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1. Empirical: self conceived as series of conscious acts and contents. 2. Pure: non-empirical; e.g., the soul theory that regards the pure ego as a permanent spiritual substance, and the transcendental theory that considers the self an inscrutable subject. 3. In S. Freud,* the ego is a narrower region than the id, which is the unconscious region in which basic instincts jostle together with no sense of order or value. The ego aims at self-preservation and maintains contact with the external world. The superego is the deposit of parental influences of childhood. 4. Ethical egoism holds that each individual should seek his own welfare. 5. Psychological egoism holds that the determining motive of voluntary action is concern for one's own welfare. See also Altruism; Psychology, J 7. EL

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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