In metaphysics, assumption of 2 mutually hostile superior beings, one representing everything good and beneficial to man, the other the source of all sin and evil, as in Zoroastrianism* (see also Parsi) and in Gnosticism.* In philos., the view that in the world there are 2 principles, or substances, which are wholly indep. and totally different from each other: the spiritual and the corporeal, mind and matter. Theistic, or Biblical, dualism asserts essential difference bet. Creator and creation. Dualism is opposed to monism,* pluralism,* and some forms of pantheism.* See also Descartes, René.
(ca. 152059). B. Riom, Fr.; prof. civil law U. of Orleans ca. 1547; conseiller clerc Parliament of Paris 1557; Prot. ca. 1559; pleaded in Parliament for persecuted Prots.; imprisoned; hanged and burned December 23 at Paris. His fortitude decisively impressed F. Hotman.*
(Thesen über den Lehrstreit von der Gnadenwahl). Seven theses prepared by C. S. Fritschel* and adopted by the Iowa* Syn. at Dubuque, Ia., 1882. They deal with predestination and conversion. They reject the position that particular election is not the extension of the gen. decree of grace and salvation to the individual people in whom it attains realization, but an essentially (thatsächlich) different decree which is the cause of the salvation of the elect. Furthermore, they reject the position that predestination is election according to the mere pleasure of divine will (nach dem blossen Wohlgefallen des göttlichen Willens) without consideration of human behavior, and favor the view that election took place in view of faith. See also Chicago Theses; Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod, The, V; Thirteen Theses.
J. Deindörfer, Geschichte der Evangel.-Luth. Synode von Iowa und anderen Staaten (Chicago, 1897); Quellen und Dokumente zur Geschichte und Lehrstellung der ev.-luth. Synode von Iowa u. a. Staaten, comp. G. J. Fritschel (Chicago, n. d.); S. F[ritschel], Aus den Verhandlungen der Versammlung unserer Synode zu Dubuque, Iowa, über den Lehrstreit von der Gnadenwahl, Kirchen-Blatt der evangelisch-lutherischen Synode von Iowa, XXV (1882), 114115, 123124, 132133.
(Duch; Hertoghs; Herzog; ca. 1485 to 1544). B. near Constance, Ger.; Luth. composer; pastor Stubersheim 1533; Schalkstetten 1535; works pub. esp. in such collections as G. Rhau,* Neue deutsche geistliche Gesänge.
1. Gottfried (b. 1785). Ger. author anti traveler. Wrote geog., sociol., and pol. descriptions of Am. His Bericht über eine Reise nach den westlichen Staaten Nordamerikas und einen mehrjährigen Aufenthalt am Missouri persuaded many Ger. Luths. to settle in Missouri 2. Konrad Alexander (1829 to 1911). Ger. philol.; works include Rechtschreibung der deutschen Sprache und der Fremdwörter.
(Dümling; January 6, 1875October 22, 1946). B. Fort Wayne, Indiana; son of Hermann; grad. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1896; pastor Detroit, Michigan, 18961902; organized miss. for deaf in Detroit 1896; inst. miss. of Syn. Conf. in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 190246; pres. Assoc. Luth. Charities. Works include The Lutheran Ministrant.
(Dümling; October 5, 1845March 11, 1913). B. Schönebeck, Ger.; educ. Halle and Heidelberg; instructor Luth. high school, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; prof. Ev. Luth. Teachers Sem., Addison, Illinois, 1870 to 1874; prof. Conc. Coll., Fort Wayne, Indiana, 1874 to 1899; ed. Die Abendschule 187199; ed. Germania 18991913. Works include Bau, Leben und Pflege des menschlichen Körpers; Illustrirtes Thierleben, 2 vols.; Bilder aus der Natur; Bismarck und seine Zeit; arithmetic books.
Illustrated obituary by W. in Die Abendschule, LIX, 18 (April; 3, 1913), 548551.
(180678). First miss. of the Est. Ch. of Scot. to India 1830. With the help of Ram* Mohan Roy founded a school in Calcutta 1830 which later became a center of W educ. in India. At the 1843 division of the Ch. of Scot. he went with the Free Ch. Helped found U. of Calcutta. Returned to Scot. 1864 because of ill health; continued to work for for. miss. until his death. Helped found Calcutta Review and ed. it 184549.
O. G. Myklebust, The Study of Missions in Theological Education, I (Oslo, 1955).
1. George, Jr. (181888). B. Carlisle, Pennsylvania; educ. Yale Coll., New Haven, Connecticut, and Union Theol. Sem., NYC; Presb. pastor; bymnist. Hymns include Stand Up, Stand Up for Jesus. 2. Samuel Augustus Willoughby (184387). B. Brooklyn, New York; son of George, Jr.: educ. Yale Coll., New Haven, Connecticut; Presb. pastor; hymnist. Works include Warp and Woof: A Book of Verse; English Hymns: Their Authors and History; The Latin Hymn-Writers and Their Hymns.
(18471928). B. Bingum, Ostfriesland; Prot. theol.; prof. Göttingen and Basel; exponent of Religionsgeschichtliche* Schule; friend of J. Wellhausen*; proposed Trito-Isaiah theory of authorship of Is 5666. Works include Die Theologic der Propheten; lsraels Propheten; commentaries on Jb, Ps, Is, Jer, and Hab.
(ca. 1265ca. 1308). Doctor subtilis; Doctor maximus; Doctor Marianus. B. Duns, Scot. Franciscan teacher at Oxford, Paris, and Cologne; opposed intellectualistic and deterministic system of Thomas* Aquinas. Followers called Scotists. See also Acceptilation; Scholasticism, 3; Via antiqua.
E. Bettoni, Duns Scotus: The Basic Principles of His Philosophy, ed. and tr. B. Bonansea (Washington, 1961); R. Seeberg, Die Theologie des Johannes Duns Scotus (Leipzig, 1900); É. H. Gilson, Jean Duns Scot: Introduction à ses positions fondamentales (Paris, 1952); R. P. F. D. S. opera omnia, 12 vols. (Lyons, Fr., 1639); Opera omnia (Rome, 1950 ); Duns Scotus: Philosophical Writings, ed. and tr. A. Wolter (Edinburgh, 1962); J. F. Bonnefoy, Le Ven. Jean Duns Scot (Rome, 1960); R. R. Effler, John Duns Scotus and the Principle Omne quod movetur ab alio movetur (Louvain, Belgium, 1962); J. F. Boler, Charles Peirce and Scholastic Realism (Seattle, Washington, 1963).
(Dunstaple; ca. 1370 [some suggest as late as ca. 1400]1453). Eng. composer, mathematician, and astronomer; important in 15th c. Eng. music; contributed significantly to the development of counterpoint. Works include motels, masses, antiphons, and songs.
(ca. 909 [some suggest as late as ca. 925] to 988). B. near Glastonbury, Eng.; abbot Glastonbury; bp. Worcester and London; abp. Canterbury; introd. monastic reforms based on rule of Benedict* of Nursia; promoted educ. of clergy.
(Dupin; 16571719). Fr. RC cleric and hist.; favored Gallicanism*; exiled on charges on Jansenism*; returned after retraction. Works include Nouvelle bibliothèque des auteurs ecclésiastiques; Traité de la puissance ecclésiastique et temporelle.
(Lat. form of French Guillaume Durand de Saint-Pourçain; ca. 1270/75ca. 1332/34). Doctor modernus; Doctor resolutissimus. B. Saint-Pourcçain-sur-Sioule, Fr.; scholastic Dominican theol.; bp. Limoux 1317, Le Puy 1318, Meaux 1326; developed nominalism* in opposition to the realism* of Thomas* Aquinas; anticipated the terminism (see Terminism, 2) of W. of Ockham*; distinguished bet. realms of reason and faith; opposed pope in the question of beatific vision.
(14711528). Ger. painter and engraver. B. Nürnberg; studied under M. Wohlgemuth*; court painter under Maximilian I and Charles* V. Several of his paintings include Reformation figures. Works include woodcuts illustrating the Book of Revelation and the passion; an engraving portraying St. Jerome in his study; paintings entitled Adoration of the Christ Child and Adoration of the Magi.
W. Waetzoldt, Dürer and His Times, tr. R. H. Boothroyd, enl. ed. (London, ); E. Panofsky, The Life and Art of Albrecht Dürer (Princeton, 1955); M. Brion, Dürer: His Life and Work, tr. J. Cleugh (New York, 1960); W. Scar, Albrecht Dürer and the Lutheran Reformation (BD thesis, Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1945); H. T. Musper, Albrecht Dürer (New York, 1966).
(Duraeus; Duräus; Dury; 15961680). Scot. cleric; planned to reunite all non-RCs, esp. Luths. and Calvinists; helped draft the Westminster Confession (see Presbyterian Confessions, 3) and Westminster* Catechisms.
(18581917). Fr. philos. Held a sociol. positivism*: Society is cen. to this philos.; truth and falsehood are objective when they express collective thought; soc. is not simply the sum of its individuals, but a kind of entity; religion is soc. activity, and its primitive form is best seen in totemism.* Works include Les formes élementaires de la vie religieuse (Eng. tr. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life); Les règles de la méthode sociologique (Eng. tr. The Rules of Sociological Method).
Term applied to 19th and 20th c. theologians in Holland including A. Pierson,* A. D. Loman,* and G. A. van den Bergh van Eysinga. Views of the school included the hypothesis that Jesus and Paul never lived and that no writings of the NT antedated the 2d c.
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