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(10643 BC). Roman statesman, orator, and eclectic philos. Quaestor in Sicily 75; praetor 66; consul 63; banished 58; recalled 57; proconsul in Cilicia 5150. Sided with Pompey; later reconciled with Caesar; slain under 2d triumvirate. Fostered study of Gk.; noted for his orations, eclectic treatment of philos. and religious subjects. Works include De natura deorum; De finibus bonorum et maloram; De divinatione; De officiis; De amicitia.
Walking round a person or an object to exert influence or bestow honor. Examples are found among people of Indo-Eur. origin. Keeping the object on the right side is believed to produce a beneficial effect; keeping it on the left is thought to have an evil effect.
Monastic order founded on the Benedictine rule 1098 at Cîteaux, E Fr., by Robert de Molesme (ca. 10291111) to counteract the laxity that had overtaken the Cluniac* monks. Also called White Monks because of the color of their habit. Observed extreme simplicity of life, even poverty. Bernard* of Clairvaux entered the order 1112; under his influence and prestige it enjoyed remarkable development; mems. sometimes called Bernardines. The order spread quickly through W Eur. and to Eng. and Wales. It played an important part in Eng. sheep farming and in agricultural development, including horse and cattle breeding, in N and E Eur. But wealth and internal strife combined to result in decline. The most important reform movement launched in the 17th c. to remove these weaknesses was that of the Trappists.*
Effort by the ch. to reach with the Gospel the unchurched in poorer sections, slums, and pub. institutions (e.g., hospitals, prisons) of large cities; usually in charge of city missionaries, deaconesses, and soc. workers under ch. supervision.
Civil govt. is a divine inst. comprising the whole number of those through whom by divine ordinance the legislative, judicial, and ex. powers necessary for governing a commonwealth are administered in accord with the form of govt. obtaining in that commonwealth (Gn 9:6; Ex 3:122; Nm 27:1523; Jos 1:19; 1 Sm 9:16; 1 K 19:15; 2 K 8:13; Dn 2:21, 37; 4:17; Jn 19:1011; Ro 13:16). The duties of civil govt. are to promote the welfare of its people by protecting individuals and groups in their civil rights and to defend the state against dangers from within and without (1 Ti 2:2; Gn 9:6; Mt 26:52; Ro 13:4). Hence the power of the ch. and the civil power must not be mingled or confused (Jn 18:36; Mt 22:21; Acts 18:1217. Cf. AC XXVIII). In the administration of its duties, govt. makes use of all ways and means necessary and suitable for the proper discharge of its obligations. In carrying out its functions, govt. follows natural* law, the dictates of reason, experience, and common sense. The relation of mems. of a commonwealth to their govt. is that of subjects to authority. As subjects, they are, for conscience' sake to render their govt. honor, obedience, and service as far as this can be done without violating God's law. See also Church and State.
Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission
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The Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod
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