System of oriental origin holding that all being is derived through a process of descending radiations from the godhead; opposed to creation out of nothing. See also Gnosticism, 5; Neoplatonism.
(16601710). Hung. Ref. pastor and ch. hist.; educ. at Debrecen, Hung., and at Leiden and Franeker, Neth.; moderate adherent of J. Cocceius.*
(ca. 1728ca. 1773). Of Ger. descent; b. probably Ballingrane, Ireland; converted by J. Wesley* 1752; to Am. 1760; built 1st Am. Meth. ch. in New York; cousin of B. Heck.*
Term used to denote hypothesis of emergent evolution. In C. L. Morgan* it refers to appearance of novelties in evolution. In W. Temple* it is the emergence of the distinct levels of matter, life, intelligence, spirit.
(from Lat. emereri, to serve one's time). One retired from professional life or free of its duties, usually because of age or disability, but holding the rank of his last office.
(180067). B. Chester, New Hampshire; educ. Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, New Hampshire, and at Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem.; ABCFM miss. to Sandwich Islands 1831: stationed at Wailua, on Oahu; prof. Lahainaluna Sem. 184246; returned to Wailua 1846; pub. (with W. P. Alexander,* Artemus Bishop , and S. M. Kamakan) an Eng.-Hawaiian dictionary.
(180382). B. Boston, Massachusetts; ancestry formed an unbroken line of clergymen reaching back to early New Eng. hist.; educ. Harvard Coll. and Divinity School, Cambridge, Massachusetts; pastor, Second Ch., Unitarian, Boston, 1829; resigned 1832 because of unwillingness to administer the Lord's Supper; traveled abroad 183233; personally acquainted with S. T. Coleridge,* W. Wordsworth,* and T. Carlyle* (b. 1795); settled in Concord, Massachusetts, 1833; essayist, lecturer, poet. His 1st vol., Nature (1836), in which he announced his transcendentalist viewpoint, met with only mild reception. But 2 significant addresses, The American Scholar (1837) and The Divinity School Address (1838), secured him a wide following. Common themes move through his essays, addresses, and poetry: man can know truth intuitively through Reason, which links him to the progressively unfolding revelation of the Oversoul* in nature; man, Am. man particularly, should exercise the private capacities of mind and esp. his moral qualities, an emphasis Emerson felt was lacking in prominent thinkers of his time. Emerson's ability to convince his audiences and readers of the individual's great personal worth has led to his being considered a moral teacher, effective essayist, inspiring speaker, and experimental poet. Works include Nature; The American Scholar; The Divinity School Address; Essays (2 series); Poems; Representative Men; English Traits; The Conduct of Life. See also Idealism; Transcendentalism. WGR
R. L. Rusk, The Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson (New York, 1949); The Transcendentalists: An Anthology, ed. P. Miller (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1950); S. E. Whicher, Freedom and Fate: An Inner Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson (Philadelphia, 1953).
(Emmerick; 17741824). B. near Coesfeld, Westphalia; Augustinian nun, ecstatic, and mystic at Dülmen, Westphalia; stigmata of the passion appeared in her body; Clemens Brentano's accounts of her stigmatization* and meditations are subjects of prolonged debate.
(17891835). B. Spaniard's Neck, Queen Annes Co., Maryland; studied law; ordained M. E. deacon ca. 1812, elder ca. 1814; held various pastorates; agent of the Meth. Book Concern 1928; changed The Methodist Magazine into The Methodist Magazine and Quarterly Review and ed. it 183032; ed. works of J. Wesley*; other works include Defence of Our Fathers, and of the Original Organization of the Methodist Episcopal Church Against the Rev. Alexander M'Caine and Others.
(Empeytaz; 17901853). Prominent figure in Geneva awakening that began in Société de Amis, a pietistic Bible circle organized 1810 by Empaytaz and fellow theol. students but soon disbanded under pressure of local rationalistic clergy. Expelled from theol. study for holding unauthorized religious meetings, Empaytaz came under spell of mystic Baroness B. J. v. Krüdener* and became her companion on mission journeys to Paris, Alsace, and Switz. Later pastor Geneva. Works include Considerations sur la divinité de Jesus-Christi against Arianism of Geneva clergy.
(ca. 490ca. 430 BC). B. Agrigento Sicily; Gk. pluralist philos., statesman, and religious thinker; sought to reconcile logically immutable, single being (see Parmenides) with sensible world of change and motion (see Heraclitus) in a cosmological doctrine of 4 elements (earth, air, fire, and water) moved by love (attraction) and strife (repulsion). See also Psychology, B 2; Transmigration of Souls.
Theol. system that eliminates all norms outside experience. Deity and ethics exist only in experience, final criterion of religious value. Schools of empirical theologians: 1. those who evaluate experience in all fields; 2. those who evaluate experience in the moral field; 3. those who restrict themselves to religious experience. F. D. E. Schleiermacher is the father of the last-named school, which includes intuition and mysticism in its category of experience.
Philos. theory according to which experience is the only source of knowledge; denies the possibility of supernatural source of knowledge; leads to criticism of Christian ethics and religion. See also Logical Positivism; Sensationalism.
(ca. 14771527). B. Ulm, Ger.; educ. Tübingen and Basel; RC opponent of M. Luther* and H. Zwingli*; plagiarized Luther's NT tr.; helped organize a ref. RC Ch. in Ger. See also Bible Versions, M.
Name applied to series of 23 articles drawn up 1786 at Ems, Ger., by the abps. of Mainz, Trier, Cologne, and Salzburg in protest against establishment of a papal nunciature at Munich; ecclesiastical princes regarded such a nunciature as an infringement on their rights. Ultimate aim of the Punktation to est. an indep. nat. ch. in Ger. was not attained because of clerical and pol. opposition.
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