(August 25, 1801September 16, 1859). B. Frederick Co., Maryland; educ. at the Gen. Syn. theol. sem. at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania; pastor Winchester, Virginia; principal of women's sem. there; prof. SC Syn. theol. sem., Lexington, SC
1. Albert (18561926). B. Garlstorf, near Lüneburg, Ger.; prof. ch. hist. Halle 1888, Kiel 1901. Helped found Religionsgeschichtliche* Schule. 2. Johann Gottfried (17521827). B. Dörrenzimmern, Württemberg, Ger.; Prot. theol.; hist.; educ. Göttingen; prof. oriental languages Jena 1775, philos. Göttingen 1788. See also Bauer, Georg Lorenz; Higher Criticism, 12. 3. Karl. See Germany, Lutheran Free Churches in, 9.
(18701946). B. Hagenbach, Ger.; RC hist. and canonist; specialized on the relationship of ch. and state in the Middle Ages. Works include Lehrbuch des katholischen Kirchenrechts auf Grund des Codex iuris canonici.
(180483). B. Voss, Norw.; Luth. lay preacher in Norw. and elsewhere in Scand. 183239; to Am. 1839; ordained 1843 by F. A. Hoffmann*; helped organize the Eielsen* Syn.; its pres. 184683. Works include a catechism.
(Ev. Luth. Ch. in [or of] Am.; also called Elling Syn.; Ellingian Syn.; Ellingianerne). Organized 1846 at Jefferson Prairie, Wisconsin, by E. Eielsen* and others. The constitution, written by Eielsen and adopted April 1314, made proof of conversion a condition of membership. In 187576 changes in emphasis led to revision of the constitution and change of name to Hauge's Norw. Ev. Luth. Syn. in Am. In 1876 a separation occurred, Eielsen and his followers reorganizing under the old constitution and name. The syn. faded as a syn. in the 1960s; a few congs. continued at least into the 1980s. See also Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 56, 12; Hauge Synod.
(September 23, 1871November 1, 1949). B. Waldheim, Ger.; to Am. 1878; educ. Fort Wayne, Indiana and St. Louis, Missouri; pastor McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania, 189599, Cumberland, Maryland, 18991903, Ottawa, Ont., Can., 19039; president of Can. Dist. of the Missouri Syn. 190609; prof. natural science at the Addison (Illinois) Teachers Sem. and Conc. Teachers Coll., River Forest, Illinois (see Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, The, V 6), 190942. Works include Our Great Outdoors, 2 vols.
(Gizur; ca. 150848). First Luth. bp. of Iceland 154048; attended cathedral school, Skalholt; Ögmundur Palsson, RC bp. Skalholt, sent him to Ger. for further study; attracted to Lutheranism, but did not tell Palsson, who approved the election of Einarsson as his successor; went to Den. and received consent of Dan. king for Luth. ordination; on Einarsson's return, Palsson was arrested and taken to Den., dying perhaps en route; Einarsson was ordained in Copenhagen 1542; energetic, an efficient administrator, and poet. SP
(18791955). B. Ulm, Ger.; naturalized Swiss at 15; prof. Zurich 190911, Deutsche U., Prague, 191112, Berlin 1914; adopted Ger. citizenship; to US 1933; mem. Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey, 193345; naturalized Am. Contributions to science include special (1905) and gen. (1916) theory of relativity; formula for laws of gravitation and electromagnetism; formula for Brownian movement; law of photoelectric effect. Held the external world can only be grasped by speculative means since sense-perception gives only indirect information of it. Distinguished 3 stages in religious development: anthropomorphic, moral, and stage of cosmic religion; the last is the belief that the world is rationally ordered and that God is impersonal. Judaism, he held, is no transcendent religion; its God is negation of superstition. Works include The World As I See It. See also Time.
Opposite of exegesis.* Reading thoughts into a text (as of the Bible) rather than drawing thoughts from it.
Founded 1902 as Eisenacher Konferenz by G. Lepsius, S. Keller,* and T. Jellinghaus.* A. v. Schlatter,* K. M. A. Kähler,* and others joined the movement. Original purpose was to foster fellowship. Became Eisenacher Bund 1905; opposed sectarianism* and modernism.*
1. Martin (153578). Originally ev.; RC ca. 1558; leader of Counter* Reformation in Bavaria. 2. Wilhelm (153484). RC ch. hist.; nephew of Martin; wrote against Magdeburg Centuries of M. Flacius* Illyricus.
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