(18361918). Cong. clergyman; author, hymnist; b. Pottsgrove, Pennsylvania; educ. Williams Coll., Williamstown, Massachusetts; pastor Brooklyn, New York, 1860, Morrisania, New York, 1861, North Adams, Massachusetts, 1866, Springfield, Massachusetts, 1874, Columbus, Ohio, 1882. Studied writings of F. W. Robertson* and H. Bushnell*; at North Adams began applying Christian principles to soc. problems; early apostle of the social* gospel; held that govt. should bring about soc. adjustments not by force or by endorsing an economic program, but by inspiring individuals with love of justice and the spirit of service; acknowledged the right of labor to organize; organized Christian League of Connecticut 1883; active in civic leagues; his poetry reveals mystical elements.
E. T. Thompson, Washington Gladden and the development of the 'New Theology,' Changing Emphases in American Preaching (Philadelphia, 1943), pp. 137180.
(180998). Eng. statesman; b. Liverpool; educ. Oxford; supported Oxford* Movement. Favored establishment of ch. in The State in its relations with the Church (1838); upheld visibility of the ch. in Church Principles considered in their results (1840); defended disestablishment of the ch. in A Chapter of Autobiography (1868). In Ritual and Ritualism (1874) and The Vatican Decrees in their Bearing on Civil Allegiance (1874) he opposed the dogma of papal infallibility (see Vatican Councils, 16) and held that henceforth a person could not join the RC ch. without placing his civil allegiance at the mercy of another. See also Metaphysical Society, The.
A. R. Vidler, The Orb and the Cross: A Normative Study in the Relations of Church and State with Reference to Gladstone's Early Writings (London, 1945).
(15931656). B. Sondershausen, Ger.; educ. Jena and Wittenberg; prof. Heb. and Gk. at Jena 1621; supt. Sondershausen 1625; prof. theol. at Jena as J. Gerhard's successor 1638; gen. supt. and court preacher Gotha 164056. Works include Philologia sacra (162336), a biblico-philol. encyclopedia widely used for ca. 2 centuries. See also Weimarische Bibelwerk, Das.
(May 2, 1797February 24, 1885). B. Manchester, Connecticut; ABCFM miss. to Choctaw, Mohegan, and Seneca Indians.
(ca. 180457). B. Novopassky, Smolensk, Russ.; composer; called by F. Liszt* the prophet-patriarch of Russ. music. Impressed in early youth by Russ. folk music; later studied works of L. v. Beethoven,* W. A. Mozart,* and other classical masters; studied in Milan, Rome, Naples; acquainted with It. composers Gaetano Donizetti (17971848) and Vincenzo Bellini (180135); choirmaster of Imperial Chapel 183739. Works include operatic, orchestral, and ch. music.
The Bible speaks of (1) the glory of God, the manifestation of His attributes, esp. holiness and majesty (e.g., Ex 33:1822; Is 6:3; Ps 63:2; 104:31; 138:5; In 1:14; 2 Ptr 1:17); (2) the glory of Christ* Jesus; (3) the glory of the church* militant and triumphant, which is also the glory of the individual believers, veiled and hidden to mortal eyes in this world, but to be fully revealed on the Last Day (see Last Things), culminating in the beatific vision (Ps 17:15; 1 Co 13:12; 1 Jn 3:2; Rv 22:4). Believers partake of spiritual glory (Jn 17:22; 1 Co 2:7; 2 Co 3:18) and of eternal glory (Ro 8:18; 1 Co 15:43; Ph 3:21; 2 Th 2:14; 2 Ti 2:10; 1 Ptr 5:10). In heaven they will have glorified bodies (Ph 3:21). Doctrines of degrees of glory in heaven are usually based on Dn 12:3; Lk 19:1226; 1 Co 15:4142 (see also Hereafter, A 6). Christians are not to seek glory from men (Mt 6:2; 1 Th 2:6), they are to seek only God's glory (1 Co 10:31; 2 Co 10:17).
E. C. Pautsch, Eternal Life, The Abiding Word, I, ed. T. Laetsch (St. Louis, 1946), 561582. JMW
The practice of supplying MSS with glosses, i. e., notes to explain certain words in the text, dates back to classical times. Glosses were also inserted in Bible MSS, both in the margin and bet. the lines. In the course of time they were extended to include a variety of explanatory material. Glossing was carried to great length in canon* law by glossarists, canonists of the 12th15th c., esp. in Bologna, It. By successive additions of masters a running comment was est. that explained, illustrated, and reconciled the various provisions. These glosses were highly regarded. The standard medieval commentary on the Bible became known as glos(s)a ordinaria or glos(s)a communis. See also Anselm of Laon.
(Josse; Joss; d. 1638). Eng. nonconformist clergyman; visited New Eng. ca. 1634; instrumental in bringing a printing press to Am.; regarded by many as the father of printing in the Eng. colonies of the US
Worn in RC Ch. at pontifical mass, ordinarily by pope, cardinals, and bps.; sometimes allowed for abbotts and others.
(171487). B. in the Upper Palatinate; studied music in Prague and Milan; distinguished principally as operatic writer. Works include De profundis.
(ca. 16521705). B. Wettin, Ger.; pastor and provost Marienburg; founded secondary school in Moscow; tr. Bible into Latvian and Russ. (latter MS lost). See also Latvia.
(190071). B. Cincinnati, Ohio; educ. U. Cincinnati; prof., later pres., Heb. Union Coll., Cincinnati; pres. combined Heb. Union Coll.-Jewish Institute of Religion (Cincinnati, NYC, Los Angeles, Jerusalem); prof. Am. School of Oriental Research, Baghdad; dir. Am. School of Oriental Research, Jerusalem; involved in archaeol, expeditions in Palestine and neighboring countries. Works include Explorations in Eastern Palestine; The River Jordan; The Other Side of the Jordan; Hesed in the Bible, tr. A. Gottschalk, ed. E. L. Epstein. See also Geography, Christian, 8.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
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