Christian Cyclopedia

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Clarenbach, Adolf

(ca. 1500–29). Ref. martyr with Anabap. tendencies. Humanist. Studied at Münster and Cologne; conrector at Wesel 1524; banned; taught Lat. and NT at Osnabrück 1525; banished and went to Lennep 1527. Wrote dogmatic treatise with polemic against Rome. Rejected law; held that faith, hope, and love alone are truth. Arrested at Cologne April 3, 1528; in prison with P. Fliesteden* and burned with him September 28, 1529. Some scholars regard him as Waldensian, others as Luth.

Clarendon, Constitutions of.

Sixteen articles, or constitutions, drawn up 1164 at Clarendon, Eng., by advisers of Henry* II. They gave the king much authority in matters of patronage, crimes of clergymen, ecclesiastical trials, ecclesiastical property, election of higher clergy, and other matters. Alexander III (see Popes, 9) condemned 10 of the articles, tolerated the others. See also Becket, Thomas à.

Clare of Assisi

(1194–1253). It. nun; founded, with Francis* of Assisi, the Poor Ciares 1212, an order committed to poverty, penance, and contemplation. See also Franciscans.

Clark, Ephraim Weston

(April 25, 1799–July 16, 1878). B. Haverhill, New Hampshire Grad. Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, New Hampshire, 1824, Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem. 1827; ABCFM miss. to Sandwich Islands (Hawaii); arrived Honolulu in March 1828; helped start miss. in Micronesia 1852; worked on Bible rev.; tr. Bible dictionary.

Clark, Francis Edward

(1851–1927). Cong. pastor; founded Christian* Endeavor. Born Francis Edward Symmes at Aylmer, Quebec; orphaned; adopted by uncle; educ. Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, New Hampshire, and Andover (Massachusetts) Theol. Sem. Pastor Williston Ch., Portland, Maine, 1876; S Boston 1883. Full-time pres. United Soc. of Christian Endeavor 1887; pres. World's Christian Endeavor Union 1895.

Clarke, Adam

(ca. 1762–1832). B. Ireland; d. London; studied in Eng.; Meth. 1778; sent out as preacher 1782; traveled throughout Gt. Brit.; denied “the eternal sonship” of Christ; thrice pres. Brit. Conf.; scholar of comprehensive attainments; assisted in preparing an Arab. Bible; wrote an 8-vol. commentary on the Bible.

Clarke, James Freeman

(1810–88). Am. Unitarian cleric; grad. Harvard; helped est. the Ch. of the Disciples, a Unitarian ch. in Boston founded in the interest of freedom of individual belief and to apply the Christian religion to soc. problems; secy. Unitarian Assoc.; prof. natural theol. and Christian theol. at Harvard. Works include Ten Great Religions; Orthodoxy: Its Truths and Errors; ed. The Western Messenger.

Clarke, Samuel

(1675–1729). Eng. divine and metaphysician; chaplain to bp. of Norwich and Queen Anne; disciple of I. Newton*; opposed Cartesianism, deism,* materialism,* freethinkers,* doctrine of Trinity.* Works include A Discourse concerning the Being and Attributes of God, the Obligations of Natural Religion, and the Truth and Certainty of the Christian Revelation; The Scripture-Doctrine of the Trinity.

Clarke, William Newton

(1841–1912). Am. Bap. clergyman; prof. theol. Colgate U., Hamilton, New York, 1890–1908, Christian ethics 1908–12; helped popularize Modernism in Am. theol. sems.; disciple of A. Ritschl*; exponent of the theol. of experience. Works include An Outline of Christian Theology; The Christian Doctrine of God.


In Ref. chs. (e.g., Dutch and Ger. Ref. chs. in Eur. and Am.) a ruling body corresponding to the presbytery.* See also Reformed Churches, 1.

Class Meeting.

Distinctive feature of Methodist* chs.; introd. by J. Wesley in London 1742. A cong. is divided into classes, over each of which the pastor appoints a leader to see each person in his class to inquire concerning his soul's welfare, to advise, reprove, comfort, or exhort, and to receive contributions.

Clauberg, Johann Christoph

(1622–65). Prof. Leiden, Herborn, Duisburg; exponent of Cartesian philos.

Claude, Jean

(1619–87). B. SW Fr.; d. The Hague; leader of Fr. Ref. Ch.; pastor Nimes, Montauban, and Paris. Works include Traité de la composition d'un sermon.

Claudianus Mamertus

(ca. 425–ca. 474). Younger brother of Mamertus.* Christian monk and philos.; held soul is immaterial. His De statu animae shows influence of Augustine* of Hippo and Neoplatonism.*

MPL, 53, 697–786.


(d. ca. 830). Bp. Turin; noted for Bible commentaries and iconoclasm.

MPL 104, 609–928.

Claudius, Matthias

(1740–1815). Pseudonym: Asmus. Luth. lay poet; defended faith in age of rationalism; ed. Wandsbecker Bothe.

Claudius I

(Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus; 10 BC–54 AD). Roman emp. 41–54; expelled Jews from Rome ca. 50–52 and thus helped put Aquila and Priscilla in touch with Paul. (Acts 18:1–2)

Clausen, Claus Laurits

(Lauritz; November 3, 1820–February 20, 1892). B. Den.; teacher; lay preacher; went to Norw. 1841; to Am. 1843 to work among Norwegians; ordained by Buffalo Syn. October 18, 1843; pastor in Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, Virginia, and Pennsylvania; elected to Iowa state legislature 1856; Commissioner of Immigration 1856–59; army chaplain 1861–62. With A. C. Preus* and H. A. Stub,* the elder, organized Norw. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. 1851; helped organize Syn. for the Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am., commonly called Norw. Syn., 1853; its vice-pres.; helped organize The Conf. for the Norw.-Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. 1870; its pres.; ed. and author. See also Danish Lutherans in America, 3; Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 7, 8; Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, The.

O. M. Norlie, Prominent Personalities, mimeographed (Northfield, Minnesota, 1942); H. F. Swansen, The Founder of St. Ansgar: the Life Story of Claus Laurits Clausen (Blair, Nebraska, 1949).

Clausen, Henrik Nikolai

(Nicolai; 1793–1877). Dan. theol. Educ. U. Copenhagen; traveled in Eur. 1818 to 1820; influenced by Schleiermacher*; impressed by Rome; lector 1821, prof. NT 1822–74 and dogmatics 1831–74 U. Copenhagen; promoted modified rationalism*; engaged in controversy with N. F. S. Grundtvig.* Works include Catholicismens og Protestantismens Kirkeforfatning, Laere og Ritus; Christelig Troeslaere.

Clausnitzer, Tobias

(ca. 1619–84). Swed. Luth. cleric, author, and hymnist; chaplain 1644 in Thirty* Years' War; pastor Weiden, W Ger., 1649–84; mem. of consistory and district inspector there; hymns include “Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier” and “Wir glauben all' an einen Gott.”

Clay, Albert Tobias

(December 4, 1866–September 14, 1925). Archaeologist; orientalist. B. Hanover, Pennsylvania; educ. Franklin and Marshall Coll., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and at Mount Airy Sem. and U. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Assyrian fellow 1892–93, instr. Heb., U. Pennsylvania 1892–95; ordained 1892; pastor Philadelphia and South Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and Chicago, Illinois; instr. OT theol., Chicago Luth. Sem., 1895–99; instr. Heb., Mount Airy Sem., 1905–10; lecturer in Heb., Assyrian, and Semitic archaeology 1899–1903, asst. curator Babylonian and Semitic antiquities 1899–1910, asst. prof. Semitic philol. and archaeol. 1903–09, and prof. 1909–10, U. Pennsylvania; prof. Assyriology Yale 1910–25; curator Yale Babylonian Collection 1912–25; Reinicker lecturer Episc. Theol. Sem., Alexandria, Virginia, 1908; annual prof. Am. School of Oriental Research, Jerusalem, 1919–20. Ed. cuneiform texts. Works include Business Documents of Murashu Sons of Nippur dated in the Reign of Artaxerxes I; An Old Babylonian Version of the Gilgamesh Epic on the Basis of Recently Discovered Texts; Amurru, the Home of the Northern Semites; The Empire of the Arnorites; A Hebrew Deluge Story in Cuneiform; The Origin of Biblical Truditions.


(3d c. BC). Gk. Stoic philos.; succeeded Zeno* of Citium. See also Stoicism.

Clemen, Ferdinand

(d. 1847). Luth. pastor Lemgo, W Saxony; exponent of the Christian awakening or reaction against the Enlightenment.* See also Awakening, Revival Movement.

Clemen, Otto Konstantin

(1871–1946). Historian. Instr. Zwickau gymnasium; honorary prof. ch. hist. Leipzig 1928; authority on Reformation; contributed to WA; pub. selections of Luther's works with Albert Leitzmann.

Theologische Literaturzeitung, LXXVIII (August–September 1953), 541–560.

Clement III

(antipope). See Henry IV (Ger.).


1. Writings ascribed to Clement* I include 2 Letters to the Corinthians; Apostolic* Constitutions; 2 Letters to Virgins; Apocalypse of Clement (Apocalypse of Peter); letters in the Pseudo-Isidorian* Decretals; an Arab. Apocalypse; and 3 specifically called Clementines by convention: Homilies; Recognitions; Epitomes. Only the 1st letter to the Corinthians is considered authentic. See also Apocrypha C, 5; Apostolic Fathers, 1.

2. See Canon Law, 3.

Clement of Alexandria

(Titus Flavius Clemens; ca. 150–ca. 215). Gk. ch. father. Regarded as founder of Alexandria school of theol. Hymnist. B. probably Athens. Date and manner of conversion not known. After conversion he studied in It., Greece, Syria, Palestine, and elsewhere. In Alexandria he succeeded his master Pantaenus* as head of the school ca. 190–ca. 202, when he fled to Palestine under persecution; his pupil Origen* succeeded him as head of the school. Clement agreed with Gnosticism* in emphasis on knowledge but disagreed as to content of true knowledge. For him true knowledge presupposed the apostolic faith of the ch., based on divine revelation; regarded the OT and Gk. philos. as parallel streams leading Jews and Gks. to Christ; sometimes accused of universalism.* Works include Exhortation to the Heathen; Instructor; and Stromata; all written to show Christianity as the true philos. centered in Christ, the Logos, Mediator of knowledge and immortality to man. Hymns ascribed to him include “Shepherd of Tender Youth,” one of the oldest Christian hymns. See also Fathers of the Church; Federal Theology; Schools, Early Christian, 1; Tradition.

R. B. Tollinton, Clement of Alexandria, 2 vols. (London, 1914); C. Mondésert, Clément d'Alexandrie (Paris, 1944); J. Quasten, Patrology, II (West-minister, Maryland, 1953), 5–36; MPG, 8–9. EK

Clement VII.

1. Robert of Geneva (ca. 1342–94); antipope 1378–94 (see Babylonian Captivity, 2; Schism, 8).

2. Giulio de' Medici (1478–1534). Nephew of Lorenzo the Magnificent and cousin of Leo X (see Popes, 20); b. Florence, It.; cardinal 1513; pope 1523–34; taken prisoner 1527 when Rome was sacked by imperial troops; released; returned to Rome 1528; made peace with Charles V; refused to sanction divorce of Henry* VIII from Catherine of Aragon. See also Holy Leagues and Alliances, 5; Medici, 2.

Clement VIII

(antipope). See Schism, 8.

Clement VIII

(Ippolito Aldobrandini; 1536–1605). B. Fano, It.; pope 1592–1605; issued the Clementine ed. of the Vulgate 1592, standard RC Lat. Bible. See also Bible Versions, J 2; Caeremoniale Episcoporum; Curia, 2 f.


(clearstory). In the basilica and later forms of ch. architecture, the roof of the nave proper was often raised higher than that of the outer aisles; this gave rise to the clerestory: the outside wall, with windows, that supports the center roof; the corresponding interior space is also called clerestory.


Those separated to the work of the Christian ministry. The apostolic ch. knew of no ranks in the clergy (see Acts 20:17, 28: “elders” identified with “overseers,” i. e. “bishops”). From the time of Cyprian,* of Carthage, father of the hierarchical system, the distinction of clergy (from laity) as an order in the ch. and of ranks in the clergy became universal. In the RC Ch. the clergy became not only a separate order but were regarded as a priesthood with the office of mediatorship bet. God and men. To the distinction of presbyters (elders*) and bps., as differentiated in rank, was added the distinction of various classes of sacerdotal clergy: higher (subdeacon, deacon, priest, bishop,* metropolitan,* patriarch,* pope*); lower (doorkeepers, lectors, exorcists [see Exorcism], acolytes). Beginning in the later Middle Ages the regular clergy were mems. of monastic orders (under a regula, “rule”), the secular* clergy those who live in the world. “Benefit of clergy” was the privilege granted clergymen because of their office, e.g., exception from trial in civil courts (see Ap XXVIII 1, 2); the term refers also to the ministration or sanction of the ch. In Am. the clergy are gen. not considered a separate caste under civil law. See also Deacons; Hierarchy; Ministerial Office.


1. Principle that gives clergy control over pub. affairs in such areas as educ., marriage laws, and charities. 2. Championing the ch. in conflicts with the state. 3. Assumption by the clergy for its exclusive right of certain functions that belong to the universal priesthood.

Clerks Regular.

In RCm men who combine duties of secular clergy with vows of monks (e.g., Jesuits*).

Clermont, Council of

(1095). Presided over by Urban* II; Clermont (ancient Augustonemetum; S cen Fr., ca. 88 mi. E of Limoges; episc., see 4th c.; scene of several councils) was the scene of the launching of the 1st Crusade (see Crusades, 1).

Clichtove, Josse van

(d. 1543). Belg. theol.; educ. Louvain, Belg., and Paris under J. Lefèvre* d'Etaples; librarian Sorbonne; bp. Tournai, Belg., 1519, Chartres, Fr., 1521; opposed Luther. Works include Compendium veritatum … contra erroneas Lutheranorum assertiones.

Clifford, John

(1836–1923). Leader of Baps. in Eng.; concerned with soc. justice; a founder of the Nat. Council of the Ev. Free Chs.; its pres. 1898–99; first pres. Bap. World Alliance (see Union Movements, 10) 1905–11; pres. World Brotherhood Federation 1919–23. See also Baptist Union of Great Britain and Ireland.

J. Marchant, Dr. John Clifford (London, 1924).

Clifford, William Kingdon

(1845–79). Brit. mathematician and philos.; educ. Cambridge; prof. applied mathematics U. Coll., London, 1871–79. Held mind is ultimate reality; consciousness built of particles of “mind-stuff.” Ethics influenced by evolutionary theory. Conscience and moral law development of “self.” Works include Body and Mind. See also Metaphysical Society, The.


(ML claustrum, “room in a monastery”). 1. Monastery* or convent.* 2. Covered passage on side of a court with one side walled and the other open, usually connecting bldgs. around an open court.

Cloppenburg, Johannes

(Cloppenburch; 1592–1652). Neth. Ref. theol.; prof. Harderwijk and Franeker; opposed Mennonites, Arminians, and Socinians; forerunner of federal* theol..

Close Communion.

Policy whereby communion fellowship is limited to mems. of a syn. or denomination. See also Altar Fellowship; Fellowship; Galesburg Rule.

Clöter, Ernst Ottmar

(Ottomar; April 25, 1825–March 17, 1897). B. Bayreuth, Bav.; d. Valley Creek, Minnesota; educ. Erlangen, Leipzig; one of Löhe's* missioners; arr. Am. 1849; pastor Saginaw, Michigan, 1849 to 1857; miss. to Chippewa (Ojibwa) at Gabitaweegama, ca. 14 mi. N of Brainerd, Minnesota, W of the Mississippi R., bet. the river and Mission Lake. After the August 1862 Indian uprising laid the miss. station waste, new headquarters were est. at Crow Wing, Minnesota; miss. work discontinued here 1868. Pastor Stillwater (Zionsberg; Afton; Lakeland; Valley Creek), Minnesota, 1868–97; pres. Minnesota and Dak. Dist. of the Mo. Syn. 1882–85.

Clotz, Stephan

(Clotzius; Glozius; 1606–68). Luth. theol.; b. Lippe, Ger.; educ. Marburg; archdeacon 1629, prof. 1632 Rostock; gen. supt. Schleswig and Holstein and consistory mem. of the king in Den. 1636; provost and pastor Flensburg 1639. Works include De doloribus animae Jesu Christi … in horto ac in cruce; De sudore Just Christi sanguineo; Tractatus de angelolatria … una cum praefixa dissert. de natura & ratione idolatrias in genere; Pneumatica, sive theologia naturalis.

Clovis I

(Chlodowech; Chlodwig; ca. 466–511). King of Salian Franks; founded Frankish monarchy; his wife Clotilda persuaded him to be baptized 496; built Ch. of Holy Apostles (later called St. Geneviève), Paris; convoked first Council of Orleans* 511. See also France, 1.

Cluniac Reform.

The Cluniacs were not properly a distinct order, but were Benedictines* remodeled by the reform movement issuing from Cluny* in the 10th c. This reform purposed to restore the original strictness of the rule of Benedict* of Nursia, esp. as expounded by Benedict* of Aniane. Till then each monastery was an indep. unit; but the houses affiliated with Cluny were absolutely subject to its abbot. Gregory VII used the Cluniac movement in forcing celibacy* on the clergy. By the 12th c. the Cluniac movement was spent and in need of reform. The Cluniac order was dissolved 1790. See also Cistercians; Majolus.


Commune E cen. Fr. Benedictine* monastery founded there 910 by William I (the Pious; 886 to 918), duke of Aquitaine. From the middle of the 10th to the middle of the 12th c. it was the religious center of W Eur. Bernard* of Cluny was among its outstanding figures. See also Cluniac Reform; Odilo; Odo.

Clutz, Jacob Abraham

(January 5, 1848–September 7, 1925). B. Adams Co., Pennsylvania; grad. Pennsylvania Coll., Gettysburg, 1869; Luth. Theol. Sem. Gettysburg, 1872; pastor Newville, Pennsylvania, and Baltimore, Maryland, 1872–83; Gettysburg 1904–09; secy. Bd. of Home Miss., Gen. Syn., 1883–89; pres. Midland Coll., Atchison, Kansas, 1889 to 1904; prof. Western Theol. Sem., Atchison, 1894 to 1904; Luth. Theol. Sem., Gettysburg, 1909–25; mem. various committees and bds. of Gen. Syn. and ULC; active in formation of ULC Coed. Lutheran Missionary Journal and Lutheran Quarterly.

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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