(Gwalther; Walter; Walther; 151986). Received as orphan into family of J. H. Bullinger*; married daughter of H. Zwingli*; participated in Regensburg Conference 1541. Ed. Zwingli's works; other works include religious poetry, including Bible passages in verse form.
(Guahan). Organized unincorporated US territory. Southernmost is. of Mariana* Is. Area: ca. 212 sq. mi.; Natives are basically of Indonesian stock. Probably discovered 1521 by Ferdinand Magellan (ca. 14801521; Port. navigator sailing for the Spanish), who is said to have named it Ladrones (thieves, perhaps in reference to behavior of natives); formally claimed by Sp. 1565; ceded to US 1898 at end of Sp.-Am. War, occupied 1899; occupied by Jap. 1941; retaken by US 1944. Official language: English. RC (now ca. 95%) 1668; others have included Assemblies of God, Prot. Episc. Ch., Seventh-day Adv., S Bap. Convention. The LCA began work in the early 1970s.
Belief in guardian angels is found in some form in Jewish and other cultures. It is stated in the NT (Mt 18:10; Acts 12:15) and referred to in patristic literature (e.g., Hermas, Shepherd: Mandate VI ii 13).
See Central America, A, D 3, E.
(180378). B. Wettin, Ger.; Luth. theol.; educ. Halle; prof. Halle 1829; deposed from professorship 1834 because of his opposition to the Prussian* Union; served scattered Luths. until forbidden; reinstated ca. 1840 as prof.; in 1840, with A. G. Rudelbach,* he founded the Zeitschrift für die gesammte lutherische Theologie und Kirche; other works include Neutestamentliche Isagogik; Handbuch der Kirchengeschichte.
(Fr. beggars of the sea). Malcontents and desperadoes of Eur. who took to the sea in the late 1560s; opposed Sp. tyranny and RCm in the Neth. Called beggars because they were ready to become beggars for their cause. See also Gorkum Martyrs.
(153092). B. Bologne, It.; pupil of G. P. da Palestrina*; chorister in papal choir; worked with teacher on rev. ed. of Gradual and Antiphonary; pub. Passion* based on harmony of gospels.
(Guido Aretino; Fra Guittone; Guy of Arezzo; ca. 990ca. 1050). B. Arezzo, It. (or near Paris, Fr.); monk; called the father of modern music; credited with introd. 4-line staff, F clef; predecessors used 1 or 2 lines; credited with composing a hymn to John the Baptist (Ut queant laxis resonare fibris Mira gestorum famuli tuorum, Solve polluti labii reatum, Sancte Joannes) in which the first syllable of the 1st six lines (Ut [later replaced by do], re, mi, fa, sol la) fall on the first 6 tones of the major scale; also developed the C, D, E, etc., notation for the tones of the scale.
Liber usualis, The Nativity of St. John the Baptist, June 24, Second Vespers, Hymn. LP
Founded in Eng. 1877 by Stewart Duckworth Headlam (18471924; Angl. priest); its 1st declared object: to get rid, by every possible means, of the existing prejudices, especially on the part of Secularists, against the Church, her sacraments and doctrines, and to endeavor to 'justify God to the people.' The last phrase is C. Kingsley's.* Called for more equitable distribution of wealth by progressive taxation and for eventual abolition of private ownership of land. See also Christian Socialism; Secularism.
(18371911). B. Boulogne-sur-Mer, Fr.; organist, composer, teacher. Works include 2 symphonies for organ and orchestra; 8 sonatas; liturgical music. See also Offertory.
(18351910). B. Montpellet House, near Kingstown, Ireland; traveled in Mex. and West Indies at age 17; converted 1853; educ. New Coll., St. John's Wood, London; ordained as evangelist; preached in Eng., Fr., Am., Near East; founded East* London Institute for Home and For. Missions in the 1870s; dir. Livingstone* Inland Miss. 1880; helped form The Regions* Beyond Missionary Union.
(ca. 101585). The Resourceful. Norman adventurer and conqueror in It.; became vassal of the pope and duke of Calabria and Apulia 1059; excommunicated 1074 for attacking a papal fief; reinvested 1080; captured Rome 1084 and delivered Gregory VII (see Popes, 7) from Henry* IV of Ger.
(17871874). B. Nîmes, Fr.; prof. hist. Sorbonne, Paris; Fr. premier 184048; supported orthodoxy in Fr. Ref. Ch. Works include Histoire générale de la civilisation en Europe; Histoire de la civilisation en France; Méditations sur la religion chrétienne.
(September 4, 1882April 2, 1969). B. Bode, Iowa; educ. Luther Theol. Sem., St. Paul, Minnesota, and Johns Hopkins U.; pastor Pierre, South Dakota, and Minot, North Dakota; pres. Luther Theol. Sem. 193054; pres. The American* Luth. Conf. 193438. Works include Down into the Arena; In the Face of the West Wind; The Valley Waits; Christ for a World Like This; Christus Emptor.
(18701933). B. Sääminki, Fin.; Luth. theol.; prof. ch. hist. Helsinki 1900; bp. 1920; influenced by A. Hauck* and F. Loofs*; active in ecumenical movement and soc. work.
(15591625). B. Bavaria, Ger.; Luth. composer; active as cantor in Augsburg ca. 40 yrs. Wrote Compendium musicae; compositions include Neue teutsche geistliche Lieder.
(February 4, 1814April 25, 1893). B. Stuttgart, Ger.; to India 1835; assoc. 1836 with K. T. E. Rhenius*; on Rhenius' death he entered the work of the Basel miss. in Malabar 1838; returned to Ger. because of illness 1859. Works include Malayalam dictionary; tr. of most of the Bible into Malayalam.
(18621932). B. Springe, Ger.; Prot. theol.; prof. OT Giessen 1907, Halle 1920; early exponent of form criticism (see Isagogics, 3); adherent of Religionsgeschichtliche* Schule; his emphasis on Sitz* im Leben (origin in life situation) was at times complementary to, at times in opposition to, the works of literary critics. Works include commentaries on Gn and Ps See also Higher Criticism, 16.
(171873). B. Christiania (Oslo), Norw.; Luth. bp. Trondheim 1758; botanist; cultural leader; espoused supernaturalism.*
(161484). B. Hoo, Kent, Eng.; educ. Canterbury and Cambridge; Angl.; prof. Cambridge; bp. Chichester 1669, Ely 1674; opposed both Puritans and RCs; had leading role at Savoy* Conf..
Conspiracy by RCs to destroy the Prot. govt. of Eng. by blowing up the Houses of Parliament November 5, 1605, opening day of the session, when the king, Lords, and Commons would be present. The plot was discovered; ringleaders executed, including Guy Fawkes (15701606; b. Yorkshire, Eng.; Prot. turned RC), most famous mem. of the conspiracy. See also Andrewes, Lancelot.
(December 4, 1831May 22, 1893). B. Dresden, Ger.; to Am. 1839 in the Saxon Immigration (see Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, The, II); educ. Conc. Coll. and Sem., Altenburg and St. Louis, Missouri; pastor 1853 Grafton and Cedarburg, Wisconsin, 1857 Mequon, Wisconsin, 1860 Saginaw, Michigan, 1872 Chicago, Illinois; prof. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 187393. Ed. Der Lutheraner; Magazin für Ev.-Luth. Homiletik; other works include Populäre Symbolik; Dr. C. F. W. Walther. JA
L. E. Fuerbringer, 80 Eventful Years (St. Louis, 1944); A. G[raebner], Professor Martin Günther, Der Lutheraner, XLIX (June 6, 1893), 89; G. St[oeckhardt], Prof. M. Günther, L. u. W., XXXIX (May 1893), 149150; J. W. Albers, Martin Guenther: Life and Work (STM Thesis, Conc. Sem., St. Louis, 1964).
(17881847). B. Earlham Hall, near Norwich, Eng.; brother of E. Fry*; Quaker; well educ.; wealthy; minister 1818; advocated prison reform, end of capital punishment, abolition of slavery; visited US Can., and W. Indies 183740; followers called Gurneyites. See also Friends, Society of.
(180166). B. Mailleroncourt. Haute-Saône, Fr.; Jesuit; prof. moral theol. Roman Coll Works include Compendium theologiae moralis; Casus conscientiae in praecipuas quaestiones theologiae moralis.
C. G. L. Grossmann* issued a call 1832 for the est. of an institution to aid needy Prots. in and outside Ger., esp. in RC countries. An assoc. was formed by committees in Leipzig and Dresden; received royal confirmation 1834. K. Zimmermann* of Darmstadt created a similar movement 1841. The 2 movements joined 1842 to form the Evangelischer Verein der Gustav-Adolf-Stiftung. Enlarged by receiving Prussian miss. socs. 1844. Dist. socs. were organized in Bav., Austria, Hung., Switz., Fr., Russ., Swed., Romania, It., Holland, Belg. Name changed 1946 to Gustav-Adolf-Werk der Evangelischen Kirche in Deutschland. Since 1948 the work in the Bundesrepublik Deutschland and the Deutsche Demokratische Republik is carried on separately. Publications include Die Evangelische Diaspora; Gustav-Adolf-Kalender; Gustav-Adolf-Kinderkalender; Gustav-Adolf-Blatt.
St. Peter, Minnesota See Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, 14; Lutheran Church in America, V; Ministry, Education of, VIII B; Norelius, Eric.
(Gustavus Vasa; Gustavus Erikson; 14961560). King of Swed. 152360; perhaps gained first favorable impressions of Lutheranism as exile in Lübeck 1519; freed Swed. from Den. by defeating Christian* II; favored Lutheranism; secularized RC wealth; corresponded with M. Luther*; made O. Petri* preacher at Stockholm and L. Petri* teacher at Uppsala; had Bible tr. into Swed. The Diet of Västeraas 1527 est. preaching and teaching of the Word of God; the Syn. of Örebro 1529 adopted Reformation principles. Gustavus I sent the 1st Luth. missionaries to the Lapps 1559. See also Charles IX; Lapland.
(Gustavus Adolphus; 15941632). Lion of the North; Snow King. King of Swed. 161132; b. Stockholm; grandson of Gustavus* I; father of Christina.* Championed Prot. cause in Ger. in Thirty* Years' War. Landed in Pomerania 1630; conquered much of Ger.; killed in the Battle of Lützen. November 16, 1632.
(Father's name Gensfleisch or Ganzfleisch; Gutenberg was probably his mother's maiden name or the name of her birthplace; 1394/99ca. 1468). B. probably Mainz, Ger.; printer; invented or perfected modern art of printing; believed by some to have printed the 1282-page Lat. Mazarin Bible (found ca. 1760 in the library of J. Mazarin*).
(180373). B. Brechin, Forfar (Angus), Scot.; Presb. clergyman; joined Free Ch. 1843; philanthropist; soc. reformer; est. Ragged Schools. Ed. Sunday Magazine; other works include The Gospel in Ezekiel.
(Joannes Ernestus Goetwater, etc.; at least 16 different spellings of the name). Dutch; 1st pastor of the oldest Luth. ch. in Am.; called April 3, 1657, by the Luth. Consistory, Amsterdam; ordaived April 10; sent to New Amsterdam (later called NYC); Ref. pastors protested his presence and work; arrested several times; sent back to Holland June 19, 1659. See also United States, Religious History of the, 6.
(July 8, 1803August 9, 1851). Apostle of China; Apostle of Chinese. B. Pyritz, Prussian Pomerania; educ. Pädagogium est. by A. H. Francke* at Halle and at the miss. institute of J. Jänicke* at Berlin; to Eng. and gathered material for hist. of ev. missions (Geschiedenis der uitbreiding van Christus Koningryk of Aarde, sedert de dagen der Kerkhervorming tot den tegenwoordigen tyd; inzonderheid met betrekking tot de Zendelingen en Zendelings-Genootschappen, pub. Rotterdam 1828); met R. Morrison* in Eng.; sailed for Batavia 1826 under auspices of Netherlands* Miss. Soc.; arrived 1827; to Singapore February 1828; severed connections with Neth. Miss. Soc. 1828; to Bangkok, Siam (now Thailand); helped tr. Bible into native languages; to Macao, China, 1831; made 3 miss. voyages along coast of China, Siam, Korea (see also Korea, 5), and Ryukyu Is.; interpreter and secy. to Brit. ambassador; supt. of trade; continued miss. work to end of life; d. Victoria, Hong Kong.
(185488). B. Laval, Fr.; poet; philos.; he opposed evolutionary theory of H. Spencer*; tried to build a religious system by harmonizing individual and soc. ideals.
(Jeanne Marie, nee Bouvier; Madame Guyon; 16481717). B. Montargis, Fr.; quietist (see Quietism); influenced F. Fénelon*; imprisoned; banished from Paris to Blois. Works include Les Torrens spirituels; Le Cantique de cantiques.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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