Christian Cyclopedia

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Drabík, Nikolaus

(Drabicius; 1588–1671). B. Strassnitz, Moravia; leader of exiled Bohemian* Brethren in Hung.

Drach, John George Peter

(September 3, 1873–October 2, 1957). B. Greenport, Long Island, New York Educ. Wagner Coll., Rochester, New York; Luth. Theol. Sem., Mount Airy, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Asst. pastor Reading, Pennsylvania; pastor West Philadelphia. Secy. Bd. of For. Miss. of the General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in N. Am. 1905 and of the ULC Bd. of For. Missions. Ed. The Foreign Missionary. Coauthor (with C. F. Kuder*), The Telugu Mission. Other works include Forces in Foreign Missions; Seeing Things in the Far East; Kingdom Pathfinders.

Draconites, Johann(es)

(Drach; Draco; Trach; Carlstadt; 1494–1566). B. Karlstadt on the Main; educ. Erfurt; canon in Erfurt; joined Luther; pastor Miltenberg and Waltershausen; prof. theol. Marburg, Lübeck, and Rostock; attended the 1541 Regensburg* Conference; signed the Schmalkaldic Articles (see Lutheran Confessions, B 2). Ed. a partially printed polyglot* Bible in Heb., Chaldee, Gk., Lat., and Ger. Not to be confused with A. R. B. v. Karlstadt.*

Dracontius, Blossius Aemilius

(5th c. AD). According to early tradition, of Sp. origin; possibly b. Carthage; lawyer Carthage; Christian poet. Works include De laudibus Dei; epics; an elegy; 2 epithalamiums.


(Dragonades; Dragoonades; from Fr. dragon, “dragon”). Some trace the name to an emblem on a standard, others to ornamentation on a weapon, others to the dragon-like spitfire action of the weapon. Dragonnades were persecutions of Prots. in Fr. at the hands of dragoons, mounted infantrymen, under Louis XIV (1638–1715; king 1643–1715). See also France, 10; Huguenots.

Dräseke, Johann Heinrich Bernhard

(1774–1849). B. Brunswick, Ger.; d. Potsdam; educ. Helmstedt; pastor Mölln 1798, Ratzeburg 1804, Bremen 1814; eminent pulpit orator; advocated humanistic Christianity; was impressed with Freemasonry; worked for conciliation of Pietism* and Rationalism.*


In Indian usage, the name of a “southern” group of Brahmans (see Brahmanism). The term is also more gen. applied to a group of Indian languages that includes Tamil* and Malayalam.*

Dreier, Christian

(1610–88). B. Stettin, Ger.; Luth. theol.; educ. Jena, Wittenberg, and Rostock; prof. Königsberg (called Kaliningrad since 1946); participated in 1645 Colloquy of Thorn* (see Reformed Confessions, D 3 c); follower of G. Calixtus.* Works include Gründliche Erörterung Etzlicher schwerer Theologischen Fragen. See also Novators.

Dresden Cross Catechism

(Kreuz-Katechismus). See Catechetics, 11.

Drese, Adam

(Dresen; ca. 1620–1701). Probably b. Thuringia; Luth. hymnist and composer; studied music at Warsaw; dir. of the court chapel, Weimar; later held similar positions at Jena and Arnstadt; pietistic; hymns include “Seelenbräutigam, Jesu, Gotteslamm.”

Dressier, Gallus

(1533-after 1580). B. Nebra, Ger.; Luth. composer; succeeded Martin Agricola* in Magdeburg; adopted views of P. Melanchthon*; deacon St. Nikolai ch., Zerbst. Works include Ausserlesene teutsche Lieder mit vier und fünff Stimmen.

S. Kümmerle, Encyklopädie der evangelischen Kirchenmusik, I (Gütbersloh, 1888), 337; C. v. Winterfeld, Der evangelische Kirchengesang, I (Leipzig, 1843), 190, 341, 416.

Dreves, Guido Maria

(1854 [some say 1845]–1909). B. Hamburg; Jesuit; collected Lat. ch. songs. Ed. Analecta Hymnica Medii Aevi, 55 vols.

Drewes, Christopher Frederick John

(January 12, 1870–March 3, 1931). B. Wolcottsville, New York; grad. Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri, 1892; pastor Memphis, Tennessee, 1892–94, Hannibal, Missouri, 1894–1905, St. Louis, Missouri, 1905–17; mem. Syn. Conf. Bd. of Colored Missions 1908–17; its dir. 1917–31; ed. Missions-Taube 1911 to 1931 and Concordia Sunday School literature. Other works include Dr. Martin Luther's Small Catechism Explained by Way of Questions and Answers; Half a Century of Lutheranism Among Our Colored People; Mission-Stories; Introduction to the Books of the Bible.

Drews, Arthur Christian Heinrich

(1865–1935). Ger. philos.; disciple of K. R. E. v. Hartmann*; held a monism* conceived as process, with God immanent; taught “Christ-myth” method, which assumes that Gospels are books for edification which tell nothing about a hist. Jesus; held that astralism provides the background of the NT Works include Die Christusmythe; Der Sternhimmel in der Dichtung und Religion der alten Völker und des Christentums; Die Entstehung des Christentums aus dem Gnostizismus.

Driesch, Hans Adolf Eduard

(1867–1941). Ger. biologist and philos.; experiments led him to support a dynamic vitalism which held that life cannot be explained as physical or chemical phenomena, but that every organism has its own entelechy (something that contains or realizes an end or final cause). Works include Leib und Seele.

Driver, Samuel Rolles

(1846–1914). B. Southampton, Eng.; d. Oxford; Angl.; Biblical critic; successor of E. B. Pusey* as prof. Heb. and canon, Christ Ch., Oxford, 1883; mem. OT revision committee 1876 to 1884. Joint ed. with F. Brown* and C. A. Briggs,* A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, based on the lexicon of W. Gesenius, tr. E. Robinson; jt. ed. with A. B. Davidson and H. B. Swete, A Dictionary of the Bible, ed. J. Hastings and J. A. Selbie; other works include Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament. See also Lexicons, A.

Dr. Martin Luther College, New Ulm Minn.

See Luther College, 3; Ministry, Education of, VIII B.


(Drost; Drust; Trust; ca. 470—ca. 540). A Briton; miss. in Scot.; est. a training center at (Old) Deer, in the dist. of Buchan, Aberdeenshire; trained many missionaries. See also Celtic Church, 9.


Priests of Celts of ancient Gaul, Brit., and Ireland; their learning, transmitted orally, was a mixture of religion, natural science, and medicine; among their objects of veneration were the oak and mistletoe. Though prominent politically and socially, Druids succumbed to the advance of Roman civilization in Gaul and S. Brit. and to the influence of Christianity in N. Brit. and Ireland. See also Celtic Church.

Drummond, Henry

(1851–97). Scot. ev. writer; lecturer on science and prof. theol. at the Glasgow coll. of the Free Ch. of Scot. Works include Natural Law in the Spiritual World.

Drummond, William Hamilton

(1863–1945). Eng. Unitarian. Ed. The Inquirer.

Drusius, Johannes

(Jan van den Driessche; 1550 to 1616). B. Audenarde, Belgium; Ref. exegete and orientalist; prof. oriental languages at Oxford 1572, Leiden 1577; prof. Heb. at Franeker 1585.


1. Christian of Stavelot (Grammaticus; 9th c.). Probably b. Burgundy; priest at Stavelot; gave exegetical lectures at Stavelot and Malmédy, Belgium; wrote Expositio in Matthaeum. MPL 106, 1259–1520. 2. Druthmar of Lorsch (d. 1046). Monk of Lorsch, Ger.; abbot of Corvey, Westphalia; noted for learning, zeal, strict observance of discipline; canonized.


(Druses). Religio-ethnic group; originated in the 11th c.; named after Muhammad ibn-Ismail al-Darazi, who held that al-Hakim (985–1021; 6th Fatimid caliph of Egypt 996–1021) was the last incarnation of the deity; believed to be of mixed Aramaic and Arabic descent; settled esp. in Lebanon, Anti-Liban, and the Hauran; some believed to be in China; religious system is monotheistic and contains elements drawn from various sources (e.g., Judaism, Christianity, and Islam); slaughtered ca. 2,500 Maronites* 1860.

Dryden, John

(1631–1700). Eng. poet, dramatist, satirist, critic; a chief formulator of modern Eng. prose. Joined RC Ch. 1685. Works include Religio Laici (defense of Anglicanism) and The Hind and the Panther (defense of RCm). See also Swift, Jonathan.

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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