh, Henry

(1817–67). B. Washington Township, Franklin Co., Pennsylvania; of Swiss descent; educ. Marshall Coll., Mercersburg, Pennsylvania; Ger. Ref. pastor Lewisburg, Lancaster, and Lebanon, Pennsylvania; prof. Mercersburg Sem.; defended “Mercersburg theology”; hymnist. Hymns include “Christ, by Heavenly Hosts Adored” and “Jesus, I Live to Thee”; ed. Guardian and Mercersburg Review; other works include The Sainted Dead; The Heavenly Home; The True Glory of Woman; Christological Theology.

Hardeland, August

(September 30, 1814–June 27, 1891. B. Hanover, Ger.; brother of J. Hardeland*; Rhenish* Miss. Soc. miss. to Borneo 1839; supt. Hermannsburg Miss.; in Afr. 1859–63; ret. to Ger. Works include tr. of Bible into Dayak, a language of Borneo.

Hardeland, Julius

(January 7, 1828–October 11, 1903). B. Hanover, Ger.; brother of A. Hardeland*; educ. Göttingen; pastor Lauenburg 1854–60; dir. Leipzig* Ev. Luth. Miss. 1860–91; supt. Doberan, Mecklenburg, 1891–94.

Hardenberg, Albert

(family name Rizaeus; ca. 1510–74). B. Hardenberg, Overijssel, Neth.; zealous advocate of the Reformation; active at Louvain, Aduard (monastery of the Brethren of the Common Life), Cologne, Einbeck, Bremen, Sengwarden, Emden; held un-Luth. view in a controversy at Bremen about the nature of the presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper.

Hardenberg, Friedrich von

(Georg Friedrich Philipp; Leopold: Ludwig; pseudonym Novalis; 1772–1801). Romantic poet and thinker; b. Wiederstedt (or Oberwiederstedt), near Eisleben, Ger., of Moravian parents; educ. Jena, Leipzig, Wittenberg. Works include Hymnen an die Nacht; Die Christenbeit oder Europa; Heinrich von Ofterdingen.

Harders, Johann Friedrich Gustav

(December 18, 1863–April 13, 1917). B. Kiel, Ger.; educ. Kiel; taught in boys' institutions at Riga and Libau (Lepaya); to Am.; studied at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, sem. of Wisconsin* Ev. Luth. Syn.; pastor Milwaukee 1889; miss. to Am. Indians at Globe, Arizona, 1907–17. Works include “Ich auch!”; Wohin?: Ein Geleitswort auf den Lebensweg für die konfirmierte Jugend; Die heutigen Apachen; Jaalahn; La Paloma; Wille wider Wille.

Hare, Julius Charles

(1795–1855). B. Valdagno, near Vicenza, It.; Eng. theol. Works include Vindication of Luther against his recent English Assailants.

Hare, William Hobart

(1838–1909). “Apostle to the Sioux.” B. Princeton, New Jersey; educ. Prot. Episc. Academy and U. of Pennsylvania, both at Philadelphia; ordained Episc. priest 1862; served chs. in Philadelphia; consecrated bp. Niobrara 1873, later bp. South Dakota; supervised work among Sioux; worked in China and Jap. 1891, 1892.

Harless, Gottlieb Christoph Adolf von

(Adolf Gottlieb Christoph; 1806–79). Conservative Luth. theol.; b. Nürnberg, Ger.; educ. Erlangen and Halle; prof. Erlangen 1833, Leipzig 1845; court preacher Dresden 1850; pres. supreme consistory Munich 1852. Works include Commentar über den Brief Pauli an die Ephesier; Theologische Encyklopädie und Methodologie vom Standpunkte der protestantischen Kirche; Christliche Ethik.


(Harmonites). See Rappists.


(fl. 1st half 3d c. AD). Syrian hymnist; son of Bardesanes. See also Gnosticism, 7 h.

Harmony, Preestablished.

Theory of G. W. v. Leibniz* acc. to which God created each substance in such a way that everything that happens to any substance arises spontaneously from its own nature, yet in harmony with what happens to every other substance. With this theory v. Leibnitz hoped to solve the problem of the relation bet. mind and body.

Harmony of the Gospels.

1. Work that combines into a continuous narrative the accounts of the 4 Gospels (see also Diatessaron). Works of this kind include that of Tatian*; Augustine* of Hippo, De consensu euangelistarum; J. de Gerson,* Monotessaron; A. Osiander* the Elder, Harmoniae evangelicae libri iiii; J. Calvin,* Harmonia ex tribus Euangelistis composita, Matthaeo, Marco et Luca; M. Chemnitz,* P. Leyser* the Elder, and J. Gerhard,* Harmonia qaatuor evangelistarum.

2. Work exhibiting the text of the Gospels in parallel columns to show agreement or differences. Works of this kind include the tables, or canons, of Eusebius* of Caesarea; J. J. Griesbach,* Synopsis Evangeliorum Matthaei, Marci et Lucae; R. Anger, Synopsis evangeliorum Matthaei, Marci, Lucae, cum locis qui supersunt parallelis litterarum et traditionum evangeliorum Irenaeo antiquiorum; W. M. L. De Wette* and G. C. F. Lucke,* Synopsis evangeliorum Matthaei, Marci et Lucae cum parallelis Joannis pericopis (based on Griesbach); L. F. C. v. Tischendorf,* Synopsis Evangelica; W. G. Rushbrooke, Synopticon; E. Robinson, A Harmony of the Gospels in Greek and A Harmony of the Four Gospels (Eng.); A. Huck, A Synopsis of the First Three Gospels, rev. H. Lietzmann and F. L. Cross; Synopsis quattuor evangeliorum locis parallelis evangeliorum apocryphorum et patrum adhibitis, ed. K. Aland; E. D. Burton and E. J. Goodspeed, A Harmony of the Synoptic Gospels for Historical and Critical Study; A. Fahling, A Harmony of the Gospels.

Harms, Claus

(1778–1855). B. Fahrstedt, Schleswig-Holstein, Ger.; Luth. theol.; educ. Meldorf and Kiel; impressed by F. D. E. Schleiermacher's* Über die Religion; turned from rationalism to Lutheranism at Kiel; deacon Lunden 1806; archdeacon St. Nikolai Ch., Kiel, 1816; chief pastor and provost 1835; counselor of the high consistory 1841. In 1817 he issued M. Luther's* 95 Theses together with 95 of his own (see Theses, Ninety-five, of Harms; Theses, Ninety-five, of Luther) against rationalism* and the proposed Prussian* Union. Other works include Pastoral-Theologie; Winter- und Sommer-Postille; Dr. Claus Harms, gewesenen Predigers in Kiel, Lebensbeschreibung verfasset von ihm selber; Das sind die 95 theses oder Streltsätze Dr. Luthers, theuren Andenkens. Zum besondern Abdruck besorgt und mit andern 95 Sätzen als mit einer Uebersetzung aus Ao. 1517 in 1817 begleitet; Briefe zu einer nähern Verständigung über verschiedene meine Thesen betreffnde Puncte. Nebst Einem namhaften Briefe, an den Herrn Dr. Schleiermacher.

V. Ferm, The Crisis in American Lutheran Theology (New York, 1927), pp. 118–123.

Harms, Georg Ludwig Detlev Theodor

(Louis; 1808–65). B. Walsrode, Hannover, Ger.; brother of T. Harms*; educ. Göttingen; asst. and successor to his father, Christian Harms (1773–1848), as pastor Hermannsburg; leader in spiritual awakening in N Ger.; founded Hermannsburg* Miss..

T. Harms, Life Work of Pastor Louis Harms, tr. M. E. Ireland (Philadelphia, 1900).

Harms, Oliver Raymund

(December 11, 1901–June 3, 1980). B. Cole Camp. Missouri; educ. St. Paul's High School and Coll., Concordia, Missouri, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri (grad. 1926); pastor in Texas at Eden, San Angelo Brownwood, and Eola, and at Houston 1935–59; mem. Missouri Syn. Bd. of Dir. 1950, 4th vice-pres. of the syn. 1956, 1st vice-pres. 1959, pres. 1962–69.

Harms, Theodor

(1819–85). B. Hermannsburg, Ger.; Luth. pastor; called by his brother, G. L. D. T. Harms,* as teacher of theol. to the Hermannsburg* Miss. 1849; succeeded his brother as pastor and as leader of the Hermannsburg Miss. 1865; suspended for opposition to liberalism; founded Hannover Luth. Free Ch. (Selbständige Ev.-Luth. Kirche). See also Germany, Lutheran Free Churches in, 11.

Harnack, Karl Gustav Adolf von

(1851–1930). Son of T. A. Harnack*; b. Dorpat (Tartu); educ. Dorpat and Leipzig; prof. Leipzig, Giessen, Marburg, Berlin; influenced by A. Ritschl*; teacher of K. Barth.* Stressed ethical side of Christianity. Held religion is practical and concerned with power (traced in Christianity to hist. revelation of God in Christ) to live holy life. Regarded rise of dogma as influenced by Gk. spirit and as perversion of primitive Christianity. Believed that the life and teaching of Jesus is adequately revealed in the NT and that Christ was an outstanding religious genius who taught the Fatherhood of God, value of human soul, advent of Kingdom of God. With E. Schürer* founded Theologische Literaturzeitung 1876; coed. 1881–1910; other works include Dogmengeschichte; Das Apostolische Glaubensbekenntnis; Das Wesen des Christentums; Beiträge zur Einleitung in das Neue Testament; Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur bis Eusebius; Die Mission und Ausbreitung des Christentums in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten. See also Switzerland, Contemporary Theology in, 1–3.

Harnack, Theodosius Andreas

(1817–89). Father of K. G. A. v. Harnack*; b. St. Petersburg, Russ.; orthodox Luth. theol.; prof. Dorpat (Tartu) 1847, Erlangen 1853; returned to Dorpat 1866; exerted influence for Lutheranism in Baltic provinces.

Harper, William Rainey

(1856–1906). B. New Concord, Ohio; 1st pres. new U. of Chicago 1891; founded Am. Institute of Heb. 1884. Works include A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Amos and Hosea; Elements of Hebrew by an Inductive Method; The Priestly Element in the Old Testament; The Prophetic Element in the Old Tetsament; Religion and the Higher Life. See also Religious Education Association of the United States and Canada.

Harpster, John Henry

(April 27, 1844–February 1, 1911). B. Centerhall, Pennsylvania; Union soldier in Civil War; educ. Missionary Institute, Selinsgrove, Pennsylvania, Gettysburg (Pennsylvania) Theol. Sem.; ordained 1871; miss. at Guntur, India, 1872–76 for The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA; pastor Ellsworth and Hays, Kansas, Trenton, New Jersey, and Canton, Ohio; Gen. Syn. miss. Guntur, India, 1893–1901; miss. at Rajahmundry, India, 1902–09 for the General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in N. Am.

Harris, Howel

(1714–73). B. Talgarth, Breconshire, S. Wales; miss. preacher in Wales; est. Christian community at Trevecca; often called the 1st lay preacher of the Calvinistic Meth. ch.

Harris, James Rendel

(1852–1941). Biblical scholar, orientalist, archaeol.; b. Plymouth, Eng.; at first Cong.; joined Soc. of Friends* 1880; curator E MSS, John Rylands Library, Manchester, Eng.; prof. and lecturer in Am. and Eng. univs. and colls.; traveled in the E looking for ancient MSS Works include The Diatessaron* of Tatian; Four Lectures on the Western Text of the New Testament; Aaron's Breastplate, and Other Addresses; The Codex Sangallensis; The Annotators of the Codex Bezae; Memoranda sacra; Further Researches into the History of the Ferrar-group; The Newly-discovered Gospel of St. Peter, with a Full Account of the Same.

Harris, Samuel.

1. (1724–ca. 1794). “Apostle of Virginia” Bap. cleric; b. Hanover Co., Virginia; converted 1758; ordained 1769; designated “apostle” 1774 by Virginia Gen. Assoc. of Separate Baps. (see Baptist Churches, 24); devoted his fortune to religious and charitable work. 2. (1814–99). B. East Machias, Maine; educ. Bowdoin Coll., Brunswick, Maine, and Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; Cong. cleric; prof. systematic theol. Bangor (Maine) Theol. Sem. 1855–67; pres. Bowdoin Coll. 1867–71; prof. Divinity School, Yale U., New Haven, Connecticut, 1871–96. Works include Zaccheus; The Philosophical Basis of Theism.

Harris, William Wada

(Wadé; Waddy; b. ca. 1853). Called “Prophet.” Liberian of Grebo tribe; converted in youth; to Ivory Coast 1913; barefoot; wore long white robe and turban; carried high bamboo cross, Bible, and calabash of water; converts estimated up to 100,000; fetishism* disappeared; arrested 1915 by Fr.; deported to Liberia. See also Africa, C 9.

Hart, Joseph

(ca. 1712–68). B. London; spiritually unsettled till converted 1757 under Moravian influence; pastor Indep. Chapel, London; hymnist. Hymns include “Come, Holy Spirit, Come”; “Lamb of God, We Fall Before Thee.”

Hartenstein, Karl

(1894–1952). B. Stuttgart, Ger.; ev. theol.; influenced by Pietism*; became increasingly heilsgeschichtlich (see Heilsgeschichte); esp. active in miss. and ecumenical work; dir. Basel* Miss. Soc. 1926–39; mem. International* Miss. Council 1938; mem. Council of EKD 1948.

Hartmann, Karl Robert Eduard von

(1842–1906). B. Berlin; held that Christianity exhausted its possibilities in the Middle Ages. In his philos. system the Absolute is the Unconscious; world process results from the struggle of ideas to free themselves from Universal Will, thereby causing consciousness to emerge from the Unconscious. His earlier pessimism rejected attempts to find happiness in this world, in a future world, or in evolution. Later he modified his pessimism by positing 5 criteria of value: pleasure, purposiveness, beauty, morality, religiosity; he referred his pessimism primarily to the 1st. Works include Philosophie des Unbewussten.

Hartmann, Nicolai

(1882–1950). B. Riga, Latvia; educ. St. Petersburg, Dorpat (Tartu), Marburg; Ger. realist philos.; prof. Marburg 1920, Cologne 1926, Berlin 1931, Göttingen 1945. Held that the object of knowledge exists indep. of thought and is given to thought; epistemology is based on ontology. Held that there are 4 strata of being, namely, in ascending order, matter, life, consciousness, spirit. Some categories of the lower penetrate the upper, but not vice versa. Emphasized importance of unraveling problems (aporias) into strands. Directed sentiments of love, faith, reverence, and gratitude not to a personal, transcendent God but to the sum of being. Works include Der philosophische Gedanke und seine Geschichte; Ethik; Zur Grundlegung der Ontologie; Möglichkeit und Wirklichkeit; Grundzüge ether Metaphysik der Erkenntnis.

Hartmann von Aue

(Hartman von Ouwe; b. ca. 1165; d. after 1210). Ger. author; introd. stories of King Arthur in Ger.; some works emphasize moral themes (e.g., Der arme Heinrich).

Hartmuth von Kronberg

(Cronberg; 1488–1549). Ger. knight; sided with M. Luther* early; wrote in the interest of the Reformation, beginning 1521; relative of Franz von Sickingen* and lost castle for standing by him; received it back 1541.

Hartwick, John Christopher

(Johannes Christophorus; January 6, 1714–July 17, 1796). Luth. cleric; b. Saxe-Gotha, Ger.; received theol. educ. in Ger.; ordained London, Eng.; to Am. as chaplain of a Ger. regiment in the service of Eng.; held various pastorates in the US and Nova Scotia; helped organize Pennsylvania Ministerium (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 22); willed estate for endowment of Hartwick* Sem.. See also Ministry, Education of, VI C.

Hartwick College.

Outgrowth of Hartwick* Sem.; separate existence as standard liberal arts coll. at Oneonta, New York, began 1928. By 1970 it had withdrawn from the LCA to qualify for greater state support. See also General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America, The, 8; Ministry, Education of, VIII B; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 15.

Hartwick Seminary.

Founded 1797 in NYC, funded by income from the J. C. Hartwick* estate; moved 1815 to new location soon named Hartwick, near Cooperstown, Otsego Co., New York; moved back to NYC 1930; closed 1940. See also General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America, The, 8; Ministry, Education of, VI C.

Hartwick Synod.

Organized October 26, 1830, in Schoharie, New York, by the W Conf. of the New York ministerium (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 15); joined General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA 1831; merged 1908 with the Franckeau* Syn. and the New York and New Jersey Syn. into the Syn. of New York (see also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 15). At the time of this merger the Hartwick Syn. numbered 36 chs., 4 stations, 5,443 communicants. See also Lintner, George Ames.

Harvard, John

(1607–38). B. London, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; to Am. 1637 as pastor at Charlestown on Massachusetts Bay; Harvard U. (founded 1636 at New Towne, near Cambridge, Massachusetts) named after him in gratitude for his library and half his estate.

Hase, Karl August von

(1800–90). B. Niedersteinbach, near Penig, Saxony, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Erlangen; prof. Jena 1829–83. Held mediating position bet. rationalistic and orthodox theologians; interpreted 17th-c. Luth. orthodoxy in terms of idealism. Works include Das Leben Jesu (expanded 1875 as Geschichte Jesu); Evangelisch-protestantische Dogmatik; Hutterus redivivus; Kirchengeschichte; Handbuch der protestantischen Polemik gegen die römisch-katholische Kirche. See also Lutheran Theology After 1580, 9.

Hasenkamp, Johann Gerhard

(1736–77). B. Wechte, near Lengerich, Westphalia, Ger.; pietistic mystic; prominent in a group at Duisburg that included S. Collenbusch,* G. Tersteegen,* J. H. Jung-Stilling,* J. K. Lavater,* G. D. Krummacher, and F. W. Krummacher (see Krummacher, 2, 3). Tried to est. a unity of nature and grace. Influenced by J. Cocceius,* J. A. Bengel,* G. W. v. Leibniz,* and J. Bohme.*


(Chasidism; from Heb. hasid, “pious one”). Ancient Hasidism was a Jewish movement ca. 200 BC that opposed Hellenization. Medieval Hasidism was a 12th- and 13th-c. Jewish religious movement in Germany led by members of the Kalonymos family (immigrant from It.) steeped in occultism* and cabalistic traditions (see Cabala). Modern Hasidism, which fostered Jewish culture, began ca. 1740 in Poland under leadership of Baal* Shem-Tob; spread among Jews of E Eur. and to Israel, US, and Can.; emphasized joyful worship of Israel's God in the here and now.


(Heb. “enlightenment”). Jewish enlightenment movement of maskilim (Heb. “intellectuals”); began as a movement in Ger. ca. the middle of the 18th c. with M. Mendelssohn* as protagonist; fostered knowledge of Jewish literature and philos. and encouraged interest in and adaptation to surroundings; spread to Austria and Russ.

Hasse, Johann Adolf

(1699–1783). B. Bergedorf, near Hamburg, Ger.; composer; friend of J. S. Bach*; pupil of N. A. Porpora* and A. Scarlatti.* Works include operas, cantatas, oratorios, and masses.

Hasselquist, Tuve Nilsson

(Tufve; March 2, 1816–February 4, 1891). Luth. cleric; b. Osby (Ousby; or Hasslarod), Swed.; educ. Lund; ordained 1839; to Am. 1852; pastor and home miss. Galesburg, Illinois, 1852–63; pres. Scand. Ev. Luth. August Syn. in N. Am. 1860–70 head of Augustana Sem. and Coll., Paxton (1863–75) and Rock Island (1875–91), Illinois Founded and ed. Det Rätta Hemlandet (called Augustana beginning 1869); other works include a commentary on Eph. See also Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, 7–9; Publication Houses, Lutheran.

E. Norelius, T. N. Hasselquist (Rock Island, Illinois, 1900); Augustana Library Publications No. 14, ed. I. O. Nothstein: O. F. Ander, T. N. Hasselquist.

Hassler, Hans Leo (von)

(Hasler; 1564–1612). B. Nürnberg, Ger.; Luth. composer; pupil of A. Gabrieli*; fellow student of G. Gabrieli,* with whom he est. intimate and lasting friendship; organist Augsburg 1585, Nürnberg 1601, Dresden 1608. Wrote the melody now commonly used for the hymn “O Sacred Head, Now Wounded”; other works include Psalmen und christliche Gesäng; Sacri concentus; masses.

Hastings, Eurotas Parmelee

(April 17, 1821–July 31, 1890). B. Clinton, New York; ABCFM miss. to Ceylon 1846; taught at Batticotta (Ceylon) Sem.; pres. of coll. at Jaffna, Ceylon.

Hastings, James

(ca. 1852–1922). B. Huntly, Aberdeen, Scot.; educ. Aberdeen; ordained Presb. 1884; served Free Ch. parishes at Kincardineshire and Dundee. Founded Expository Times; ed. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics; A Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels; Dictionary of the Apostolic Church; A Dictionary of the Bible; The Literature and Religion of Israel; The Speaker's Bible.

Hastings, Selina

(1707–91). Countess of Huntingdon; wife of Theophilus Hastings (1696–1746), 9th Earl of Huntingdon; b. Stanton Harold, near Ashby-dela-Zouch, Leicestershire, Eng.; founded Calvinistic Meth. sect called Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion; assoc. with J. and C. Wesley* and G. Whitefield*; sided with Whitefield and Calvinism against the Wesleys; became sole trustee of Whitefield's institutions in Georgia at his death.

Hastings, Thomas

(1784–1872). B. Litchfield Co., Connecticut; music teacher, choirmaster, hymnist, composer. Hymns include “Delay Not”; composed Toplady, the tune commonly used for “Rock of Ages.”

Hatch, Edwin

(1835–89). Theol. and educator; b. Derby, Eng.; educ. Oxford; prof. in Can. 1859, in Eng. beginning 1867. Works include The Organization of the Early Christian Churches; The Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages upon the Christian Church.

Hatlestad, Ole Jensen

(Hattlestad; September 30, 1823–September 7, 1892). Norw. Luth. cleric; to Am. 1846; pastor Leland, Illinois, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Decorah, Iowa; pres. The Norwegian*-Dan. Augustana Syn. in America. Coed. Nordlyset (later called Democraten); ed. Luthersk kirketidende; other works include Historiske meddelelser om den lutherske kirke i Amerika.

Hattem, Pontiaen van

(1645–1706). B. Bergen op Zoom, Neth.; separatist; declared antinomian, libertine, and socinian by the ch.; deposed 1683; founder and leader of quietist-perfectionist movement; followers, called Hattemists, disappeared by 1760. See also Hebraeans.

Hattstädt, Georg Wilhelm Christoph

(Wilhelm Georg; August 29, 1811–March 22, 1884). B. Langenzenn, Bavaria; sent to Am. by J. K. W. Löhe* 1844; pastor Monroe, Michigan; founded congs. in S Michigan; mem. Michigan* Syn. 1844–46; charter advisory mem. Missouri* Syn. (received in absentia 1847). See also Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod, The, I, 3.

Hattstädt, Otto Frederick

(December 31, 1862–November 29, 1950). B. Monroe, Michigan; educ. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, and Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; prof. Conc. Coll., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1884–1938. Ed. Handbuch der deutschen Nationalliteratur; other works include Deutsche Grammatik; Geschichte des Süd-Wisconsin-Distrikts der ev.-luth. Synode von Missouri, Ohio und andern Staaten.

Hauck, Albert

(1845–1918). Luth. theol.; b. Wassertrüdingen, Ger.; educ. Erlangen and Berlin; vicar and pastor 8 yrs.; prof. Erlangen 1882, Leipzig 1889; coed. with J. J. Herzog* Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche; other works include Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands.

Hauge, Hans Nielsen

(1771–1824). B. Tune, Norw.; influenced by M. Luther,* J. Arnd,* E. Pontoppidan,* H. Müller,* H. A. Brorson*; interpreted a 1796 religious experience as call to evangelize fellow countrymen; traversed much of Norw. on foot and sailed from port to port to preach; also tried to raise standard of living; often arrested and imprisoned for itinerant lay preaching; emphasized conversion and sanctification; classified himself as orthodox Luth., but his orthodoxy was challenged; warned against separatism; urged ch. attendance and use of sacraments administered by pastors. Works include Reiser og vigtigste Hendelser; Religiöse Fölelser; Testament til hans Venner. See also Norway, Lutheranism in, 10; Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 4.

A. C. Bang, Hans Nielsen Hauge og hans Samtid, 4th ed. (Christiania [Oslo], 1924); J. B. Bull, Hans Nielsen Hauge, der Erwecker Norwegens, tr. P. Klaiber-Gottschau, 2d ed. (Stuttgart, 1929); J. M. Shaw, Pulpit Under the Sky (Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1955); M. Nodtvedt, Rebirth of Norway's Peasantry (Tacoma, Washington, 1965).

Hauge Synod

(Hauges norsk lutherske Synode i Amerika). Title of 1850 Constitution (as pub. later): Kirkekonstitution for den evangelisk-lutherske Kirke i Jefferson Prairie etc. i Nord Amerika. See Eielsen Synod; Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 12, 13.

Haupt, Paul

(1858–1926). B. Görlitz, Ger.; educ. Leipzig and Berlin; prof. Göttingen, Ger., and John Hopkins U., Baltimore, Maryland; mem. Soc. of Friends*; engaged in radical attempts to restore OT text. Ed. Polychrome* Bible; other works include The Burning Bush and the Origin of Judaism; The Ethnology of Galilee or Was Jesus a Jew by Race?; The Ship of the Babylonian Noah; Akkadische und sumerische Keilschrifttexte; Das Babylonische Nimrodepos; Die Sumerischen Familiengesetze.

Hauptmann, Gerhart

(1862–1946). B. Salzbrunn, Silesia; Ger. poet and dramatist; style influenced by M. Luther*; opposed clericalism and religious compulsion in every form; over the yrs. his ideas became more and more eclectic, often seeking synthesis of Christian, Gk., and oriental thought.

Hausihl, Bernard Michael

(Houseal; 1727–99). B. Strasbourg, Fr.; to Am. 1752; pastor Frederick, Maryland, Reading, Pennsylvania, and NYC; loyalist in Revolution; his house and ch. in NYC were burned 1776; to Halifax, N. S., 1783 to minister to Luths. in their native tongue; to Eng. 1784 for reordination by the bp. of London; returned to Can., where he served 16 yrs., gradually leading the cong. into the Ch. of England. See also Canada, B 1.

Hausknecht, Johann Peter

(1799–1870). Founded Ger. sect; ascetic (opposed marriage, alcohol, medicine), separatistic, chiliastic.

Hausmann, Nicolaus

(ca. 1478–1538). B. Freiberg, Saxony, Ger.; close friend of M. Luther*; reformer; preacher at Schneeberg 1519; succeeded J. W. Egranus* at Zwickau 1521; opposed by Zwickau* prophets; to Dessau 1532.

M. Meurer, “Nikolaus Hausmann's Leben,” Das Leben der Altväter der lutherischen Kirche, III, ed. M. Meurer et al. (Leipzig and Dresden, 1863), 271–320.

Hausrath, Adolf

(1837–1909). B. Karlsruhe, Ger.; educ. Jena, Göttingen, Berlin, and Heidelberg; Ref. liberal theol.; moderate adherent of Tübingen school (see Isagogics, 3; Lutheran Theology After 1580, 12); prof. ch. hist. Heidelberg 1867.

Haussleiter, Johannes

(1581–1928). B. Löpsingen, Ries, Ger.; educ. Erlangen, Tübingen, Leipzig; prof. Dorpat and Greifswald. Works include Die vier Evangelisten; Paulus; Jesus; Aus der Schule Melanchthons; Melanchthon-Kompendium; Trinitarischer Glaube und Christusbekenntnis in der alten Kirche.


Statement of ethics, or table of duties. The form found at the close of M. Luther's* SC, compiled from ethical portions of the NT, is probably not altogether Luther's own. Useful for review and in forming habits of morality.

Havergal, Frances Ridley

(1836–79). B. Astley, Worcestershire, Eng.; daughter of W. H. Havergal*; hymnist. Hymns include “O Savior, Precious Savior”; “Take My Life and Let It Be”; “I Gave My Life for Thee”; “I Am Trusting Thee, Lord Jesus”; “Now the Light Has Gone Away.”

Havergal, William Henry

(1793–1870). B. Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, Eng.; educ. Oxford; ordained 1816; rector Astley (Worcestershire), Worcester, and Shareshill (near Wolverhampton). Tried to restore metrical psalmody to original purity. Works include Old Church Psalmody; A Hundred Psalms and Hymn Tunes; Fireside Music; Evening Service in A.

Hävernick, Heinrich Andreas Christoph (1811–45).

B. Kröpelin, Ger.; educ. Leipzig, Halle, and Berlin; taught at Geneva, Rostock, and Königsberg; adopted theol. views of E. W. Hengstenberg*; defended traditional views concerning origin of OT books.


Area: ca. 6,425 sq. mi.; formerly Sandwich Islands (so named by Capt. James Cook of Eng. [who discovered them 1778] in honor of the Earl of Sandwich, 1st Lord of the Admiralty); annexed to US 1898; US territory 1900; US state (except Midway Is.) 1959; ca. 2,100 mi. WSW of San Francisco; 8 major and many minor islands, most of the latter uninhabited, form a chain ca. 1,600 mi. long; capital: Honolulu, on the is. Hawaii; aborigines Polynesian; now many races freely intermingle. In the late 18th c. natives practiced crude and sanguinary idolatry, including human sacrifices; cannibalism was rare. A request for Christian teachers sent to Eng. 1794 by Kamehameha I (Nui, i. e., the Great; ca. 1737–1819; king 1795–1819) went unanswered. Miss. efforts began when ABCFM missionaries, including H. Bingham* and A. Thurston,* arrived 1820. In the 1860s the ABCFM gradually turned over its work to the native ch. The work was taken over by the Hawaiian Ev. Assoc. (also known as Hawaiian Bd. of Missions; organized under ABCFM supervision). An Angl. bp. and 2 SPG missionaries were sent to Honolulu 1861; 1st person bap. by them (1862) was the queen. This miss. was transferred to the Am. Prot. Episc. Ch. 1902. RC miss. efforts in Hawaii began 1827, but the priests were banished 1831. Another RC miss. was est. 1839. A leper colony was est. on Molokai Is. in the 1860s. The 1st Missouri* Syn. cong., a result of chaplains' work, was organized 1945. 1967 LCMS statistics: ca. 2,100 bap. mems.; 9 stations; 9 pastors. Other ventures include those of Assemblies of God; Christian Science; Methodists; Miss. Ch. Assoc.; Mormons; Pent. Holiness Ch.; Prot. Episc. Ch.; Seventh-day Adventists; S Bap. Conv.; Theosophy. OHS

See Missions Bibliography.

Haweis, Hugh Reginald

(1838 [1839?]–1901). B. Egham, Surrey, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; pastor London 1866–1901; Broad* Ch. leader. Works include The Broad Church; Arrows in the Air; Christ and Christianity; Music and Morals.

Haweis, Thomas

(1734–1820). B. Truro, Cornwall, Eng.; physician; studied theol. at Cambridge; asst. chaplain Lock Chapel, London; rector All Saints, Aldwinkle; composer; hymnist. Composed the tune “Chesterfield”; hymns include “O Thou from Whom All Goodness Flows”; other works include The Communicant's Spiritual Companion; Carmina Christo.

Hawkins, Edward

(1789–1882). Prof. Oxford; sermon on tradition influenced J. H. Newman*; opposed Tractarianism.*

Hawthorne, Nathaniel

(1804–64). B. Salem, Massachusetts; fiction writer; occupied with man's struggle with sin. Works include The Scarlet Letter, an intensive study of psychological effects of adultery.

Hay, Charles Augustus

(February 11, 1821–June 26, 1893). Luth. cleric; b. York, Pennsylvania; educ. Pennsylvania Coll. (later called Gettysburg Coll.), Gettysburg Theol. Sem., Berlin and Halle, Ger.; licensed to preach 1843; served at Middletown, Maryland; prof. Biblical literature and Ger. at Gettysburg 1844–48; pastor Hanover, Pennsylvania, 1848, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 1849–65; withdrew his ch. from the Pennsylvania Ministerium and joined the East Pennsylvania Syn. 1857 (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 22, 23); prof. Gettysburg 1865–93; pres. East Pennsylvania Syn. 1860, 1874, The General* Syn. of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in the USA 1881. Works include tr. of M. Luther's* Wochenpredigten über Matth. 5–7 (Commentary on the Sermon on the Mount); with H. E. Jacobs* tr. H. Schmid,* The Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church from Ger. and Lat.; Memoirs of Rev. Jacob Goering, Rev. George Lochman, DD, and Rev. Benjamin Kurtz, DD, LL D.

Haydn, Franz Joseph

(1732–1809). RC composer; brother of J. M. Haydn*; b. Rohrau, Austria; choirboy St. Stephen's, Vienna, 1740–49; kapellmeister to the Esterházy family 1761–90; visited London 1791–92, 1794–95; lived in Vienna 1795–1809. Works include oratorio The Creation; Austrian nat. anthem; masses; operas; symphonies; sonatas; Stabat mater. See also Passion, The.

K. Geiringer, Haydn, 2d ed. (New York, 1963); R. Hughes, Haydn (London, 1950); H. E. Jacob, Joseph Haydn, tr. R. and C. Winston (New York, 1950); G. A. Griesinger, Joseph Haydn (Madison, Wisconsin, 1963).

Haydn, Johann Michael

(1737–1806). Brother of F. J. Haydn*; b. Rohrau, Austria; choirboy St. Stephen's, Vienna, 1745–55; composer; kapellmeister at Grosswardein 1757; music dir. and konzertmeister to abp. of Salzburg 1762. Works include masses, graduals, offertories, symphonies.

Hayn, Henriette Louise von

(1724–82). B. Idstein, Hesse-Nassau; Moravian; taught at Herrnhaag, Grosshennersdorf, and Herrnhut; hymnist. Hymns include “Weil ich Jesu Schäflein bin.”

Haystack Group.

Group of students (including G. Hall,* S. J. Mills,* and L. Rice*) at Williams Coll., Williamstown, Massachusetts, unified by an impromptu prayer meeting in a storm, under shelter of a haystack, in the early 1800s; those who joined later, at Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem., included A. Judson* and S. Newell*; efforts of the group led to organization of the American* Bd. of Commissioners for For. Missions.

Hazelius, Ernest Lewis

(September 6, 1777–February 20, 1853). B. Neusalz, Silesia; educ. in Moravian schools; to Am. 1800; taught Lat., Gk., and theol. in Moravian school, Nazareth, Pennsylvania, 1800–09; ordained Luth. pastor 1809 by New York Ministerium (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 15); pastor in Hunterdon and Morris Cos., New Jersey, 1809–15; prof. Hartwick* Sem. 1815–30, Gettysburg* Sem. 1830–33, Classical and Theol. Institute of the Syn. of South Carolina (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 27), Lexington, 1834–53. Works include Materials for Catechisation on Passages of the Scripture; History of the American Lutheran Church from Its Commencement in the Year of Our Lord 1685, to the Year 1842.

Hazlitt, William

(1811–93). B. Mitre Lane, Maidstone, Eng.; son of William Hazlitt (1778–1830), Brit. literary critic. Works include tr. of M. Luther's* Table-Talk.

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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