Christian Cyclopedia

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Chafer, Lewis Sperry

(1871–1952). Am. Presb. clergyman and educ.; conservative and dispensational in theol.; founder (1924) and pres. Dallas (Texas) Theol. Sem.; ed. Bibliotheca Sacra. Works include Satan; Systematic Theology (8 vols.).

Chair of Peter.

In NT “chair” used as symbol of authoritative teaching and exercise of authority (Mt 23:2 NEB). In early ch. apostolic chair or see (sedes apostolica) was bishopric allegedly founded by apostle (e.g., at Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem). Roman see early traced back to Peter; hence called “Peter's chair” (cathedra Petri; also sedes sancta, papalis, Romana). Chair on which Peter supposedly sat preserved at Rome (origin usually ascribed to much later period). In the 4th c. February 22 came to be celebrated as the date on which Peter ascended the chair. Jerome* placed celebration of Peter's chair at Antioch on February 22, at Rome on January 18; latter made official by Paul IV (pope 1555–59).

Chakko, Sarah

(1905–54). Syrian orthodox Christian; b. India; dir. Isabella Thoburn Coll., Lucknow, India, 1945; emissary of Student Christian Movement, and chm. in India, Burma, Ceylon; chm. of Committee for Life and Work of Women in the Ch., Ecumenical Council, Amsterdam, 1948; elected to praesidium of Ecumenical Council 1951.

Chalcedon, Council of.

The 4th Ecumenical Council, convoked by F. Marcianus,* was held 451 at Chalcedon, Bithynia, on the Bosporus, opposite Constantinople. This Council climaxed the 4th stage in the discussions about the person of Jesus Christ (see Christology) which caused great difficulty ca. AD 200–600. This controversy was triggered by Eutyches.* In effect he seemed to deny that true manhood remained in Jesus Christ after the personal union had taken place. He held that Christ was of two natures (in origin?), but that He did not exist in two natures after the incarnation. The hist. of the ch. in this period is marked by corrupt ecclesiastical politics and by fearful rivalry among the E sees of Alexandria, Antioch, and Constantinople, and bet. E and W. Roman bp. Leo the Great (see Popes, 2) brought considerable pressure to bear on E churchmen and finally secured adoption of his “tome” as the official doctrine about the 2 natures in Christ. The final creed of Chalcedon reads:

“We, then, following the holy Fathers, all with one consent, teach men to confess one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, the same perfect in Godhead and also perfect in manhood; truly God and truly man, of a reasonable [rational] soul and body; consubstantial [coessential] with the Father according to the Godhead, and consubstantial with us according to the Manhood; in all things like unto us, without sin; begotten before all ages of the Father according to the Godhead, and in these latter days, for us and for our salvation, born of the Virgin Mary, the Mother of God, according to the Manhood; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only-begotten, to be acknowledged in two natures, inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably; the distinction of natures being by no means taken away by the union, but rather the property of each nature being preserved, and concurring in one Person and one Subsistence, not parted or divided into two persons, but one and the same Son, and only-begotten, God the Word, the Lord Jesus Christ; as the prophets from the beginning [have declared] concerning him, and the Lord Jesus Christ himself has taught us, and the Creed of the holy Fathers has handed down to us.”

The authoritative role played by Leo enhanced his standing in the entire ch. Unfortunately many E nat. chs. could not agree to this formula; so the Christians of Armenia, Syria, and Egypt remained Monophysite* [only one nature] and thereby isolated themselves from orthodox Christianity.

See also Armenian Churches; Simony; Theotokos.

J. W. C. Wand, The Four Councils (London, 1951); P. Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom, 6th ed. (New York, 1931), II, 62–65; M. H. Scharlemann, “The Case for Four Adverbs,” CTM, XXVIII (December 1957), 881–892. HTM


Cup used to contain wine at celebration of Lord's Supper. Has been made of glass or precious metal; since the 4th c. some were decorated with precious stones. See also Church Furniture, 3.

Chalice Veil.

Square of colored brocade or similar material, often richly embroidered, used to cover the chalice (and paten) before the offertory and after the communion. First introduced into the W Ch. ca. the 16th c., the chalice veil was adopted in different parts of the ch. at different times. At an earlier date, a 2d corporal* was often (and is still occasionally) used to veil the chalice after the communion, with the chalice left unveiled before the offertory.

Chalmers, James

(August 4, 1841–April 8, 1901). B. Scot.; son of stonemason; blessed with rugged physique, courage, and abundant energy; called “Great Heart of New Guinea” by R. L. Stevenson. Sent to Rarotonga, Cook Is., by LMS 1866; went to New Guinea 1877; made explorations and est. chain of miss. stations along coast; landed with Oliver Tomkins and others on Goaribari Is., where they were clubbed to death and eaten by natives. Wrote Work and Adventure in New Guinea; Pioneering in New Guinea; Pioneer Life and Work in New Guinea, 1877–1894.

James Chalmers: His Autobiography and Letters, ed. R. Lovett, 5th ed. (London, 1903); K. Moxon, Tamate, Peacemaker of New Guinea (Washington, 1960); W. Robson, James Chalmers of New Guinea (London, [1933]).

Chalmers, Thomas

(1780–1847). Scot. theol.; noted preacher; mathematician; philanthropist. B. Anstruther, Scot.; educ. St. Andrews U.; minister at Kilmany 1803, Glasgow 1815; prof. of moral philos. at St. Andrews U. 1823; of theol. at Edinburgh 1828; left Est. Ch. with many followers and est. Free* Churcth of Scotland 1843; principal and prof. of theol. at New College, Edinburgh, 1843. Promoted Sunday and day schools for educ. poor; active in welfare work. Calvinistic in theol. Works include the first of the Bridgewater* Treatises; Institutes of Theology. See also Scotland, Reformation in, 2.

W. Hanna, Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Thomas Chalmers, new ed., 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1878); H. Watt, Thomas Chalmers and the Disruption [of the Church of Scotland] (Edinburgh, 1943); F. R. Webber, “Thomas Chalmers, the Walther of Scotland,” CTM, XVIII (June 1947), 411–429.


City E cen. Fr. Several important provincial councils held there in Middle Ages, one of most prominent being that ordered 813 by Charlemagne.* Its 66 canons included directives on educ. of clergy and on use of confession and Lord's Supper, and opposed abuses, esp. those deriving from greed.

Chamberlain, George W.

(August 13, 1839–July 31, 1902). Miss. in Brazil under Presb. Bd. North.

Chamier, Daniel

(1565–1621). Huguenot* theol.; defender of Calvinism in Fr.; strove for union of all Prots. in Fr.; made academy of Montauban a center for Ref. theol.

Champagnat, Marcellin Joseph Benoît

(1789–1840). Founder of Marist Brothers (see Marists).


1. Event that occurs indeterminedly without discernible human or divine intention or direction and not in assoc. with observable pattern, natural necessity, or causal relation. Chance events are occurrences not caused by conscious or unconscious teleology. 2. Assumed impersonal determiner of chance events.


Originally the sanctuary or space immediately around the altar.* Later the entire area set apart by an arch or screen, or the entire area in the ch. E of nave and transepts. See also Choir (architectural).


Episcopal chancery is office of diocese in which, under direction of bp. or his representative, all documents of diocese are drafted and processed. Office in charge of chancellor. Roman chancery (papal chancery, Apostolic chancery, Cancellaria Apostolica) was that branch of Roman curia* which drafted, and expedited papal bulls (see Bull) and briefs (see Breve). Cardinal called chancellor was at its head.

Chandieu, Antoine de la Roche

(1534–91). Ref. pastor; of noble extraction; won by Calvin for Protestantism; pastor Paris 1557–62; fled to Switz. after Bartholomew's* Day Massacre; chaplain to Henry of Navarre 1585; pastor Geneva 1588. See also Reformed Confessions, B.

Chandler, John

(1806–76). B. Witley, Surrey, Eng.; d. Putney. Educ. Corpus Christi Coll., Oxford; ordained deacon and priest; succeeded his father as vicar of Witley 1837; later Rural Dean; wrote numerous sermons and tracts; one of the earliest and most successful of modern translators, esp. of Lat. hymns.


In philos, of Lao-tzu (see Taoism) the eternal laws or principles.

Channing, William Ellery

(1780–1842). Am. Unitarian clergyman. Pastor Boston 1803; rejected Biblical doctrines of inspiration, Trinity, atonement, total depravity, devil, but accepted Christ's sinlessness, miracles, resurrection. His creed is in a sermon he preached at Baltimore at the installation of Jared Sparks* 1819. See also Unitarianism.


(Lat. cantus, “song”). The liturgy (Order of the Holy Communion) and the minor offices are often chanted, i. e., recited in a sung-spoken manner. The Luth., Angl., RC, Gk. Orthodox, and Russ. Orthodox are the main chs. which offer wide possibility for chanting the liturgy. Liturgical chant derives from W and E traditions. The former begins with Ambrosian* (Milanese, 4th c.), Gregorian,* Mozarabic,* Gallican,* and Sarum* chants. These can be placed under the common heading of plainsong. Early E traditions are called Byzantine, or Gk. Orthodox; Russ. developments came later. Both E and W forms can be traced through Jewish traditions to Egyptian and Indian ethos. All these branches and practices are monophonic, gen. unaccompanied, and, in the true sense of chant, free-rhythmic music. These features are found in music within and without the ch., though largely developed within the ch. After the Reformation Eng. developed her own manner of chanting. Chanting Psalms and Canticles at Morning and Evening Prayer developed into Angl. chant, which is to be sung in 4-part harmony; it may be sung in unison only with accompaniment. The reciting-note features are common to plainsong and Angl. chant, but the manner of making a cadence differs widely in melody and rhythmic pattern. Luther's Formula missae (1523) and Deudsche Messe or “German Mass” (1526) helped set the tone and attitude toward use of plainsong in the Luth. services of worship, ln early and developing periods of Lutheranism plainsong was widely used in chanting the propers* and the ordinary of the Order of the Holy Communion. It has remained in the decorum and habit of the ch. To chant the liturgy is a manner of prayer; it is a mark of the ch. in action to express God's sacramental work and respond sacrificially in praise and thanksgiving. See also Liturgics; Luther, Liturgies of.

Handbuch der deutschen evangelischen Kirchenmusik, ed. K. Ameln, C. Mahrenholz, W. Thomas, and C. Gerhardt, I in 2 parts: Der Altargesang (Göttingen, 1941–42); W. Apel, Gregorian Chant (Bloomington, Indiana, 1958); Schatz des liturgischen Chor- und Gemeindesgesangs, ed. L. Schoeberlein, 2 vols. (vol. 2 in 2 parts) (Göttingen, 1865–72). RRB

Chantal, Jeanne Françoise Fremiot de

(1572–1641). Fr. religious; founded Order of the Visitation of Mary (Visitation* Nuns).

Chantepic de la Saussaye.

1. Daniel (1818–74). Ref. pastor Leeuwarden, Leiden, and Rotterdam; prof. Groningen 1872; espoused ethical orthodox theol. 2. Pierre Daniel (1848–1920). Son of Daniel; prof. hist. of religion Amsterdam 1878, Leiden 1899; investigated phenomenology of religion. Works include Lehrbuch der Religionsgeschichte.

Chaoncy, Charles

(1705–87). Am. liberal clergyman; educ. Harvard; pastor First Ch., Boston, 1727–87; opposed Whitefield* revival movement and attempt to impose Angl. liturgy and episcopacy on America.


The word chapel originally (7th c.) probably denoted the temporary sanctuary which housed the cape (LL cappa) of Martin of Tours when it was carried along on military campaigns; later, any sanctuary containing relics; then building which differed in some ways from chs. (e.g., places of worship for schools, colleges, hospitals), special parts of chs. having their own altar (Chapel Royal and Chapel of Ease in Eng.), and private chs.; in Am. at times synonymous with ch.


Clergyman, usually with special, limited functions, as one employed in a private chapel to read the lessons and to preach; in Am. esp. men opening or conducting religious services in an assembly of a pub. or semipub. nature, as in legislature assemblies, pub. institutions, and the armed forces. See also Armed Services Commission.


One third of a rosary,* namely 55 beads, for 50 Ave* Marias and 5 Paternosters.*

Chapman, John

(1865–1933). Educ. Oxford; deacon Ch. of Eng. 1889; joined RC Ch. 1890. Entered Benedictine Order (see Benedictines) 1892; NT and patristic scholar; defended priority of Matthew.

Chappuis, Jean

(fl. 1500). Fr. canonist; compiled Extravagantes Johannis XXII and Extravagantes communes.

Chappuis, Paul Gabriel

(1892–1930). Ref. pastor Paris 1916, L'Auberson 1917, Etoy 1922, Geneva 1929. Wrote on the problem of religious knowledge and on influence of Stoicism on early Christian thought.


From custom of reading a chapter at meetings of monks, the place of meeting and assembly received name chapter. Later monks of a region (provincial) and of whole order (general) were called chapters. Then name extended to include mems. of corporate body responsible for ecclesiastical institution, more specifically a cathedral (cathedral chapter) or large ch. (collegiate chapter). ln late Middle Ages, cathedral chapters received increasing role in function of bp., right of electing him, and ultimately became indep. of episcopal control. Council of Trent partially restored authority of bp. over chapter. In Angl. Ch. chapters are practically indep. of bps.

In Luth. chs. which preserved episcopacy (e.g., in Scand.) chapter is head of diocese and includes bp. (chm.), dean, and additional mems., of whom at least some are elected by clergy and laity.

Ex. head of chapter usually called dean or provost.

Chapter, Little.

Short Scripture lesson read at canonical hours* except Matins.*

Chapters and Verses of the Bible.

Before the time of Christ the Jews divided the OT into parashoth and haftaroth for reading in the synagog on the Sabbath. The NT books were also divided at an early date into titles and chapters. S. Langton* is gen. considered as having introduced the present chapter divisions into the Vulgate ca. 1205. Verse divisions were first indicated 1551 by R. Estienne* I, a printer, in his 4th ed. of the NT Verse divisions were introd. a few yrs. later in the whole Bible.

Character indelebilis.

Term used in RC theol. to denote a certain spiritual mark said to be impressed on recipients of certain sacraments. “If anyone says that in three sacraments, namely, baptism, confirmation, and order, there is not imprinted on the soul a character, that is, a certain spiritual and indelible mark, by reason of which they cannot be repeated, let him be anathema” (Council of Trent, Sess. VII, can. 9 on the sacraments in gen.). The “character” of Baptism is said to distinguish the baptized (including Prots.) as soldiers of Christ and subject them to the pope and canon law, and the “character” of order is said to set apart clergy from laity. Sometimes called sacramental seal. See also Sacraments, Roman Catholic.


(Gk. charassein, “cut into, engrave,” and logos, “word, reason”). Study of character, esp. its development and difference. Character is evident in a person's behavior. Some regard character as a result of organic structure, including the form of the body. Others place greater stress on influence of environment. Rationalistic approaches regard character as a result of convictions or sense of values. Environment, convictions, and values are often religious.

Charities, Christian.

1. The Term. The word charity (pl. charities) is derived from Lat. caritas, used by Jerome* in the Vulgate for Gk. agape. But in KJV charity, the Anglicized form of caritas, is occasionally used when agape indicates love of man for his fellowmen (1 Co 13). It denotes primarily not such outward evidences of love as almsgiving, but love itself, an inner principle or attitude, a motive which determines man's relation to his fellowman and bestows a peculiar value on all his activities. Thus 1 Co 13 describes it as the greatest and most enduring Christian virtue.

2. Later Usage. As the ch. lapsed into legalism and as monastic ideals of morality developed, caritas. or charity, gradually assumed a meaning just the opposite of agape. ln the Middle Ages it meant simply “giving of goods to feed the poor,” which “profits nothing” without the motive of Christian love (1 Co 13). ln present usage the word charity means A. Christian love*; B. an attitude of sympathy toward those who are suffering from misfortune; C. liberality in caring for the poor and handicapped; D. tolerance in judging others. It has even acquired an obnoxious connotation of paternalistic benevolence with doubtful motivation and purpose. It is primarily because of these implications that modern revisers of the NT have substituted the word love for charity in tr. agape.

3. Institutional Usage. A “charity” is an eleemosynary institution or agency, founded and operated to assist the poor, sick, handicapped, orphaned, etc. without charge. In the 19th c. the concept of “charities” was broadened, and particular emphasis was laid on the natural “right” of the individual to benefit by the bounty of his fellowmen. It was out of this enlarged concept (which includes justice) that the Charity Organization movement was born 1869 in London; the first Charity Organization society in the US was founded 1877 in Buffalo. Much modern soc. work has developed from this source. The word charity in an institutional sense has now practically disappeared from the vocabulary of secular soc. work and has been largely replaced by “service,” a word more nearly expressive of motivation and methods used in our age to assist those in distress. (See Social Work). The word charity is still used, with diminishing emphasis, by such ch.-sponsored organizations for soc. service as Cath. Charities and Associated* Lutheran Charities.

4. Historical Development. In the OT the “charity” to be practiced by God's children was prescribed in many laws and ordinances. With the coming of Christ these rules were abrogated. The virtue of love for the neighbor was enjoined in the NT, but the expression of this attitude in deeds of love became a matter of Christian liberty. ln the apostolic age, besides the bread and wine, used for celebrating the Lord's Supper, Christians brought to the altar products of every kind to be distributed among the poor. Ca. 550 oblations were restricted for use of the clergy, and gifts for the poor were deposited in a special place. With the disintegration of morals attendant on the collapse of the Roman Empire and the economic crises into which soc. was plunged, the masses became pauperized; monasteries and such charitable institutions as hospitals became central points in dispensing charity. Rules and regulations were gradually est. Ca. one fourth of the income of of the ch. was set aside for charity in early centuries. The amount and character of charity dispensed by the ch. in following centuries varied, but the ch. remained as the only friend and benefactor of the poor and handicapped. Gradually the practice of charity came to be regarded as a meritorious service rewarded by God with special favors. The close of the Middle Ages saw Christian charity degenerate into crassest work-righteousness. With the Reformation a new day dawned for Christian charity. Luther championed the liberty of a Christian under God to express Christian love in conformity with Gl 6:9–10. Christians were again enjoined to practice charity as an expression of love to God and their fellowmen and as evidence of gratitude for unmerited grace bestowed through Jesus Christ.

5. The 19th c. esp. saw a great expansion of the work of organized Christian charity, originated and conducted largely through efforts of Luths. Deaconess* work was begun 1833 in Kaiserswerth, Ger., largely through efforts of T. Fliedner; Kaiserswerth produced many agencies and institutions of charity, aiding sick, forsaken, fallen, orphaned, and aged in almost every country of Eur. Also in 1833 there was est. in Hamburg “Das Rauhe Haus,” a great center of charitable work founded by Johann Hinrich Wichern,* father of the German Inner Mission movement. The orphanage at Halle, founded by A. H. Francke* and the colony for epileptics at Bielefeld, founded by F. von Bodelschwingh,* deserve special mention. In Eng. A. A. Cooper (7th Earl of Shaftesbury*), T. J. Barnardo,* and G. F. Müller* promoted great charitable enterprises. Den., Norw., Swed., and other Prot. countries shared in this greatest development of organized Christian charity since the days of the early ch.

6. The early hist. of the Luth. Ch. in the US includes reports on the charitable work of the only Luth. ch. in New York in 1674. This report, with similar items in following yrs., reveals the fact that Luth. congs. in the early days of the US did not shirk their charitable obligations. ln those days cong. action for relief of the poor seems to have been the universal custom, since the simple economy of life in a new country did not call for large, specialized agencies of charity. But with great pop. increase in the 18th and 19th c., such agencies were gradually est. W. A. Passavant* and J. F. Bünger* deserve special mention in this connection.

7. In 1945 almost 500 agencies and institutions of mercy operated under Luth. auspices in the US The existence of such a large Luth. network of professional welfare services, together with a wide variety of governmental and voluntary community welfare services fostered the ill-founded belief that the individual Luth. cong. need not be directly concerned with ministry to the troubled neighbor. But since 1950 congs. have increasingly recognized charity or soc. welfare as an integral element of witness and ministry. Most Luth. congs. have soc. welfare or soc. ministry committees which serve as catalysts bet. mems. of the cong. and those in need. Luth. welfare bds. have stimulated concern through theol. essays, educ. materials, and workshops. This partnership of cong. and agency in soc. welfare has furthered the ministry of compassion.

8. Since 1950 there has been a decided change in the relative roles and responsibilities of govt. on the one hand, and ch.-related and voluntary community and inst. chaplains on the other; surveys of existing and projected agencies have been made; interpretive materials have been pub.

9. In 1965 Assoc. Luth. Charities comprised 114 mem. agencies, classified in 4 groupings: 1. City and Inst. Missions; 2. Family and Child Care; 3. Care of the Aged; 4. Health and Hospitals. An Ex. Bd. of 9 elected mems. conducts the affairs of the organization. Officers include a pres., 1st and 2d vice-presidents, secy., treasurer, and bus. mgr.

10. The assoc. sponsors a biennial nat. conv. in odd-numbered yrs.; regional meetings are held in even-numbered yrs. in various major Luth. pop. centers in the US Since 1953 both the nat. and regional meetings have been held under joint auspices of Assoc. Luth. Charities and The Luth. Welfare Conf. in Am. (NLC), insofar as gen. sessions and workshops are concerned. The bus. sessions of each group are held separately because most Luth. health and welfare agencies are inter-Luth, in their auspices. The joint nat. convs. are called Luth. Health and Welfare Forums. The assoc. publishes Proceedings, containing membership roster, reports, and papers delivered at biennial convs.; Proceedings of the regional meetings; and The Good News, a religious monthly distributed in hospitals and other institutions by pastors and missionaries.

See also Aging and Infirm, Homes and Services for; Alms; Child and Family Service Agencies; Hospitals; Inner Mission. HFW, JCC


(Christian love). Greatest theol. virtue (1 Co 13). See also Charities, Christian, 1, 2.


(Charles the Great; Charles I; Ger. Karl der Grosse; Lat. Carolus Magnus; ca. 742–814). Founder of the Holy Roman Empire. Son of Pepin* the Short (founder of Carolingian dynasty). D. Aachen. Anointed (together with his father and his brother Carloman) king of the Franks 754; coruler with Carloman after Pepin died 768; sole ruler after Carloman died 771; crowned emp. of the Romans by Leo III December 25, 800. After his father and brother died he carried out the projects of his father and grandfather, bringing the Lombards into subjection in support of the papacy and assuming the Lombard crown. He then turned N to the task of conquering and Christianizing the Saxons, accomplishing this task after ca. 33 yrs. of successive campaigns. On extending the boundaries of his realm, he provided for speedy Christianization of acquired territory by covering the country with Christian institutions and forcing people to submit to Baptism and to full agreement with the cultus of the RC Ch. He considered such conversion of the whole pop. essential to the attainment of his pol. ends. To improve the moral and intellectual standards of the clergy, he required bps. and abbots to found schools in their cathedrals and monasteries. He summoned the most eminent educators of his own land and those of It., Sp., and Brit. (including Alcuin* of York) to direct an educ. program. Through monasteries and chs. he sought to spread civilization throughout his realm; promoted ch. music, previously neglected in Ger.; encouraged revival of Christian art; opposed iconoclasm and image worship. See also Ansegis.

J. Lord, Beacon Lights of History, III (New York, 1921), 55–91; C. W. Previté-Orton, The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History, rev. P. Grierson, l (London, 1953), pp. 303–333; H. Lamb, Charlemagne (New York, 1954); L. Wallach, Alcuin and Charlemagne (Ithaca, New York, 1959); R. Winston, Charlemagne (Indianapolis, 1954).

Charles, Elizabeth

(nee Rundle; 1828–96). Eng. author of popular works on various periods of ch. hist.; works include The Chronicles of the Schönberg-Cotta Family; original hymns; translations of hymns from Lat. and Ger.

Charles, Robert Henry

(1855–1931). B. Ireland; educ. Belfast and Dublin; prof. Biblical Gk. Dublin; lecturer Oxford; canon Westminster 1913, archdeacon 1919; scholar of Jewish eschatological, apocryphal, and apocalyptic writings; ed. Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English; other works include Religious Development Between the Old and the New Testaments; A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life, in Israel, in Judaism, and in Christianity.

Charles, Thomas

(1755–1814). Angl. pastor, then Meth. traveling preacher; founded Calvinistic Meth. Ch. in Wales.

Charles I

(1600–49). Son of James* I; father of Charles II (see England, C 1; Presbyterian Confessions, 1; Roman Catholic Church, D 9; Scotland, Reformation in, 3); king of Gt. Brit. and Ireland 1625–49; tried unsuccessfully to impose episcopacy See also Hammond, Henry.

Charles I.

Holy Roman emperor. See also Charlemagne.

Charles II

(king of Gt. Brit. and Ireland). See England, C 1.

Charles II

(823–877). Called “Charles the Bald”; Fr. Charles le Chaave. Holy Roman emperor 875–877. King of Fr. (Charles I) 840–877.

Charles IX

(of France). See France, 9.

Charles IX

(1550–1611). Son of Gustavus* I; regent of Swed. 1599–1604, king 1604–11. See also Lapland; Sweden, Lutheranism in, 1.

Charles Martel

(Fr. “Hammer”; Ger.: Karl Martell; ca. 689–741). Father of Pepin* the Short; Frankish ruler of Austrasia 715–741; defeated Muslims (Saracens; Arabs, who invaded southern Fr. 719) 732 near Tours and Poitiers.

Charles V

(1500–58). Holy Roman emperor; elected 1519, crowned 1530. King (Charles I) of Sp. 1516 to 1566. His treatment of the Reformers was conditioned by his political and military needs in the struggle with the Fr. and Turks. He condemned Luther in the Edict of Worms* 1521; was tolerant toward the Lutherans at Speyer* 1526 because the League of Cognac and the menace of the Turks created an unfavorable situation for him; took a firm stand against the Lutherans at Speyer* 1529 because he felt strengthened by the Peace of Cambrai.* At the time of the Augsburg Diet 1530 he needed support of Ger. princes against the Turks and therefore could not afford to crush Lutheranism. The Religious Peace of Nürnberg* 1532 gave the Lutherans religious liberty for a year. The alliance bet. the Turks and the Fr. doubtless motivated the emp. to make further concessions to the Lutherans at Speyer 1541 and 1544. He crushed the Schmalkaldic* League 1547 but was constrained through the efforts of Maurice* of Saxony to sign the Passau Treaty 1552. Permitted the passage of the Peace of Augsburg* 1555. Resigned 1556; spent his remaining days at the monastery of San Jerónimo de Yuste, Estremadura, Spain.

E. Armstrong, The Emperor Charles V, 2 vols. (London, 1902); K. Brandi, The Emperor Charles V, tr. C. V. Wedgwood (New York, 1939); R. Tyler, Emperor Charles the Fifth (Fair Lawn, New Jersey, 1956); G. von Schwarzenfeld, Charles V: Father of Europe, tr. R. M. Bethell (Chicago, 1957).

Charles VII

(of France). See France, 3.

Charles X Gustavus

(1622–60). King of Swed. 1654 to 1660. See also Sweden, Lutheran Church in, 2.

Charles XI

(1655–97). King of Swed. 1660–97. See also Sweden, Lutheranism in, 2.

Charles XII

(1682–1718). Called “The Alexander of the North” and “Madman of the North.” King of Swed. 1697–1718. See also Sweden, Lutheranism in, 2, 3.

Charnock, Stephen

(1628–80). Puritan*; b. and d. London; proctor Oxford; chaplain to Henry Cromwell in Dublin; returned to Eng. ca. 1660 as preacher without ® charge; joint pastor with Thomas Watson of a Presb. cong., London. Wrote Existence and Attributes of God.


(Fr. maison chartreuse). Carthusian* religious house. Most famous one est. 1371 in London by Walter de Manny, endowed 1611 by Thomas Sutton.

Chartres, School of.

School of the 7 liberal arts and classical learning founded by Fulbert.* Other important leaders of the school included Bernard* of Chartres, his younger brother Thierry* of Chartres, Bernard* (Silvestris). William* of Conches, Gilbert* de la Porrée, and John* of Salisbury.


(Lat. castitas, from castus, “pure, chaste, continent, holy”). Adherence to religious or moral standards in matters pertaining to sex; often abstention from sexual intercourse.

Theologically, chastity is regulated sexual activity based on Gn 1:27; 2:18–25 which precludes arbitrary refusal of sex acts (1 Co 7:2; 1 Ti 4:3; Heb 13:4) or autonomous use (Mt 5:28; Ro 1:24–32; 6:15–20; 1 Th 4:3–8). In marriage chastity integrates sex with the whole personal and spiritual relationship bet. marriage partners (1 Co 7:39; Eph 5:25–33) and outside marriage requires abstention from use of powers of propagation and all forms of fornication (Ro 1:24–32; 1 Co 6:15–20). Transgressions of the laws of chastity occur in thought or desire (Mt 5:28), word (Eph 5:3, 12), and deed (1 Co 6:15).

In opposition to dualistic conceptions, Christian ethics regards natural sexual desires as good and their use in marriage a virtue (1 Co 7; Heb 13:4). ln non-Christian cults sexual relations are often considered taboo and forbidden at certain times or to certain people.

In Christian ethics abstinence* may be practiced for certain purposes (Mt 19:12; 1 Co 7).


(Fr. from LL casubla, “hooded garment”). Ecclesiastical vestment in form of wide sleeveless cloak that slips over the head but remains open at sides; its color varies with season or occasion; worn by celebrant at eucharistic service in RC and E Orthodox and in some Angl., Episc., and Luth. chs. See also Vestments, Clerical.

Chateaubriand, François René de

(1768–1848). Fr. writer and staesman. Works include Génie du christianisme; Les Martyrs; Essai sur les révolutions.

Chaucer, Geoffrey

(ca. 1340–1400). Eng. poet. Works include Canterbury Tales; prose tr. of Boethius's* De consolatione philosophiae.


The methods and ideas of the Chautauqua movement are traceable to the Chatauqua Lake Sunday School Assembly and its first season at Chautauqua Lake, New York, August 4–18, 1874. The program was soon enlarged to include all branches of popular educ., presented in a variety of courses, lectures, religious addresses, entertainments, and concerts. See also Adult Education; Vincent, John Heyl.

Chelcicky, Peter

(Peter of Chelcice; ca. 1390 to ca. 1460). B. and d. Chelcice, S Bohemia. Extremely creative Hussite* lay theologian; social radical; writings wielded formative influence on the first-generation Bohemian* Brethren. Taught absolute separation of believers and the world; demanded strict adherence to Sermon on the Mount, central law of Christian life, which springs from baptismal regeneration and radical lifelong repentance. True believers, always a minority, are to flee communion with nominal Christians, esp. priests who administer Office of the Keys carelessly. Since a Christian may not use the sword, Chelcicky rejected Hussite warfare. Works include Postilla and Sit' viry (net of faith; Netz des Glaubens).

P. Brock, The Political and Social Doctrines of the Unity of Czech Brethren in the Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Centuries (The Hague, 1957); J. Goll, Quellen und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Böhmischen Brüder, II (Prague, 1882); M. Spinka, “Peter Chelcicky,” Church History, XII (December 1943), 271–291. MSF

Chemnitz, Martin

(Chemnitius; Chemnicius; Kemnitz; Kemnitius; Kemnicius; 1522–86). B. Treuenbrietzen, Brandenburg; weaver's apprentice 1538; educ. Magdeburg 1539–42, U. Frankfurt an der Oder 1543–44. U. Wittenberg 1545–47, U. Königsberg (Kaliningrad) 1547–48; taught school Calbe 1542–43, Wriezen an der Oder 1544–45, Kneiphof school (Königsberg) 1548–49. At Wittenberg and Königsberg assoc. with a relative, Georg Sabinus (1508–60), son-in-law of Melanchthon. Melanchthon impressed on him the importance of the proper distinction bet. Law and Gospel. With Sabinus to Salfeld during pestilence 1549; studied Peter* the Lombard and M. Luther*; to Königsberg 1550; castle librarian under Albert* of Prussia 1550 to 1552; interest shifted increasingly from astrology, which he began to study at Magdeburg, to theology; opposed A. Osiander in justification controversy; in intricacies of this controversy he resigned post at end of 1552; to Wittenberg April 1553; guest at Melanchthon's table; mem. U. Wittenberg faculty January 1554; lectured on Melanchthon's Loci till October 20; ordained by Bugenhagen November 25; to Brunswick as coadjutor of J. Mörlin* December 1554; conducted public disputations twice a yr.; continued lecturing on Melanchthon's Loci; 1557 with Mörlin to Wittenberg in connection with adiaphoristic and synergistic controversies, and to Worms, where RCs and Luths. met; wrote widely accepted De Coena Domini 1561. Other works include Enchiridion.

Struggles with Jesuits began 1562 when Chemnitz attacked Cologne Jesuits in Theologiae Jesuitarum praecipua capita; D. de P. de Andrada* answered with Orthodoxarum explicationum de controversiis religionibus capitibus libri decem. Chemnitz replied with Examen Concilii Tridentini (see Trent, Council of). Concentrating on dogmatic decrees, Chemitz spared himself the effort of discussing decrees of reform. He canonized for his readers the extreme conservative interpretation of Trent's decrees by taking Andrada's work as his commentary on the council's decrees. The theol. of Examen is that of a disciple of Luther and Melanchthon; its methodology is that of Biblical theol. somewhat suspicious of scholastic philos.; but there is wide use of patristic evidence.

Chemnitz returned with Mörlin 1567 to Prussia to prepare a collection of symbolic books for the Luth. Ch. in Albert's domain; supt. Brunswick 1567; aided in claiming predominantly RC Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel for Lutheranism beginning 1568; issued theol. opinion regarding Majoristic* controversy 1568. With Chytraeus* reworked Jakob Andreä's* Swabian Concordia 1574–75 to produce Swabian-Saxon Concordia; participated in Torgau Conf. 1576, and in Bergen Abbey Conf. 1577, in which FC was produced; with N. Selnecker* and T. Kirchner* prepared Apologia oder Verantwortung des christlichen Concordienbuchs, pub. 1582. Helped Julius* of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel organize U. Helmstedt 1575–76. Rift in friendship occurred 1578 when Julius had his 14-yr.-old son made bp. of Helberstadt and 2 other sons tonsured according to RC ritual. Chemnitz urged cautious adoption of Gregorian calendar 1582. His Loci theologici quibus Ph. Melanchthonis communes loci perspicue explicantur pub. 1591 by P. Leyser*; other works include De duabus naturis in Christo (1570). A popular adage runs: “If Martin [Chemnitz] had not come along, Martin [Luther] would hardly have survived” (Lat. Si Martinus non fuisset, Martinus vix stetisset). ACP

See also Lutheran Confessions, C 2; Neostadiensium admonitio.

The Doctrine of Man in Classical Lutheran Theology, ed. H. A. Preus and E. Smits (Minneapolis, 1962); A. G[räbner], “An Autobiography of Martin Kemnitz, Translated from the German and Latin,” TQ, III (October 1899), 472–487; R. Mumm, Die Polemik des Martin Chemnitz gegen das Konzil von Trent (Leipzig, 1905); A. C. Piepkorn, “Martin Chemnitz' Views on Trent: The Genesis and the Genius of the Examen Concilii Tridentini,” CTM, XXXVII (January 1966), 5–37; T. Pressel, Martin Chemnitz, in Leben und ausgewählte Schriften der Väter trod Begründer der lutherischen Kirche, ed. J. Hartmann et al., VIII, in vol. 4 (Elberfeld, 1862); P. J. Rehtmeyer, Antiquitates ecclesiasticae inclytae urbis Brunsvigae, III (Brunswick, 1710), 273–536 and supplement 118–464; Vita Martini Chemnicii in Examen concilii Tridentini per Martinum Chemnicium scriptum, ed. E. Preuss (Berlin, 1861). pp. 925–958.

Chemnitz Conference.

Conf. formed 1878 in Chemnitz, Saxony, by Luths. who upheld their confessions of faith and opposed the Prussian* Union, sects, and separatists.


In Chinese thought beginning with Confucius: honesty; sincerity; reverence; absolute true-self; fulfillment of self; being true to nature of being.

Cheng Ching-yi

(1881–1940). B. Peking; d. Shanghai. Cong. pastor; participated in World Miss. Conferences; active in union efforts; pres. Chinese Miss. Soc.; emphasized Christian life.

Ch'eng Hao

(Master Ming-tao; 1032–86). Chinese philos.; with his brother Ch'eng Yi (Master of Yich'uan; 1033–1107) developed a system of neo-Confucianism.

Cherubini, Maria Luigi Carlo Zenobio Salvatore

(1760–1842). It. composer of opera and sacred music; childhood genius evident in 3 masses, an oratorio, 3 cantatas, and several smaller works, all composed before he was 16. In his 2d period of composition he wrote numerous operas. Later, on appointment to the Fr. Chapel Royal 1816, he returned to sacred music. Greatest works include Mass in F; Mass in A; Requiem in C Minor; Requiem in D Minor.

Chesterton, Gilbert Keith

(1874–1936). Eng. author; joined RC Ch. 1922; wrote many works in its defense; mystical in approach to religious thought. Works include Heretics; The Catholic Church and Conversion; The Everlasting Man; Orthodoxy.

Cheyne, Thomas Kelly

(1841–1915). B. London; d. Oxford. Eng. clergyman and biblical critic; educ. Oxford and Göttingen; disciple of G. H. A. Ewald; mem. OT rev. bd. 1884; prof. interpretation of Scripture, Oxford, 1885–1908; wrote on OT; joint ed., with J. S. Black, Encyclopaedia Biblica.


(Chinese; originally “vapor, gas”; later used in physical, metaphysical, psychological, physiological senses). 1. Concrete thing or definite object as contrasted with Tao (unitary first principle with no spatial restriction or concrete form). 2. Material force as opposed to principle. Used with regard to intangible, invisible, ineffable thing or force. Before neo-Confucianiasm, “vital force” denoting psychophysiological power associated with breath and blood. 3. Variety of meanings: vital force in operation of active (yang) and passive (yin) principles; morale; five forces (metal, wood, water, fire, soil); reality of ultimate vacuity; principle of differentiation and individuation; undifferentiated matter transcending shape and features.


In Chinese philos. and religion: teaching; system of doctrine.

Chicago Lutheran Theological Seminary.

Founded 1891 by the General* Council of the Ev. Luth. Ch. in N. Am. through the activity of W. A. Passavant* at Lake View, at the (then) N edge of Chicago; moved 1910 to Maywood, directly W of Chicago, and became known as Maywood* Theol. Sem. See also Indiana Synod (II); Ministry, Education of, X M; Weidner, Revere Franklin.

Chicago School of Theology.

An approach to theol. developed at Chicago U. under leadership of S. Mathews,* S. J. Case,* et al. It made soc. experience cen. and basic to all theol. systems.

Chicago synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church.

Name adopted 1895 by Indiana* Syn. (II). Divided 1920 among the following ULC syns.: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 7, 8, 12, 19.

Chicago Theological Seminary

(United Ch. of Christ). Est. 1857 by delegates from Cong. chs. in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, and Wisconsin; inc. 1855; began work 1858; affiliated with U. of Chicago 1915. Institutes assoc. with the sem.: Ger., est. 1882; Dan. Norw., founded 1884; Swed., begun 1885, all reorganized as institutes 1893.

Chicago Theses.

Theses formulated at Chicago, March 11–13, 1919, by representatives of the August Syn., the Iowa Syn., the Joint Syn. of Ohio, the LFC, the NLCA, the UDELC, and the ULC; all these groups were mems. of the NLC The theses were later reexamined and incorporated as section IV of the Minneapolis* Theses.

CTM, I (September 1930), 688–691, and XV (March 1944), 194–197; Journal of Theology of the American Lutheran Conference, VI (January 1941), 14–17; TM, VII (April 1927), 114–117; R. C. Wolf, Documents of Lutheran Unity in America (Philadelphia, 1966), pp. 293, 298–301.

Chicago Theses

(Intersynodical Theses; Theses for Union). Intersynodical confs. 1903–06 at Watertown and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Detroit, Michigan, and Fort Wayne, Indiana, failed to solve the differences on predestination and conversion. The Iowa Syn. suggested gen. and open confs. for discussion of points at issue 1913. Pastors of the disputing syns. signed the St. Paul Theses at St. Paul, Minnesota, 1916, and demanded that the matter be taken up officially. A colloquy began 1917, with representatives of the syns. concerned participating. As a result, the Chicago Thesen über die Bekehrung, Prädestination und andere Lehren were unanimously adopted April 15, 1925, at Chicago by representatives of the Buffalo, Iowa, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin Syns. Agreement on the article of predestination was brought about by G. J. Fritschel,* who accepted G. K. Stöckhardt's* view. Representatives of Ohio, Iowa, and Buffalo Syns. and the NLCA adopted the Minneapolis* Theses November 18, 1925, at Minneapolis, Minnesota. An intersynodical committee revised the Chicago Theses at St. Paul, Minnesota, August 2, 1928. This revision was presented to the Mo. Syn. conv. at River Forest, Illinois, 1929. The Mo. Syn. mems. of the intersynodical committee held that fraternal relations were “at present excluded by the connections into which … these synods have entered,” but urged, at the same time, that action be taken on the Theses. An examining committee had recommended that the Theses be rejected. The floor committee on intersyn. matters recommended in its report that the Theses be not accepted “in their present form” and that the syn. instruct a committee “to formulate theses which, beginning with the status controversiae, are to present the doctrine of the Scriptures and the Lutheran Confessions in the shortest, most simple manner.” The report was adopted. See also Brief Statement; Free Lutheran Conferences, 2–5; Instuitu Fidei.

Chicago Thesen über die Bekehrung, Prädestination und andere Lehren: Angenommen von Vertretern der Synoden von Buffalo, Iowa, Missouri, und Wisconsin, 2d ed. (n. p., 1926); Chicagoer Thesen über die Bekehrung, Prädestination und andere Lehren (St. Louis, n. d.); TQS, XXVI (October 1929), 250–273; “Schlussbericht des Intersynodalen Komitees,” TQS, XXV (October 1928), 266–288; Proceedings of Mo. Syn. convs., esp. 1929 (St. Louis, 1929), pp. 110–113. EL

Child and Family Service Agencies.

1. Child welfare activities in the US began with provisions for homeless or neglected children. In the colonial period such children were either placed in mixed almshouses (public institutions in which the mentally ill, epileptic, alcoholic, aged, and others were also housed) or in families as apprentices or indentured servants. In the early 1800s the number of homeless children increased as a result of wars and epidemics of cholera and yellow fever. The inherent evils of almshouse care led to the establishment of children's institutions or orphanages, primarily under religious and nonsectarian auspices. Pub. provision was greatly expanded after the Civil War with the creation of homes for soldiers' and sailors' orphans and of state schools for dependent children. From the beginning, most state institutions placed children into family homes as soon as possible. In 1853 the Children's Aid Soc. of New York City became the first special agency for child placement in the US In subsequent decades many such agencies were est. under private auspices. Beginning with the 1909 White House Conf. on the Care of Dependent Children, there was concern for keeping the child at home, even if the home was poverty-stricken. Beginning 1911 with Illinois, most states soon est. a system of pub. aid for children in their own homes. These programs were superseded by the act entitled Aid to Dependent Children, inaugurated 1935 by the federal Social Security Act. This program and other provisions of the Soc. Security Act have greatly helped prevent child dependency.

2. Pub. agencies are concerned largely with financial assistance to dependent children and families. Private agencies, religious and nonsectarian, concentrate primarily on placement and counseling services. Most child welfare agencies originally operated by or affiliated with denominations have become nonsectarian either in effect or in fact. Exceptions include the RC, Jewish, Luth., and Episc. agencies.

3. Child welfare was first undertaken by Luths. in Am. 1737, when refugees from Salzburg, resettling in Georgia, set up an asylum for the needy. That yr. a plague of fever left many orphans who were cared for at Ebenezer, the first Prot. orphanage in Am. Later developments in Luth. welfare are noted in the following hist. and analysis of child and family services offered by agencies related to the LCMS

4. The first structured concern for dependent children in the Mo. Syn. was a fruit of faith of the Luth. Charities Assoc., an agency composed of congs. in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. The assoc. was est. and incorporated 1863 under leadership of C. F. W. Walther* to plan, structure, and coordinate the health and welfare ministry of the ch. Under guidance of the assoc. the first orphanage in the syn. was est. 1868 at Des Peres, Missouri. By 1900 eight orphanages had been est. in various sections of the country, primarily in the Midwest and Great Plains states. For almost 30 yrs. institutional care was the predominant form of service offered by Luth. agencies to dependent children.

5. A significant development occurred 1896 in the founding of the Children's Friend Soc. of Wisconsin, the first syn. agency concerned with placement of children in foster families (either private homes in which children would be cared for till reunion with parents could be effected, or homes in which children would become permanent members of families through legal adoption). Ten more agencies for foster care were created in a decade. Then building new orphanages ceased. While institutional care was to remain the primary service rendered to dependent children for many yrs., foster care programs of all agencies steadily increased in significance. The turning point was reached in the early 1940s, when for the first time the number of children in foster care exceeded those in congregate care. Increased awareness of the prime importance of the Christian family as the major influence on the soc., emotional, and spiritual development of children led to this change in emphasis.

6. Out of the awareness that no single service program could meet the needs of every dependent child, multifunction agencies began to arise in the late 1930s. Some were created through merger of previously separate orphanages and foster care agencies, others through broadening the range of agency services. All child welfare agencies affiliated with the syn. and est. since 1943 have offered a wide range of service programs.

7. The first child care programs of Luth. agencies tended to focus almost exclusively on children rather than on the family units of which they were part. This emphasis was understandable and realistic because most children served were orphans either in reality or in effect. Rehabilitiation of the family unit was impossible in most cases. This has changed dramatically. In 1951 less than 1 percent of the children in the care of Luth. agencies were either full or half orphans. Since the Great Depression of the 1930s the primary reasons for acceptance of new children into agency care have included severe marital discord, parent-child relationship problems, and similar social-emotional factors. Parental death and desertion have been insignificant factors since WW II. Thus today's dependent children do have families; Luth. agencies minister to the whole family. Family casework (counseling services designed to strengthen family life and help family mems. with their problems of adjustment) is now an integral service of almost all Luth. welfare agencies.

8. The typical Luth. agency offers these services: temporary foster care for children, adoptive placements, unwed mother services, and family counseling. In addition, some children's services offer institutional care for severely emotionally disturbed children. A few Luth. agencies also maintain group-care facilities for emergency shelter of dependent children, pending placement in suitable foster homes. Institutions or orphanages for long-term care of stable, healthy dependent children no longer exist in the Luth. Ch.

9. The ministry of Luth. agencies to dependent children operates on these principles: (1) the primary service focus is to rehabilitate the family unit, restoring the home to maximum spiritual, social, and emotional effectiveness; (2) prevention of the need for placement of the child away from the family unit wherever possible; (3) provision of a placement situation appropriate to the child's special needs, if placement proves to be necessary; (4) permanent adoptive placement of a child in a Luth. family when his own home cannot be restored. All Luth. agencies are family focused (primarily on the child's own family, and on substitute family experiences when these resources become necessary).

With rare exceptions, all Luth. welfare agencies are directly related to the welfare ministry of the congs. under whose auspices the services are rendered. The purpose of the agencies is to render services that the congs. are unable to provide because of state law requirements, extent of financial needs, professional skills required, or demands of confidentiality. Luth. welfare agencies supplement, but never supplant, the welfare ministry of the cong.

10. For a complete and current listing of Luth. child and family service agencies consult latest ed. of Lutheran Health and Welfare Directory (Nat. Luth. Soc. Welfare Conf., New York, New York); latest ed. of Lutheran Annual (CPH, St. Louis, Missouri). For information concerning trends and developments in these welfare fields consult latest ed. of The Social Work Yearbook (Russell Sage Foundation, New York, New York), issued in odd-numbered years. JCC

See also Charities, Christian, 5; Inner Mission.

Children's Special Service Mission.

Organized 1868 in Eng. to supplement the work of the ch., SS., and home among children; distributed literature in Eng., Fr., Dutch, Dan., Swed., Tamil; pub. Our Own Magazine; Our Boys' Magazine.


See Millennialism.

Chillingworth, William

(1602–44). Anglican. B. Oxford; d. Chichester. RC 1630; Angl. again 1634; Arminian; chancellor Salisbury 1638; chaplain in royal army; captured; d. in captivity. Wrote The Religion of Protestants a Safe Way to Salvation, vindicating the sole authority of the Bible and the individual's right to study it. See also Arminianism; Christian Church, History of, the III 10.

China, People's Republic of.

(LL Sinae). 1. E Asia; probably ancient Seres; medieval Cathay; rep. 1911; area, including outlying territories: 3,760,339 sq. mi.; Latitude ca. the same as that of N. Am. countries (Hudson Bay to Nicaragua); climate similar to that of N. Am. Greater part of the country is mountainous, but there are large tracts of fertile soil, chiefly on the plains and in the valleys of the great rivers. Most important rivers are the 3,200-mi. Yangtze; the 2,700-mi. Hwang Ho or Yellow; the 1,780-mi. Amur; the 1,200-mi. Si or West. The 1,000-mi. Grand Canal, from Hangchow to Peking, connects the Yangtze and the Hwang Ho.

2. The Chinese belong to the Mongoloid race. Civilization early reached a high stage of development in China, but then remained at a standstill for centuries, with the country closed to for. influences. Educ. was held in highest esteem but was not common. Rigorous examinations in the classical literature of the country were required for pol. preferment. But after the 1911 revolution, educ. was opened to the masses, including women, and W science was introd.

3. Early Chinese hist., highly elaborated and embellished by Chinese historians, is obscure. Many dynasties are recorded of which no tangible trace appears. But China was a civilized nation when all Eur. nations were steeped in barbarism. Its culture antedates that of Greece and Rome. The oldest dynasty bordering on hist. domain appears to be the Shang dynasty (ca. 1766–ca. 1122), followed by the Chou dynasty (ca. 1122–ca. 255), founded by Wu Wang. During the latter dynasty Confucius* and other prominent men, whose writings are still extant, flourished.

4. The 3 hist. religions of China are Taoism,* Buddhism,* and Confucianism.* Other non-Christian religions that entered China include Zoroastrianism,* Manichaeism,* Islam,* and Judaism.* All over China there is a multitude of temples; ritualistic acts are constantly performed by gen. ignorant priests and monks. The average Chinese lives in constant dread of evil spirits, whose malicious intentions he must thwart, whose anger he must appease. Ancestor* worship is an outstanding feature of Chinese cultus.

5. In the early hist. of Christianity, Christian thought appears to have penetrated into China. Nestorianism,* which, according to an 8th c. tablet discovered ca. 1625 near Sian, entered China in the 6th or 7th c., survived there till ca. the 14th c., when it succumbed to persecution.

6. Marco Polo, famed 13th c. traveler, mentions Christian chs. in China. John* of Montecorvino entered China 1294. In the 16th c. M. Ricci* and others came. Dominicans came from Mexico to Macao (Heungshan) 1587; Coqui (Cocchi) reached the mainland 1630. Dominicans and Franciscans lodged protests in Rome against Jesuitic accommodation to paganism. In 1645 Innocent X issued a decree against the practices of the Jesuits as described by Morales, a Dominican. In 1656 Alexander VII sanctioned the practices as described by the Jesuits. In 1692 Emp. K'ang-hsi legalized dissemination of the Christian religion throughout the empire. In 1704 Clement XI confirmed a decree issued by the Inquisition forbidding the use of Shang-ti and T'ien and approving T'ien Chu; it forbade tablets bearing the characters Ching T'ien in churches; it prohibited Christians from taking part in sacrifices to Confucius or to ancestors; it proscribed ancestral tablets with characters calling them the throne or seat of the spirit of the deceased, but permitted tablets with merely the name of the dead. (See also Chinese Term Question.) Yung Chêng (emp. 1723–35), son and successor of K'ang-hsi, inaugurated persecutions that continued many yrs. Many anti-Christian laws were promulgated. Later, under Fr. colonial policy, RCm was reborn in China.

7. Prot. missions did not enter China till the beginning of the 19th c. R. Morrison* came to China September 7, 1807, followed 1813 by W. Milne.* E. C. Bridgman* arrived at Canton 1830. K. F. A. Gützlaff* reached China 1831. After the Opium War bet. Eng. and China 1842, China was forced to open 5 port cities: Shanghai, Ningpo (now Ninghsien), Fuchow (Fowling), Amoy, and Canton; a new era for commercial and miss. endeavor resulted. Later wars opened new ports but also increased Chinese opposition to for. commercial and religious contact; this led to frequent persecutions and culminated in the Boxer outbreak 1900. The Boxers were a Chinese secret society that stirred up antiforeign action in N China. In the uprising ca. 200 mems. of miss. families and thousands of Chinese Christians lost their lives.

8. In the 19th c. missions were opened in China by organizations in Eur., Am., and Australia and by the CIM The Mo. Syn. entered the field 1917 when it took over the work begun by E. L. Arndt* 1913; a sem. est. 1922 at Hankow moved 1938 to Wanhsien, returned to Hankow 1947, closed 1949. See also Riedel, Erhardt Albert Henry.

9. Though China appeared to offer excellent opportunities for miss. endeavor after WW II, the govt. of the Chinese People's Republic (est. October 1, 1949) forced withdrawal of miss. personnel. By the close of 1952 only ca. 30 Prot. missionaries were known to be in China. The last LCMS worker left China June 1952. The regime on the mainland of China controls, if not censors, all religious work and worship of Prots., RCs, and other Christians. Buddhism, Taoism, and Mohammedanism have been proscribed. Many missionaries once assigned to China have opened new areas occupied heavily by Chinese, esp. Malaya, Indonesia, and Formosa (Taiwan*).


See also Hsin I Hui.

A. C. Moule, Christians in China Before the Year 1550 (London, 1930) and Nestorians in China (London, 1940); P. Y. Saeki, The Nestorian Documents and Relics in China (Tokyo, 1937); K. S. Latourette, A History of Christian Missions in China (London, 1929); J. Schmidlin, Das gegenwärtige Heidenapostolat im fernen Osten, Part 1 (Münster, 1929); P. M. d'Elia, The Catholic Missions in China (Shanghai, 1934); C. Cary-Elwes, China and the Cross: Studies in Missionary History (London, 1957); P. A. Varg, Missionaries, Chinese, and Diplomats: The American Protestant Missionary Movement in China, 1890 to 1952 (Princeton, 1958); F. P. Jones, The Church in Communist China: A Protestant Appraisal (New York, 1962); W. G. Polack, “Christian Missions in China Before Morrison,” CTM, III (April and June 1932), 274–281, 410–416.

China Inland Mission.

June 25, 1865, J. H. Taylor* resolved to form a soc. for evangelizing the interior of China. An organizational structure was set up in Eng. 1865–66. Interdenom. and internat. in scope, it soon had branches in Ger., Scand., Switz., and Eng. speaking countries. Emphasized miss. preaching, teaching, and works of mercy. Some of its missions formed regional feds. Forced to withdraw from China 1951; headquarters moved from Shanghai first to Hong Kong, then Singapore. Name changed in the mid-1960s to Overseas* Missionary Fellowship.

L. T. Lyall, A Passion for the Impossible: The China Inland Mission 1865–1965 (Chicago, 1965).

Chinese Blind, Mission to the.

Organized 1887 in Scot. to support work of Wm. Murray among blind* in China.*

Chinese Philosophy.

1. Chinese philos. aims at the highest kind of life and ideally embraces both otherworldliness and this-worldliness, sublime and common, absolute and essential, transcendent and immanent.

2. Taoism* opposed nature to man and glorified Tao (way), which emphasized spontaneity and “inaction” (non-artificiality) in the sense of following nature by simplicity, tranquillity, and enlightenment. It is the way of sageliness within and kingliness without, aiming at attainment of the sublime and performance of common tasks. Great teachers of Taoism were Lao-tzu* and Chuang-tzu.*

3. Confucianism* advocated human-heartedness (jen), righteousness (yi), superior man (chun-tzu, “moral man, noble man”), the cultivation of life (hsiu shen; it results in harmony in family, state, world). This resulted in moralistic and humanistic teaching (chung, “being true to your nature”) which climaxed in chung yung (golden mean; find central clue of your being and live harmoniously with the universe). Outstanding teachers were Confucius,* Mencius,* and Hsün Tzu.*

4. Mohism (Moism), founded by Mo Ti (Mo-tzu; Micius; 5th–4th c.), taught universal love, pacifism, and utilitarianism. Yang Chu (ca. 440–360) emphasized “keeping essence of our being intact”; often compared with Epicurus.* Sophists (dialecticians; logicians), early called ming chia, literally “name school,” concentrated on relationship bet. substance and quality. The Yin-Yang school (400–200) emphasized contrasting but complementary principles. Yang (active; positive; male) pertains to all things in origination; yin (passive; negative; female) pertains to all things at time of their responding.

5. In the Middle period there was a fusion of Chinese philos. and development of Buddhism.* Liu An (Huai-nan Tzu; d. 122 BC; Taoist) and Tung Chung-shu (ca. 177–104; Confucian) fused Yin-Yang with Confucianism and combined Taoist metaphysics with Confucian ethics. This led to superstition, which was combated by Wang Ch'ung (27–97). Though not free of all superstition, he promoted a critical spirit.

6. Neo-Confucianism developed in 3 phases that emphasized reason (960–1368), mind (1368–1644), and moral law (1644–1911). Vital force and reason are basic in all phases. Greatest neo-Confucian was Chu Hsi (1130–1200). EL

Yu-Lan Fêng (Fung Yu-Lan), A History of Chinese Philosophy, tr. D. Bodde, rev. reprint, 2 vols. (Princeton, 1952–53) and The Spirit of Chinese Philosophy, tr. and ed. E. R. Hughes (London, 1947); A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy, comp. and tr. Wing-Tsit Chan (Princeton, 1963); A. Forke, Geschichte der alten chinesischen Philosophie, in Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiet der Auslandskunde, XXV (Hamburg, 1927), Geschichte der mittelalterlichen chinesischen Philosophie, in Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiet der Auslandskunde, XLI (Hamburg, 1934), and Geschichte der neueren chinesischen Philosophie, in Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiet der Auslandskunde, XLVI (Hamburg, 1938).

Chinese Term Question.

Controversy regarding the proper name for God in China that came to a head with M. Ricci*; he used the names Shang-ti (or Shang-di; it means high ruler) and T'ien (heaven; divinity), terms for God found in ancient Chinese classics. His successor, Niccolò Longobardi (Longobardo; ca. 1566–1655), rejected the term Shang-ti, holding that it was the name of an idol. Dominicans and Franciscans opposed the use of Shang-ti; Clement XI ruled 1704 that it should not be used. Since then RCs have used T'ien Chu (Lord of heaven). R. Morrison* and Joshua Marshman* used Shen (heavenly spirits; spiritual power) in their Bible translation. About 1840 other Prot. missionaries used Shang-ti for the true God and Shen for idols and for the true God when discriminating adjective is added (e.g., 1 Jn 5:20). Missionaries of the Mo. Syn. at first did likewise. Soon the controversy about the propriety of using an idol name (Shang-ti) for God involved them also; a conf. paper (1924) advocated the use of Shen alone. The Mo. Syn. Miss. Bd. in 1928 allowed use of Shen but allowed no missionary to refuse to use miss. literature having the term Shang-ti. The faculty at Conc. Sem., Saint Louis, the Bd. of For. Miss., the syn. committee, and the missionaries ultimately agreed that Shang-ti could be divested of its heathen connotation and filled with Biblical content. EL

See also China, 6.

1935 Proceedings of the Mo. Syn. (St. Louis, 1935), pp. 168–176.


In Chinese philos.: 1. Classic Confucian or Taoist standards. See also Confucianism, 2. 2. Essence; purity; spirit. 3. Tranquillity.

Chiniquy, Charles Paschal Telesphore

(1809–99). B. Kamouraska, Quebec; RC priest 1833–58; “Apostle of Temperance of Canada”; est. RC colony in Kankakee Co., Illinois, 1851; left RC Ch. and joined Can. Presbyterians 1858; lectured extensively, also in Eng. and Australia; wrote tracts on temperance and books bitterly hostile to RC Ch.


Act of free* will in deciding betw. 2 or more alternatives.


(architectural). The part of a ch. separated from the nave* on the one hand and the sanctuary on the other. The word choir is often used in a wider sense to include the sanctuary and the area on the lower level immediately W of the communion rail. Singers are often placed in this part of a ch.; hence the term choir. See also Chancel; Church Architecture, 3. RRB


(musical). Group of singers taking part in ch. services. In the OT a sacred choir was organized by David (1 Ch 6:31–47) and continued by Solomon (2 Ch 5:12, 13). In both Jewish and early Christian services a solo voice over against a singing group chanted the Psalms. The cong. responded with a refrain. This arrangement of solo voice, choir, and cong. influenced the place and function of the choir in the beginning and early development of the plain-song period in the Christian ch. The all-male choir (boys and men) developed after Constantine's conversion and was securely est. in the Schola cantorum of Gregory I (see Gregorian Music; Popes, 4). The choir schools at Metz and St. Gall are of equal importance in the 8th c. The choir was of such importance in medieval times that the study of music is in essence the study of ch. music. The new music, the polyphony of the 12th c., brought about a new concept and organization of the choir. Previously the choir, composed of male clerics or at least boys strictly trained under ecclesiastical direction in a home attached to the cathedral, performed in the sanctuary. The music was monody chant, and the cong. sang little or nothing. Gregory XI introd. the Collegio dei Capellani Cantori, trained and directed by laymen; it sang either from a choir loft or the W gallery. The cong. did not participate in the singing of the liturgy in medieval times. Female voices were tolerated in some parishes even before the Reformation. Both traditions, male and mixed choirs, are found in Angl., RC, and Luth. chs. The Ch. of Eng. has tried to preserve a male choir, mems. of which are considered lower clergy who function in the chancel. The Luth. Ch. preserves a lay concept of the choir. The choir is gen. placed best in the W gallery (with organ console and organ chests) for acoustical rather than liturgical reasons. Proper choir vestment is cassock and white surplice for all. Female singers preferably wear black skullcaps. The Luth. Ch. preserves these chief functions of the choir: to sing the propers* that are beyond the ability of the cong.; to assist the cong. in singing liturgy and hymns; to sing music appropriate to the Ch. year, i. e., motets, cantatas, and anthems. RRB

M. Pierik, The Song of the Church (New York, 1947) and Dramatic and Symbolic Elements in Gregorian Chant (Tournai, Belgium, 1963); D. Johner, Choralschule, rev. M. Pfaff, 8th ed. (Regensburg, 1956); W. Apel, Gregorian Chant (Bloomington, Indiana, 1958); E. A. Wienandt, Choral Music of the Church (New York, 1965).

Choisy, Jacques Eugène

(1866–1949). Prof. ch. hist. Geneva; studied role of women in the ch.; did research on Calvin; pioneer in ecumenical movement.

Chomjakow, Alexej Stepanowitsch

(1804–60). Russ. theol.; ardent defender of the E Orthodox Ch., which he regarded as the only true ch.


(Ger. Choral; It. corale; ML choralis; from Gk. choros, Lat. chorus, “group of dancers and singers”; “chorale” came into use in the 2d half of the 16th c. and is usually preferred to “choral” in Eng.). Hymn or psalm sung by cong. and/or choir to a traditional or composed melody. In ecclesiastical usage it denotes the choral plainsong (cantus planus) of the RC office and the hymn style that became classic in the Luth. Ch. of Germany.

The chorale developed from the cantus choralis (choral chant) introd. at the time of Gregory I (see Gregorian Music; Popes, 4). This cantus choralis was structurally monotonic, in part merely graduated, stereotyped, and recitative music. Its musical pattern was determined not with reference to the rhythm of words or to grace and expression of melody, but simply by textual notation.

From Rome choral singing of this type spread to Eng. and to the empire of Charlemagne,* who founded schools for singing N of the Alps. The most renowned of these schools, at Metz, was under the management of Rabanus* Maurus.

The chorale was the peculiar interest of the Luth. Ch.; the Ref. regarded the Psalter as the proper hymnbook and disapproved of original hymns. The Luth. chorale continued the simplicity of the Gregorian chorale. Luther used 4 sources for his chorales: official Lat. hymnody, pre-Reformation popular hymns, secular folk songs, and original hymns.

W. Apel, Gregorian Chant (Bloomington, Indiana, 1958) and Harvard Dictionary of Music, 9th print. (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1955); Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. G. Grove, 5th ed., E. Blom (New York, 1954), II, 269–275; A. T. Davison and W. Apel, Historical Anthology of Music, rev. ed., 2 vols. (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1949–50); W. E. Buszin, The Doctrine of the Universal Priesthood and Its Influence upon the Liturgies and Music of the Lutheran Church (St. Louis, n. d.); E. Liemohn, The Chorale Through Four Hundred Years of Musical Development as a Congregational Hymn (Philadelphia, 1953). JTS

Chorale Prelude.

Organ prelude based on a chorale.* The theol. faculty at Wittenberg officially approved use of the organ in Luth. worship services 1597. Soon thereafter hymn preludes began to play an important part in Luth. worship services. Though the Thirty* Years' War brought a halt to most organ building in Ger., the chorale prelude was born in those yrs. S. Scheidt* is regarded as “the father of the chorale prelude,” but the chorale fantasies of M. Praetorius* and the chorale variations of the composers of N Ger. helped bring the chorale prelude into existence. By and large, the Luth. masters, esp. of N and Cen. Ger., were at their best in organ composition when writing chorale preludes. This was largely due to the fact that the chorale was to them a vital part of their worship life. The chorale preludes of men like J. G. Walther,* D. Buxtehude,* J. Pachelbel,* J. S. Bach* and other mems. of the Bach family are among the finest gems of all organ literature.


Bp. appointed by diocesan bp. to assist in rural areas.


(Christi[a]na; 9th–10th c.). Legendary saint; d. on return from pilgrimage to Rome; buried on Dinkelsberg near Basel; chapel erected in her honor; pilgrimages to St. Chrischona popular in Middle Ages. C. F. Spittler* founded Pilgermission St. Chrischona (headquarters at St. Chrischona) primarily to train laymen for miss. work: colporteurs, city missionaries, evangelists, deacons, house-fathers, teachers, preachers (esp. in Am.) and missionaries (e.g., to Falasha*). One of its missioners est. the Syrian orphanage (Syrisches Weisenhaus) in Jerusalem. Connected with CIM since 1895. See also United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 28; Vetter, Jakob.


1. See Oils, Holy. 2. Sacrament of E Orthodox Ch. corresponding to confirmation.* 3. See Unction.


(anointing). Term for confirmation in E Orthodox Ch. Immediately after baptism the priest anoints the baptized person with myron* as an indissoluble continuation of baptism. See also Unction.


Monogram made of the first 2 Gk. letters of Christos (XP).


(ME “cloth”). White robe, cloth, or mantle put on a person at baptism as a symbol of innocence.


Anti-Trinitarian sect that originated ca. 1848 under leadership of J. Thomas.* Originally in the Disciples* of Christ movement, Thomas withdrew, partly because he disagreed with A. and T. Campbell* on the doctrine of the Trinity. He claimed that the existing denominations were apostate and that the chs. must return to primitive Christianity in doctrine and practice as defined in the Bible. Though he claimed to accept the inspiration of the Bible, he denied the cardinal doctrines of the Bible, esp. 1. the doctrine of the Trinity, teaching a dynamic Monarchianism*: 2. the immortality of man, teaching that men are dead in the intermediate state, that the unrighteous will be annihilated, while immortality will be given only to the righteous; 3. the Scriptural doctrine of the final coming of Christ, teaching that Israel will be restored in Palestine during a millennium, which will be preceded by the resurrection of the “responsibles” and followed by the judgment, the just receiving immortality and the unjust being destroyed; 4. the doctrines of the devil and hell. At the time of the Civil War the followers of Thomas, compelled to adopt a name to secure exemption from military service, selected the name Christadelphians, “Brothers of Christ.”

R. Roberts, Dr. Thomas: His Life and Work (London, 1884).

Christaller, Johann Gottlieb

(November 19, 1827–December 10, 1895). B. Württemberg; sent to Afr. by Basel* Miss. Soc.; on Gold Coast 1853–58, 1862–68: in Württem. berg 1868–95. Founded scientific study of W Afr. languages. Tr. Bible into Twi (Tshi); also studied many other W Afr. languages. Works include Grammar of the Asante and Fante Language Called Tshi; Sprachproben aus dem Sudan; Die Töne der Negersprachen; Dictionary of the Asante and Fante Language.

Christentumsgesellschaft, Die Deutsche.

Founded August 30, 1780, by J. A. Urlsperger*; headquarters Basel. First called Deutsche Gesellschaft thätiger Beförderer reiner Lehre und wahrer Gottseligkeit, later Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Beförderung christlicher Wahrheit und Gottseligkeit. Originally organized to oppose attacks on the Bible, it soon devoted its energies to missions and charities. K. F. A. Steinkopf* and C. F. Spittler* were prominent in its work.

E. Beyreuther, “Neue Forschungen zur Geschichte der Deutschen Christentums-gesellschaft,” Theologische Literaturzeitung, LXXXI (May–June 1956), 355–358.


(of Prussia; d. 1245). Cistercian*; miss. ca. 1209; bp. of Prussians 1215.

Christian Brothers

(Brothers of the Christian Schools). Noted and influential RC educ. brotherhood, founded 1680 at Reims by Jean* Baptiste de la Salle. Its mems. take the 3 simple vows,* are pledged to teach without compensation, and wear a special habit. Priests with theol. training may not become mems. Organization and discipline recall that of the Jesuits, but there is no official connection with that order.

Christian Catholic Church

(Evangelical-Protestant; Dowieites). Followers of J. A. Dowie,* who organized the Christian Catholic Apostolic Church in Zion 1896, supposedly on the plan of the apostolic ch. He bought ca. 10 sq. mi. of land on Lake Michigan 42 mi. N of Chicago and 1901 founded there a partly religious, partly industrial community called Zion City, of whose financial and ecclesiastical affairs he had complete control. He est. schools, a coll. and many industries. He had extraordinary success both as bus. mgr. and religious leader, assuming the title “Elijah the Restorer” 1901 and “First Apostle” 1904. He demanded of his followers repentance of sins and faith in Christ, but the most prominent tenet was that of faith healing, he himself claiming to possess remarkable powers. He held that all diseases are produced by the devil, and as Christ came to destroy the works of the devil, so this power is still bestowed today. Other tenets were baptism by immersion; millenarianism; abstinence from pork, tobacco, and intoxicating liquors. Dowie est. branches in other states and sent missionaries to other countries. After failure of miss. campaigns in New York City and visits by Dowie to Eng. unrest developed; Dowie was accused of immorality and mismanagement and deposed 1906. He was succeeded in office by W. G. Voliva.* Zion City ceased to be an exclusive community. Principles were modified, and chs. and indep. businesses welcomed. The Zion Conservatory of Music and Art attracts many students unaffiliated with the ch. The Zion Passion Play, first presented 1935, attracts many visitors. Periodical: Leaves of Healing.

Christian Church, History of the.

Jesus Christ is the cen. figure in all hist. The time before His birth was one of preparation for His coming; the time after it is one planting and growth in His Kingdom of Grace. Ch. hist. is the record of this planting and growth. NT ch. hist. may be divided into 3 periods: ancient (1–590), medieval (590–1517), and modern (1517– ).

I. Ancient.

1. Apostolic Era (1–ca. 100). The disciples of Jesus, Founder and Head of the ch. were to be witnesses to Him in Jerusalem, in all Judea, in Samaria, and to the uttermost part of the earth (Acts 1:8). During the 1st c. there were 3 great centers in Asia: Jerusalem (30–44), Antioch in Syria (44–68), Ephesus (68–100). The mother ch. at Jerusalem was dispersed, Acts 8:1–4. Antioch became the center of Gentile Christianity (disciples first called Christians there, Acts 11:26) and the home base for missions, Acts 13:1–3. The ch. at Ephesus, founded by Paul, continued to flourish under John, who is said to have gone there from Jerusalem during the Jewish War of 66–70. Before the siege of Jerusalem in 70, mems. of the ch. there fled to Pella in Decapolis (Eusebius, HE III, v., 3). Before the end of the Apostolic Era the ch. was firmly planted in the W, e.g. in Rome, where Peter is said to have been crucified in 64 and Paul beheaded in 66.

2. Post-Apostolic Era (ca. 100–ca. 170). In this period were produced the writings of the Apostolic* Fathers. The anonymous Epistle to Diognetus* may have been written in this period. To this period belong also the apologists* Quadratus,* Aristides,* Melito,* Claudius Apollinaris,* Miltiades,* Athenagoras,* Theophilus* of Antioch, Tatian,* Aristo* of Pella, and Justin* Martyr; they defended the Christian faith against assaults of paganism and Judaism from without and against those of Gnosticism from within.

Perverters of Christianity: Ebionites,* Elkesaites,* leaders of Gnosticism* and Docetism.* These were opposed by Irenaeus,* Tertullian,* and Hippolytus* (anti-Gnostic Fathers). Marcion* charged conflict bet. OT and NT Montanism* opposed by Alogi (see Monarchianism, A 1). Against the Montanists the ch. declared revelation closed.

3. Ante-Nicene Era (ca. 170–325). Uninterrupted succession of bps. emphasized to secure valid transmission of apostolic tradition and unity of episcopacy and of the ch. The ch. recognized a canon (see Canon, Bible) of the OT and of the NT and a rule of faith (see Ecumenical Creeds, A 3, 4). A beginning of scientific theol, was made in the Alexandrian catechetical school (Pantaenus,* Clement* of Alexandria, and Origen.* See also Exegesis, 3; Schools, Early Christian, 1). Great leaders in the W were Tertullian,* Cyprian,* Irenaeus,* and Hippolytus.* To this period belongs also the apologist Marcus Minucius* Felix.

Heresies threatened the ch.: Monarchianism* (opposed by Tertullian) and Arianism* (opposed by Alexander* [d. 328] and Macarius* of Jerusalem and condemned by the 325 Council of Nicaea.*).

4. Post-Nicene Era (325–590). This era marks new conquests for Christianity and additional formation of doctrine. In 391 Theodosius* I forbade all heathen sacrifices; in 529 Justinian* I closed the school of philos. in Athens. A number of barbaric kingdoms, planted on the soil of the decrepit Roman Empire, turned to Christianity. Heresies were combated. Arianism continued to trouble the ch. (see Athanasius; Cappadocian Theologians; Diodorus of Tarsus; Eusebius of Samosata; Eusebius of Vercel li; Goths; Gregory of Elvira; Hilary of Poitiers; Jerusalem, Synods of; Serapion; Theodosius I; Ulfilas) though condemned by the 381 Council of Constantinople (see also Filioque Controversy; Flavian, 1; Fulgentius, Claudius Gordianus; Presbyterian Churches, 3). This council also condemned the Macedonians, or Pneumatomachians,* who denied that the Holy Spirit was of an essence equal to that of the Father and of the Son, and Apollinarianism (Apollinaris* of Laodicea). Nestorianism,* converting the 2 natures of Christ into 2 persons, was condemned 431 at Ephesus (see Ephesus, Third Ecumenical Council of). Monophysitism* was condemned at Chalcedon 451 and Constantinople 553 (see Chalcedon, Council of; Constantinople, Councils of, 2; Monophysite Controversy). Monothelitism* was condemned 680 at Constantinople (see Constantinople, Councils of, 3). Donatism (see Donatist Schism) was opposed by Augustine* of Hippo. Pelagianism was opposed by Augustine of Hippo and condemned 431 at Ephesus (see Pelagian Controversy).

5. Eminent in this period: Ambrose,* Chrysostom,* Augustine* of Hippo, and Jerome.* Near the end of this era there was a great change in ch. organization. The clergy became a special order, economically indep. and exempt from the jurisdiction of secular courts. Canon laws and traditions began to be codified. The power and prestige of the bp. of Rome grew. Monasticism* continued to develop (Anthony,* Simeon* Stylites, Benedict* of Nursia). But spiritual life deteriorated.

II. Medieval (590–1517).

This period may be divided according to the fortunes of the papacy*: its rise (Gregory I–VII), its supreme power (Gregory VII-Boniface VIII), and its decline (Boniface VIII to Leo X). See also Popes, 4–20. The first division of the Medieval Period may also be dated as ending ca. 1050, in view of the 1054 schism bet. E and W

1. 59–0ca. 1050. The ch. suffered tremendous losses. Islam overran Asia, N Afr. and Sp. but was turned back 732 at Tours by Charles Martel. But for the W it was a time of great miss. expansion. Patrick,* Columba,* Columban,* Augustine* of Canterbury, Willibrord,* Boniface,* and Ansgar* were miss. to the Brit. Isles and the Continent. Cyril* and Methodius went to the Slavs in Moravia. Vladimir* I Christianized Russia. The iconoclastic* controversy created much disturbance in the E and was a contributory factor leading to the schism* bet. E and W 1054. The spurious Donation* of Constantine pretended to justify the pope's temporal power, first est. 756 by Pepin III (the Short). The Pseudo-Isidorian* Decretals further strengthened papal power.

The second Council of Nicaea* (787), defining the doctrine of the veneration of images, terminated a period of doctrinal development in the E Orthodox Ch. In the W, filioque (“and the Son”) appeared in the Nicene Creed at the Council of Toledo* 589. Gregory I developed the doctrine of purgatory and applied to it the idea of the sacrifice of the mass, taught invocation and intercession of saints and angels, and fostered veneration of relics and images. (See also Popes, 4). Doctrinal controversies concerned adoptionism,* Gottschalk's doctrine of predestination (see Predestinarian Controversy), and Bérenger's* opposition to the doctrine of transubstantiation. Odo* of Cluny gave new impetus to monasticism and reform. Lat. hymnists of this period: Gregory I, V. Fortunatus,* Bede,* Notker* Balbulus, and P. Damiani.*

2. Ca. 1050–1294. This age includes the investiture* controversy; the crusades* (1096–1270); rise of the military* religious orders; founding of the mendicant* orders; Scholasticism*; rise of the universities (see Higher Education, 4).

3. 1294–1517. Boniface VIII (1294–1303) in the bull *Unam Sanctam reached the peak of papal claim to world supremacy and failed. Clement V (1304–14), creature of Philip IV (the Fair), transferred the curia to Avignon,* beginning the Babylonian Captivity (1309–77; see also Babylonian Captivity, 2), which resulted in the papal schism 1378–1417 (see Schism, 8), ended by the Council of Constance* (1414 to 1418). Conciliarism (Reform Councils: Pisa* 1409, Constance 1414–18, Basel* 1431–49) failed to est. reforms. Reformers appeared: Marsilius* of Padua; William of Ockham*; J. de Gerson*; Nicholas* of Cusa; mystics J. Eckhart* and J. Tauler.* Greater than these were J. Wycliffe,* J. Hus,* and G. Savonarola.* See also Popes, 12–20; Councils and Synods, 7.

III. Modern (1517– ).

1. The Luth. Reformation.* Leo X (see Popes, 20) appointed Albert* of Brandenburg chief manager in one district of Ger. for the sale of indulgences.* Albert appointed J. Tetzel* indulgence seller. October 31, 1517, Luther* nailed 95 Theses* to a door of the Castle Ch. Wittenberg. Luther was called to account before cardinal Cajetan at the 1518 Diet of Augsburg. The Leipzig* Debate, 1519. Bull Exsurge, Domine burned 1520. Bull of excommunication, Decet, issued 1521. Luther at the Diet of Worms,* 1521. NT tr. into Ger. 1522. Peasants'* War, 1525. Diets of Speyer,* 1526 and 1529. Marburg Colloquy, 1529. Catechisms, 1529. Diet of Augsburg and AC 1530. Complete Bible tr. into Ger. 1534. Controversies in Ger. Luth. chs. 1548–77. Book* of Concord pub. 1580. See also Catechetics, 7; Catechisms, Luther's; Luther, Martin, 6–20; Lutheran Confessions.

2. H. Zwingli* protested against Bernhardin Samson's promotion of the sale of indulgences* 1519; broke with Rome 1522; abolished mass 1525; died in battle of Kappel 1531. Zwinglianism absorbed by Calvinism.*

3. J. Calvin's* 1st stay at Geneva 1536–38; Institutes of the Christian Religion 1536; 2d stay at Geneva 1541–64. Cardinal principles of his Reformation: sovereignty of God, absolute supremacy of the Bible as norm for life and doctrine; justification by faith in Jesus Christ; universal priesthood of all believers.

4. The Luth. Reformation outside Germany. Frederick I, king of Den. 1523–33, favored Lutheranism. H. Tausen,* the “Danish Luther.” Diet of Odense, 1527. The “forty-three articles of Copenhagen,” 1530. Christian III made Lutheranism the religion of Den. and Norway. Diet of Copenhagen legalized the Reformation 1536. (See also Denmark, Lutheranism in, 1–4). The Reformation was introduced in Iceland by G. Einarsson* 1540. Lutheranism was planted in Swed. by O. Petri* and L. Petri.* Gustavus* I, elected king of Swed. 1523, favored the Reformation; the 1529 council at Örebro marked its legal introduction. The Reformation was introduced in Fin. by Mikael Agricola.*

5. The Reformation spread rapidly in Poland but was curtailed by Sigismund III. In Bohemia and Moravia the Reformation was checked by the Jesuits.* The Counter* Reformation curbed the spread of the Reformation in Croatia, Slavonia, and It. See also Bohemian Brethren; Czechoslovakia; Yugoslavia; Moravian Church.

6. The Swiss Reformation spread to nearly all countries of Eur. The first Ref. syn. was held in Paris 1559 (Confessio Gallicana). Prots. in Fr. were called Huguenots.* Calvinism became dominant also in the Netherlands. Scotland turned to Calvinism largely under leadership of J. Knox.* The Scot. parliament officially proclaimed the Ref. faith the religion of Scot. 1560. See also Reformed Confessions, B.

7. W. Tyndale's* NT smuggled into Eng. 1526, prepared the way for Protestantism there. The marital troubles of Henry VIII (king 1509–47) caused the break with Rome; he issued the Ten Articles 1536. The Six Articles of 1539 constituted a reaction against Protestantism. During the reign of Edward VI (1547–53) Protestantism of the Ref. type was firmly planted and the Forty-two Articles adopted. The reaction under Mary (1553–58) was not able to uproot it. Under Elizabeth (1558–1603) the Thirtynine Articles were adopted; Puritans* and Independents* multiplied. See also Anglican Confessions; England, B 1–6.

8. Various radical groups sprang up in Eur. in the days of the Reformation (Anabaptists; Unitarians*). See also Baptist Churches, 2; Mennonite Churches.

9. The Counter* Reformation. Organizations opposing the Reformation: Theatines,* Jesuits.* The Inquisition* was continued. The Council of Trent* formulated RC dogma and anathematized Prot. doctrine. Religious wars worked hardships on RCs but esp. on Prots. Wars in Fr. 1562–98, Neth. 1572 to 1609, Ger. 1546–55 and 1618–48. Prot. disunity often aided the Counter Reformation, as in Poland, Hungary, and, to some extent, the Netherlands. Arminianism* opposed strict Calvinism* and was condemned at the Syn. of Dordrecht* 1619.

10. Prot. doctrines were formulated in a more systematic way in the 17th c. (J. Gerhard,* Luth.; G. Voet,* Ref.). Latitudinarians* and advocates of syncretism* reacted against orthodoxy (W. Chillingworth*; G. Calixtus*). The same c. produced such groups as the Quakers* and theosophists (see Theosophy, 1).

11. The age of orthodoxy was followed by Pietism* (P. J. Spener*; A. H. Francke*; H. A. Brorson*; E. Pontoppidan*). Swed. curtailed Pietism by royal decree 1726. N. L. von Zinzendorf* made Herrnhut the center of the Moravian* Ch. In Eng. J. and C. Wesley* and G. Whitefield* founded Methodism (see Methodist Churches).

12. Pietism's indifference to doctrine merged into the age of rationalism.* The 18th c. made reason the test of all things; Eng. Deism* regarded it as the chief source of knowledge. Unitarianism* spread. Jansenism* and Quietism,* 17th and 18th c. movements in the RC Ch. were opposed by Jesuits.* In the 2d half of the 18th c. the Jesuits were suppressed in RC countries, only to come back strong in the 19th c. and to add greatly to the victory of Ultramontanism.*

13. E Orthodox chs. were largely left untouched by the stirring events of the W. Thoroughly conservative in doctrine and cultus, they were influenced chiefly by political events (rise of the Balkan States; changes in Russia).

14. The 19th and 20th cents. saw several religious streams flowing side by side or merging. Romanticism* was a reaction against rationalism.* F. D. E. Schleiermacher* became the father of Protestant Modernism.* Luth. confessionalism, led by C. Harms,* opposed the Prussian* Union.

15. The Ch. of Eng. produced the Oxford* movement. The 19th c. was marked by social reforms. World missions, begun in the 18th c. were expanded in the 19th c.; many miss. societies were organized. R. Raikes* promoted and popularized the Sunday school.

16. Pius IX defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception 1854. Vatican Council I defined the dogma of papal infallibility 1870. Plus XII defined the dogma of the Assumption of Mary 1950. John XXIII convoked Vatican Council II 1962.

17. WW I and II and global unrest dispelled the optimism of the early 20th c. Resurgence of paganism challenged the ch. in wide areas. But distress of the times encouraged Christians to collaborate for relief of the needy. Despite strong anti-Christian forces (communism, materialistic humanism, evolutionism) the ch. moved forward. See also Ecumenical Movement. LWS

See also Church and State; Sarapis; Theology.

G. P. Fisher, History of the Christian Church (New York, 1887); R. H. Nichols, The Growth of the Christian Church, rev. 1-vol. ed. (Phidadelphia, 1941); L. P. Qualben, A History of the Christian Church, rev. and enl. ed. (New York, 1958); W. Walker, A History of the Christian Church, rev. C. C. Richardson (New York, 1959). See also Tripartite History.

Christian Churches

(Disciples of Christ), International Convention. See Disciples of Christ.

Christian Church of North America, General Council.

Formed by merger of the Italian Christian Churches of North America (founded Chicago 1907 by Louis Francescon) and the General Council of the Italian Pentecostal Assemblies of God (founded Chicago 1904 by Rocco and John Santamaria). First gen. council held Niagara Falls, New York, 1927. Originally called Unorganized Italian Christian Churches of North America. “Unorganized” dropped 1939; “Italian” dropped 1942. Inc. 1948.

Christian Commercial Travelers' Association of America, International

(Christian Commercial Men's Association of America, International; Christian Business Men's Association). See Bible Societies, 5.

Christian Education.

A. Christian Educ. Defined. Christian educ. is as old as Christianity. It comprises the efforts of Christians to transmit their beliefs and religious practices to the next generation. The term Christian educ. is used in various meanings. It may cover the entire teaching program of the ch. including preaching and the instruction and training given in a Christian home. Thus used, the term Christian educ. embraces all activity for the conversion and strengthening of souls. In its strict sense, Christian educ. begins after a person becomes a child of God; it seeks to nourish, strengthen, protect. and perfect him by means of the Word of God. The term Christian educ. is most commonly used to describe the work of individuals or organizations that devote themselves to teaching the tenets of Christianity. Christian educ. is the work of man insofar as he teaches and applies the Word of God; it is the work of God insofar as the Holy Spirit alone makes the Word of God effective in the heart of man.

Religious educ. may or may not be Christian educ. The term may be used to describe the educ. efforts of any Christian or non-Christian religious group.

B. Early Christian Educ. Early Christians were faced with the problem of teaching the tenets of their religion in a world in which they were a small and persecuted minority. At first Christian instruction was given individually, with parents, deacons, and other mems., of the ch. teaching. But catechumen schools were soon opened. These were in session at stated periods during the week, in some cases every day. Instruction extended over a period of several yrs. Instruction in secular subjects was received from parents, private tutors, and in secular schools. Schools entirely in charge of Christian teachers came later, perhaps at the end of the 2d c. An effort was made to train teachers in catechetical schools. See also Catechetics, 2, 3.

C. Educ. in the Middle Ages. After ca. AD 500, formal educ. deteriorated and almost disappeared. Some monasteries taught reading and writing, some preserved and copied MSS Judged by modern standards, these educ. activities were extremely meager.

Ca. AD 800 Charlemagne* sponsored a movement for improved and more gen. educ. He brought to his court scholars, including Alcuin,* to promote and supervise schools. As a result, monastic schools increased in quantity and quality. Some offered educ. also for youths not preparing for monastic life. But there was no gen. pub. demand for educ. and the ch. failed to emphasize its importance.

Beginning with 12th c. schools became more numerous. Chantry schools were taught by priests. Sometimes only a select group of children were admitted, sometimes all who would come. In some cases instruction was free, in others a fee was required.

Guild schools were also organized, est. by merchants or craft guilds, chiefly for children of guild mems. though others also attended. In many communities these schools gradually became borough or town schools, supported by civil authorities. In many cases they were taught by priests. Subjects were largely reading and writing in the vernacular and Lat. arithmetic, and some geog. and hist. Much teaching was drill work. There were no textbooks; the teacher gen. dictated what the pupils were to learn. In gen. educ. was inadequate and reached comparatively few people.

Medieval schools emphasized the 7 liberal arts, including the trivium* and quadrivium.*

D. Luther and Educ.

1. Modern Christian educ. stems from the Reformation. The people of Luther's day were unschooled and ignorant, the papacy interested in educ. only insofar as it served to produce faithful and obedient subjects of the ch. Luther's proclamation of the Biblical doctrines of justification by faith and of the universal priesthood of believers liberated the individual from the domination of the ch. Thus educ. became an urgent necessity. Luther therefore advocated universal educ. that each individual might be prepared for faithful discharge of his duties toward God and man.

2. Luther's most important educ. treatises are An die Ratherren aller Städte deutsches Lands, dass sie christliche Schulen aufrichten und erhalten sollen (1524) and Eine Predigt, dass man Kinder zur Schule halten solle (1530). In these and other writings Luther insisted on adequate educ. for all children. He encouraged educ. on all levels. He emphasized Christian educ.: “Where Holy Scripture does not rule, I certainly advise no one to send his child” (WA 6, 462). He accepted the union of ch. and state of his day as a matter of expedience, urging the state to carry on and enforce a program of gen. educ. At the same time he continually reminded parents and the ch. of their duties in child training.

3. Luther's educ. principles may be summarized briefly: Parents are primarily responsible for the educ. of their children; universal educ. is a right and necessity; it is the duty of the state to est. schools and require regular attendance; the foundation of all school instruction is the Christian religion, but in addition children need to learn Lat. Gk. hist. math. singing, physical training, and the practical duties of life; boys should learn a trade, girls housework; children should be taught according to laws of learning, e.g. the knowledge of a thing should precede its name; the teacher must be properly trained; parents and children owe the teacher due respect, and he should be duly remunerated; the teacher, in turn, should by precept and example show himself worthy of respect; pastors need pedagogical training and teaching experience before entering a pastorate, because they are responsible for the school of their cong.; every school should have a library.

4. Luther helped provide textbooks for study in religion. Chief of these was the Small Catechism (see Catechisms, Luther's), which already in its 1st ed. recognized the value of visual aids; it included a number of illustrations. Luther's tr. of the Bible into the vernacular made its use possible in school. He urged use of the Bible as the chief and most frequently used reading book in both primary and high schools. The very young were to be “kept in the gospels.” Luther's hymns were also used in school.

5. On request of the Duke of Mansfeld, Luther took active part in est. 2 schools in Eisleben, one for primary, the other for secondary instruction. In their courses of study and in methods these schools became models for others. Great organizers of Luth. schools were P. Melanchthon* and J. Bugenhagen.* Melanchthon worked esp. in the interest of secondary educ. in Cen. and S Ger. Bugenhagen in N Ger. and Den.

6. Wherever the Reformation spread, educ. was part of it; Luther exerted great influence on parochial, private, and pub. schools of all Prot. countries. He also gave impetus to educ. in the RC Ch. inasmuch as the Reformation forced the RC Ch. to engage in gen. educ. as a measure of self-defense.

E. Luth. Educ. Since the Reformation.

1. Since the Reformation, Luth. schools have followed Lutheranism the world over. Before WW II they were found in Austria, Hungary, Swed. Norw. Den. Russia, Fin. Iceland, Australia, Can. the US, and S. Am. and in Luth. for. miss. fields in India, China, Afr. and elsewhere.

2. Where the Luth. Ch. is the state ch. (e.g. Norw.), Luth. doctrine may be taught in pub. schools. In other countries (e.g. the US and Can.), indep. schools are maintained by Luth. congs.

3. The 1st known Luth. school in Am. was est. by Swedes who settled on the Delaware 1638. Salzburgers est. a school at Ebenezer, Georgia 1734 and built up a system of Luth. schools; J. A. Treutlen,* 1st gov. of Georgia was a product of one of these schools. H. M. Mühlenberg* was instrumental in organizing many chs. and schools. Luth. schools of Scand., Ger. and Dutch origin fl. in New York, Pennsylvania New Jersey, Maryland the Carolinas, Virginia and Georgia in the US colonial and early nat. period.

4. The oldest school in the Mo. Syn. is St. Matthew's, NYC, est. 1752 or 1753. Other early schools of the Mo. Syn.: Immanuel, Cole Camp Missouri 1834; Zion, Addison (Bensenville), Illinois, 1837; St. Paul's, Fort Wayne, Indiana 1837; St. John's, Marysville, Ohio 1838; schools est. by Saxons in St. Louis and Perry Co. Missouri 1839, and by Bavarians in the Saginaw Valley, Michigan 1845. See also Parish Education, D.

5. Early Luth. schools were often taught in parsonages by pastors and were in session only 3 or 4 days a week because of other demands on the pastor's time. As congs. became more stable, school bldgs. were erected, and full-time teachers were called in most cases.

6. Some Luth. groups discontinued their schools. Today there are wide differences in the various Luth. chs. in the emphasis placed on Christian educ. and on the agencies and means whereby Christian educ. is to be achieved. Apart from S. S. and VBS some Luth. bodies maintain practically no schools, except ministerial training schools and for. miss. schools. Others emphasize a complete system of Luth. educ. including elementary schools, high schools, and colleges.

7. Luth. elementary schools are usually maintained by individual congs. though some are interparish schools (central schools). Luth. high schools are gen. maintained as cen. schools by associations of congs. because they require a larger constituency. Seminaries, teachers' colleges, and preparatory schools are maintained by synods. Valparaiso U., Valparaiso, Indiana, is maintained by an assoc. of individuals.

8. Teachers for LCMS schools are trained at Conc. V. River Forest, Illinois, Conc. V. Seward, Nebraska and Conc. V. St. Paul, Minnesota Junior colleges (see Ministry, Education of, VIII C) provide preministerial and preteacher educ. Students in the theol. seminaries at St. Louis, Missouri and Ft. Wayne, Indiana receive some pedagogical training, because pastoral work involves teaching. For training teachers the Wisconsin Syn. maintains Dr. Martin Luther Coll. New Ulm, Minnesota. The ALC trains its teachers at Wartburg Coll. Waverly, Iowa.

9. All Luth. ch. bodies in the US maintain S. S., VBS released-time classes, Saturday schools, or other types of classes. The S. S. is the most popular of these. It was introd. early in the Luth. bodies that discontinued their parochial schools, but eventually in all Luth. synods. The S. S. usually provides a program of Christian educ. for all ages, from preschool to adult. Teacher training depts. are conducted in connection with most Luth. S. S. See also Parish Education, B, H 2–3, K 6.

10. The Luth. pastor is held to provide a special course of instruction prior to confirmation, which normally occurs at the age of ca. 13 or 14, but which may occur also at any time during adulthood. Those enrolled in a class that is being prepared for confirmation are called catechumens. Confirmation* admits the individual to communicant membership in the ch. but it is not to mark the end of Christian instruction.

11. The various Luth. ch. schools are frequently called agencies of Christian educ. In most cases these agencies are made to serve the twofold purpose of instruction for mems. of the cong. and winning the unchurched in the community. See also Parish Education, H.

12. Administration and supervision of Christian educ. rests chiefly in the local cong. which commonly elects a bd. of educ. to carry on its work under regulations contained in the constitution of the cong. or set up in greater detail apart from the constitution. As a rule, the regulations make the bd. responsible for the organization, management, and supervision of all educ. agencies and activities in the cong.; for increasing enrollments both of mems. and nonmembers; for executing resolutions of the cong. in educ. matters; for reporting regularly to the cong.; and for proposing changes and improvements in the cong. program of Christian educ.

13. The cong. bds. and committees of educ. are aided by official syn. and dist. bds. whose duty is the gen. supervision and promotion of parish educ. Most of the syn. bds. of parish educ. have staffs of full-time workers who counsel congs. in the promotion and improvement of their agencies and who prepare study materials for the various types of schools. They engage in research in Christian educ. and make their findings available, seeking to est. sound principles and policies of Christian educ. In the LCMS the Bd. for Parish Services is responsible for the larger program of parish educ. dealing only indirectly with the individual congs. though it publishes and promotes most of the educ. and promotional publications that serve the local cong. Corresponding Dist. bds. of Parish Educ. serve in specified geog. areas of the syn. and are in close touch with the work of the individual congs. Most districts have supts. who visit and counsel congs.

F. Statistics.

Current statistics are available in The Lutheran Annual.

G. Philos. of Luth. Educ.

1. Philosophies of educ. have their source in the view which men hold of God; of the origin, nature, and destiny of man; of truth; of the ch.; of the state; and of other related factors. Thus a philos. of educ. forms a pattern whereby those who are engaged in educ. seek to pass on to future generations a particular set of beliefs and a program of life consistent with these beliefs. Any philos. of Christian educ. is so largely determined by theol. that theol. outranks scientific investigation and the postulates of reason as a determinant of the philos.

2. The Luth. philos. of educ. is rooted in divine revelation. It gives place to findings of science and postulates of reason not at variance with divine revelation; e.g. educ. principles and practices that grow out of the origin and destiny of man are derived from revelation, which is divine and irrevocable truth to the Luth. educator. Principles and practices that grow out of the nature of man are derived in part from revelation (e.g. the fact that man is a sinful being), in part from reason or experience (e.g. certain facts which deal with the physical and psychological makeup of man).

3. The Luth. philos. of educ. recognizes the need of consistency in educ. and the desirability of educ. in nonconflicting environments, particularly in the case of the young. That is the reason for its insistence on Luth. schools for Luths. who engage in formal educ. (Luth. elementary schools, Luth. high schools, and Luth. coll. and universities), schools that foster the same educ. ideals as the Christian home. The Luth. philos. holds that home and ch. have rights and responsibilities in educ. prior to those of the state.

4. On the basis of revelation, Luth. educators hold that there is one Triune God, who created man and the universe; that man, rational and distinct from the animals, has a body and soul and has the commission to subdue the earth (Gn 1:28), that is. to make it useful for his own good and the good of his fellow men; that Adam and Eve, the first human beings, were created perfectly holy and righteous; that Adam and Eve sinned and that through their disobedience all mankind has become sinful; that the gracious God sacrificed His own Son Jesus Christ for the sins of mankind; that the believer in Christ's redemptive work has pardon for his sins and is saved and will finally go to heaven; that the believer, being a new creature in Christ and the dwelling-place of God's Holy Spirit, loves God and serves Him by prayer and worship, by hearing and reading God's Word, and by living and working in accordance with it; and that in Scripture God est. absolute standards of right and wrong. The Luth. educator's philos. revolves about God's grace, Christ's redemptive work, the faith of the believer, and eternal salvation.

5. At the same time Luth. education recognizes that the Christian lives in the world and faces such practical problems as making a living, discharging the duties of family life, getting along socially with his fellow men, keeping himself healthy, using his powers for the good of soc. and living a satisfying cultural life. The Luth. philos. of educ. therefore provides not only for teaching the way to salvation, but also for teaching the common requirements of life which are inherent in man's physical, soc. economic, cultural, and charitable duties and privileges. This calls for attitudes and skills which cover the entire range of man's intellectual, physical, emotional, and volitional life, and Luth. educ. seeks to train for these necessary attitudes and skills.

6. Due to its grounding in revelation, Luth. educ. is conservative and not easily swayed by new theories of thought. For example: Though it has recognized the contributions of “progressive education” in the field of methods and techniques, it has never accepted its underlying and motivating theory of the natural goodness of man and the perfectibility of man by human means. Because this theory is anti-Scriptural and anti-Christian, Luth. educ. rejects it.

7. Luth. educ. places a high value on the individual in accordance with the Biblical doctrine of the universal priesthood.

8. While the philos. of Luth. educ. calls for Luth. schools for all Luths. who engage in the pursuits of formal educ. (elementary schools, high schools, colleges, and univs.), the practice has not been everywhere consistent with the ideal. Insufficient concentration of Luth. pop. in a given area, unsatisfactory economic circumstances of the Luth. constituency, or other factors have made the ideal impossible of attainment in many communities. It stands nevertheless as an ideal and as a goal, at least in the Luth. bodies that maintain a system of complete ch. schools on all levels.

9. S. S., VBS released-time classes, Bible classes, and other ch. schools and classes are part of the larger educ. program of the ch. and are maintained and promoted to achieve those aims and objectives of Luth. educ. which can be achieved by these means, as well as to reach those mems. of the ch. who cannot be reached by any other means. As to these agencies, the Luth. Ch. holds that people of all ages are in need of Christian educ. that they might “grow in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ” (2 Ptr 3:18). For that reason classes are maintained for all age levels, from nursery age to adulthood.

H. Aims and Objectives of Christian Educ.

1. The ultimate aim of Christian educ. is the perfect restoration of the image of God which was lost in the fall of man. This aim is achieved partially when man comes to faith in Christ and will be fully achieved when the believer enters heaven through a blissful death. All intermediate aims of Christian educ. center about the ultimate aim. The purpose of Christian educ. for life on earth is to restore the Christian to his former blessed state as completely as possible; it is to train men and women who know God as well as He can be known by sinful man, men and women who are sure of their faith in Jesus Christ and of their salvation, and who find their greatest joy in serving God and their fellow men. In short, the aim is an ever-increasing degree of sanctification, which C. F. W. Walther* described as follows: “1. An ever-increasing enlightenment of the mind; 2. an ever-increasing purification and renewal of the heart; 3. an ever-increasing zeal in a life of good works” (Das waite Gott! pp. 146–147).

2. The purpose of Christian educ. and training is to guide, direct, preserve, and strengthen the learner, all in keeping with the Word and will of God; to help him develop a Christian view of life; to prepare him for service in home, ch. country, and occupation; and to strengthen all other Christian virtues in him. Christian educ. seeks to develop the individual so that he may become an effective priest for his own person and his own household, as well as an effective witness to the unbelievers about him.

3. Statements of the objectives of Christian educ. organized systematically and set forth in varying degrees of detail, are found scattered through the publications of the ch. Most of these statements agree in the fundamentals, though they vary greatly in form and in organization. Briefly, they emphasize knowledge of Scriptural truths and the application of these truths to daily living; preparation for worthy membership in the Christian home and family; active and intelligent ch. membership; active participation in the evangelization of the unchurched community; and the application of Christian principles to the soc. economic, and pol. problems of the community and nation.

I. Teaching Materials.

1. The Bible is basic in any program of Christian educ. and its content and teaching are emphasized in the teaching materials, though the Bible itself may not always be used by the class. In Luth. parochial schools, Luther's Small Catechism (see Catechisms, Luther's) is commonly used for systematic instruction in doctrine. This catechism and its exposition contain a summary of the chief Bible doctrines. A shorter or longer Bible History containing selections from the Bible, usually in Bible language, may be used to teach the most important Biblical historical data in chronological order. Additional Bible reading or Bible study is carried on. In confirmation instruction, Luther's Small Catechism is the basic textbook. Luth. schools use other modern materials in their religion classes, including workbooks, films, pictures, and similar materials. If a trend can be noted, it is in the direction of more direct study of the Bible itself.

2. Due to varying conditions (length of school term, length of instruction period, different types of students) in the separate agencies, most larger ch. bodies provide materials that meet as nearly as possible the distinctive needs of the various agencies, such as the parochial school, S. S., VBS releasedtime classes, or Bible classes. This condition poses difficult problems of coordination of materials, because many pupils are enrolled in 2 or more agencies.

3. The preparation of materials for parochial schools presents the greatest problem, because the parochial school is more than a school to which a course in religion has been added; it is a school in which the Word of God runs like a golden thread through everything that is taught and learned. This is esp. true in such subjects as hist. geog. civics, literature, sociology, art. and science.

4. The LCMS publishes materials for the religion classes of its parochial schools, a gen. curriculum guide, curricula for all school subjects, a ch. hist. textbook, a reading series, an art series, a textbook in physical educ. a music reader and music collections, record forms, and other materials, besides a number of professional books for the teacher.

J. Legislation Pertaining to Christian Educ.

1. Even in a country that maintains the separation of ch. and state, such as the US, there are a number of areas in the field of Christian educ. where the interests of ch. and state meet, and where legislation is necessary to clarify issues, insure justice, and assure orderly procedure. This legislation deals chiefly with educ. standards and supervision, and with provisions for needed soc. services.

2. There have been times when unfavorable legislation threatened the existence of parochial schools in a number of states. During and after WW I, private and parochial schools on the elementary level were opposed by some as un-American, partly because of for. languages taught in some of them. A number of schools were closed unlawfully by violence. After this war, the opponents sought to close them by legal means. A number of states passed laws to prohibit the use of any but the Eng. language in the elementary school grades. All such laws were declared unconstitutional when the US Supreme Court 1923 ruled against the for.-language laws of Nebraska and other states. Oregon passed a law 1922 outlawing all private and parochial schools on the elementary level. In 1925 also this law was declared unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court. The unconstitutionality of the various laws was found chiefly in their restriction of the rights of parents to choose the school and the educ. for their children. Unfavorable legislation which appeared in Can., notably in the province of Alta. during the same period, was later likewise repealed.

3. Legislation pertaining to standards of bldgs. equipment, and the school subjects outside of religion in many cases has been a means of improving the educ. program of parochial schools.

4. The question of fed. aid for parochial schools had long been debated when, in 1965, the US Congress passed the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), which provided some funds to benefit children in these schools. The framers of the Act intended that children in ch.-related and private schools should benefit the same as pub. school children in similar circumstances. The benefits may take many forms: remedial reading, dual enrollment whereby children enrolled in ch.-related schools may attend some classes in pub. schools, welfare services, and others aimed at equalizing educ. opportunity. Because of emphasis on equalizing educ. opportunity, the larger appropriations under ESEA are for educ. deprived children. Loan of library books and other materials is also provided for. All services are provided under pub. auspices; books or materials used by parochial school children are on loan from the pub. agency. Administrators and teachers in ch.-related and private schools often participate in planning projects for all schools in a district. Since 1944 the Mo. Syn. has held that the ch. may accept aid for its soc. service program. In 1965 it resolved “that federal aid for children attending nonpublic schools, as authorized by the Congress and defined by the courts, be deemed acceptable so long as it does not interfere with the distinctive purposes for which such schools are maintained” (Proceedings of the 46th Regular Convention, pp. 153–154). Aid to parochial schools is opposed by many in the US on the ground that it violates the principles of separation of ch. and state and that it jeopardizes the welfare of pub. schools. ESEA represents compromise legislation in that it makes the aid available only to children and not to schools directly (child benefit theory).

5. State laws and local ordinances permit release of pub. school pupils to the ch. of their choice for religious instruction. Pub. school authorities in many communities are glad to offer school time for such released-time instruction. The management of released-time classes is the responsibility of the ch. which sponsors them. But the school usually requires 1. that parents request in writing the release of their children for a specified time; 2. that the ch. conducting the classes furnish the school with enrollment attendance reports; 3. that teachers instructing released-time classes be qualified to teach. These requirements deal with standards and with maintenance of good order and are not designed to control the educ. program of the participating ch. In 1962 and 1963 the US Supreme Court declared unconstitutional arrangements providing for and/or requiring Scripture reading, Lord's Prayer, and/or another prayer in pub. schools.

K. Judging Results of Christian Educ.

1. Judging results of Christian educ. in terms of doctrinal knowledge and other subject matter presents no great problem, but Christianity deals ultimately with attitudes and beliefs, with such elements as spiritual advancement, faith, and Christian life. These are difficult, if not impossible, to judge scientifically by existing instruments of measurement.

2. To some extent, results of Christian educ. may be judged by observation. Strengths and weaknesses of a ch. body mirror to a large extent its educ. system. Behavior of pupils in school, the attitude of an individual toward sin, his attitude when he has committed a wrong, his willingness to confess his Savior by word and deed, his trust in God in the time of trouble and need, his prayer life, his love toward God and His Word, his desire to lead a godly life—these are to a certain degree measurable elements for the observant educator. In the case of adults the observer may also judge on the basis of faithfulness in hearing God's Word and partaking of Communion, active participation in ch. work, contributions in money and service, the quality of home life, zeal in witness-bearing, and similar evidences that Christian instruction has been effective.

3. In all these judgments it must be remembered that the final aim for a Christian is eternal life, that also weak faith saves, and that the Old Adam at times creates embarrassing situations for even the best of Christians. Viewed in this light, Christian educ. is seen in terms of souls won for Christ, each of which is worth more than all the riches of the world.

4. In gen. Christian educators take for granted that results correspond largely to the quantity and quality of the Christian educ. received. Earnest Christian homes, Christian chs. that cling firmly to the Word of God, and schools in which the Word of God runs like a golden thread through all that is taught, ordinarily combine, by the grace of God, to develop strong Christians, willing witnesses for God, loyal members of the home, faithful ch. mems. and good citizens. WAK

See also Parish Education; Protestant Education in the United States; Schools, Church-Related.

W. H. Beck, Lutheran Elementary Schools in the United States, 2d ed. (St. Louis, 1965); P. Bretscher, “Toward a Lutheran Philosophy of Education,” CTM XIV (1943), 8–33, 81–95; A. W. C. Guebert, “Luther's Contribution to Modern Elementary Education,” Lutheran School Journal, LXXIV (November 1938), 100–106; A. H. Jahsmann, What's Lutheran in Education? (St. Louis, 1960); E. W. A. Koehler, A Christian Pedagogy (St. Louis, 1930); The Lutheran One-Teacher School, ed. W. A. Kramer (St. Louis, 1949); Religion in Lutheran Schools, ed. W. A. Kramer (St. Louis, 1949); Lutheran Elementary Schools in Action, ed. V. C. Krause (St. Louis, 1963); E. A. W. Krauss, “The Missouri Synod and Its Parochial School System,” in Ebenezer, ed. W. H. T. Dau (St. Louis, 1922), pp. 208–228; O. P. Kretzmann, “Christian Education in the Second Century,” Lutheran School Journal, LXXXII (June 1947), 438–444; P. E. Kretzmann, A Brief History of Education (St. Louis, [1920]) and “The Aims of Christian Education,” CTM VII (November 1937), 842–848; J. C. W. Lindemann, “Luther als Reformator des deutschen Schulwesens,” Evangelisch-Lutherisches Schulblatt, I (1866), 129–140, 161–171, 193–205, 225–233, 257–260, 289–293, 321–330, 353–361; II, 6–10, 33–37, 65–73; (1867), 129–133, 161–165, 193 to 196, 257–261,289–295, 321–334, 353–362; A. G. Melvin, Education (New York, 1946), pp. 108–140; A. C. Mueller, “The Call to Teach Secular Subjects,” Lutheran Education, LXXXVIII (October 1952), 59–65; F. Nohl, A Curriculum Guide for Lutheran Elementary Schools, 3 vols. (St. Louis, 1964); F. V. N. Painter, Luther on Education (St. Louis, 1928); 100 Years of Christian Education, ed. A. C. Repp (River Forest, Illinois, 1947); D. C. Schilke, “The Christian Philosophy of Education,” Lutheran School Journal, LXXII (June 1937), 439–444; A. C. Stellhorn, The Meaning of a Lutheran Education, 2d ed. (St. Louis, 1928), and Schools of The Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod (St. Louis, 1963); H. C. Theiss, “Distinctive Lutheran Ideals in the Field of Education,” American Lutheran, XXIII (December 1940), 7–8; see also bibliography under Catechetics.

Christian Endeavor.

The 1st young people's Christian Endeavor soc. was organized February 2, 1881, by F. E. Clark* in the Williston Cong. Ch. Portland, Maine. As socs. multiplied the movement became interdenom. The United Soc. (nat. union of the US and Can.) was organized 1885. Soon socs. sprang up in India, China, Eng. Australia, and elsewhere. The Internat. Soc. of Christian Endeavor covers N and S. Am. The World's Christian Endeavor Union, organized 1895, is the overall organization. At the 1906 Geneva world convention a platform was adopted requiring active mems. to pledge faith in Christ, open acknowledgment of Christ, service for Christ, loyalty to Christ's ch. The organization stresses spirituality, catholicity, loyalty, fellowship, missions, philanthropies. Headquarters: Columbus, Ohio Periodical: The Christian Endeavor World.

Christian Faith and the Intellectual.

1. In the church's proclamation of the Lord Jesus Christ, Christian faith has ever heard a decisive word of divine judgment on a world alienated from its Creator (Jn 12:31) and a decisive word of divine reconciliation with that world (2 Co 5:18–21). That world has been judged and redeemed from beyond by the eternal Word, who became flesh in the fullness of time and dwelt among us (Jn 1:14; Gl 4:4–5; Eph 1:9–10). Christian faith has embraced Him who was folly to the Greek and a stone of stumbling to the Jew; its Spirit-impelled testimony to Him is the saving power of God for both Jew and Greek (Ro 1:16–17; 1 Co 1:22–25). Christian faith has seen God's Light dispel spiritual darkness, and has proclaimed that through Him alone God's redemptive purposes have become clear and the meaning of life laid bare (Jn 1:1–18; Eph 3:7–12). It has attested that in Christ a dying world has been created anew, so that the finite and fallen might bear the Infinite and Holy (Ro 8:9; 1 Co 3:16; 2 Co 5:17). In a Christian, godless reason has been transformed, set free from its spurious claims to autonomy (1 Co 2:14–16; 2 Co 10:5), and placed in the service of God. Out of this tension between judgment and reconciliation, darkness and light, reason and faith, Christian faith has addressed itself to the human situation, esp. to the intellectual.

2. The witness of the early ch. to Greco-Roman intelligentsia took 2 primary forms: 1st, the ch. was compelled to est. the sanctity of Christian morals in answer to those cultured despisers who accused it of such abominations as cannibalism, incest, infanticide, sorcery, and, in gen., “hatred of the human race” (Tacitus, Annales, XV, 44); 2d, Christian witness asserted the divine truth of its doctrine. It opposed dualistic and pantheistic polytheism; in this it joined forces with leading pagan literati of the times (at least in rejecting crude mythologies). But more: as evinced in writings of the Apologists, the new faith claimed fullness of truth. Justin* Martyr, e.g. conceded that the greatest of the pagans may have participated in the truth; but he held that Christians alone possess it in entirety. They alone have perfect truth because they alone have the Logos incarnate. In extended defense and exposition of doctrine the fundamental problem of the church's best thinkers from apostolic times to Augustine* of Hippo was elaboration of strict monotheism within a Trinitarian framework. Attempts to solve this problem gave rise to Trinitarian, or Arian (see Arianism), and Christological* controversies. Among instruments used by the Fathers to effect a solution were categories derived from Hellenistic philosophy. Faith and reason operated closely together; but the Scriptures were always the point of departure. The Fathers regarded “reason,” or Hellenistic philosophy, as propaedeutic to Christianity and an instrument in doctrinal exposition. Pagan philos. contained certain anticipations of Christian truth (which the Fathers largely attributed to borrowings from the OT); but it was beset by serious aberrations of human speculation. Christianity was accordingly heralded as the one true wisdom.

3. The hist. of Christian witness to the intellectual from Augustine of Hippo to the late Middle Ages and Renaissance is the hist. of increasing rapprochement of theol. and philos. since the great thinkers of the time were primarily theologians or theologian-philosophers. Christian faith became, in the words of Anselm* of Canterbury, fides quaerens intellectum, “faith in search of understanding.” Insofar as faith reflected on the content of revelation with the help of reason it developed Scholastic theology (see Scholasticism); in reflecting on presuppositions of revelation it developed natural theology,* i. e. proofs for God's existence. Faith, however, was not construed as incomplete without proof, but as the key factor in the search for a comprehensive vision of life; philos. was the handmaid in this quest, which culminated in the synthesis of Gk. philos. (particularly Aristotelianism; see Aristotle) and Christian revelation by Thomas* Aquinas in the 13th c. This synthesis was occasioned by the discovery and tr. of Aristotle's complete works; it afforded the Christian “answer” to those intellectuals (e.g. the Latin Averroists; see Arabic Philosophy) who saw in Aristotle an inclusive rational system independent of Christian revelation. Reacting to the latter, Aquinas solved the relation of faith and reason by incorporating them in a uniform system of “natural” and “supernatural” truth. Architecturally this synthesis was given expression in the Gothic cathedral; in literature by Dante's Divine Comedy; in politics by the desideratum of harmony bet. papacy and empire. But the synthesis was precarious and was called into question in the late Middle Ages by William of Ockham* and representatives of the so-called via moderna who favored terminological analysis rather than metaphysical synthesis, and criticism rather than speculation. They drove a wedge bet. theol. and philos. and broke apart the 13th c. synthesis by a theory of “double truth” in which faith and ecclesiastical authority were posited as superior to reason. Luther and the Reformers gen. shared in the Ockhamist reaction against the via antiqua, but Luther's critique of reason was theol. rather than epistemological, i. e. the “theol. of the cross” is foolishness to the sin-darkened intellect of natural man. This theological critique of reason has since been shared by such Christian thinkers as Pascal,* Kierkegaard,* and K. Barth.*

4. The Middle Ages ended with philos. and theol. each claiming autonomy; this, with the growth of empirical science, set the stage for the modern period. Christian witness to the intellectual since the Renaissance has been normed by two “attacks” from philos. and science, both of which had been freed from original ties to the church. Christian response has been marked by diversity and subtlety and by concern to speak responsibly to the modern situation (the latter emphasized by theological liberalism). This response has primarily been an informed apologetic recognizing changing philosophical and scientific attitudes and inferences (rather than specific conclusions, though these too have been involved). Pascal and Kierkegaard opposed, respectively, the rationalism of Descartes* and Hegel* and the attempt to subsume Christian revelation within a “system.” Joseph Butler* and W. Paley* answered 18th c. deism* and upheld the “Book of God” over against the self-sufficiency claimed for the “Book of Nature.” Schleiermacher* addressed the early 19th c. cultured despisers of religion in terms of the very premises of the philos. and natural science of his day; he sought affirmation of Christianity as the highest value of life. Following his cue, 19th c. theol. concerned itself mainly with reconciling Christ and culture. In the 20th c. with its frightful legacy of 2 world wars and the threat of imminent atomic holocaust, Christian theologians have been challenged to answer the atheistic existentialism of such thinkers as F. W. Nietzsche,* J.-P. Sartre,* and A. Camus.* Paul Tillich* responded to Nietzsche's charge that “God is dead” by presenting God as the “Ground of Being,” i. e. the presupposition for all life and for “authentic existence.” In an age dominated by science and technology, Christian thinkers have also addressed the scientifically educated in terms of the contemporary picture of the physical universe. K. Heim's Der evangelische Glaube und das Denken der Gegenwart (5 vols.) is the most notable of such ventures. Rudolf Bultmann's program of “demythologization” may be seen as an attempt to preserve the Christian message for modern man by paring “prescientific” trappings off the NT Christian apologists have also had to consider the positivists' contention that only that is true which can be demonstrated by scientific method. Related to this is the problem of the nature and validity of religious language and the verifiability of theological claims. From apostolic times to the present, Christian theologians and defenders of the faith have recognized themselves to be “under obligation both to Greeks and to barbarians, both to the wise and to the foolish” (Ro 1:14 RSV).

See also Apologetics.

C. N. Cochrane, Christianity and Classical Culture, rev. ed. (New York, 1944); B. A. Gerrish, Grace and Reason: A Study in the Theology of Luther (New York, 1962); H. R. Niebuhr, Christ and Culture (New York, 1951); J. Pelikan, The Christian Intellectual (New York, 1966); A. Richardson, Christian Apologetics (New York, 1947); P. Tillich, Theology of Culture (New York, 1959).


Christian I

(1560–91). Elector of Saxony; father of John* George I; influenced by Nikolaus Crell,* he rejected strict Lutheranism in favor of Melanchthonianism and Crypto-Calvinism (see Crypto-Calvinistic Controversy).

Christian II

(1481–1559). “The Cruel.” King of Den. and Norw. (1513–23) and Swed. (1520–23); married Isabella, sister of Charles* V; responsible for Stockholm* Bloodbath November 8–10, 1520, in which over 80 Swed. nobles were slain. Driven out of Swed. 1521, out of Den. to the Neth. 1523. Interested in humanistic reforms in the ch. Defeated by Gustavus* I in Swed.

Christian III

(1503–59). King of Den. and Norw. (1534–59). See also Denmark, Lutheranism in, 2; Norway, Lutheranism in, 2.

Christian IV

(1577–1648). B. Fredericksborg Castle, Den.; king of Den. and Norw. 1588–1648 (under regents 1588–96); supported Prots. in Thirty* Years War. See also Danish Lutherans in America, 1.

Christian Literature Society for India.

Organized 1858 in Eng. as the Christian Vernacular Educ. Soc. for India to train native teachers, instruct native children, and pub. school books and Christian literature.

Christian Missions.

See Missions; see also names of various countries.

Christiansen, Gottlieb Bender

(October 27, 1851–September 27, 1929). B. Vejlby, near Assens, Fyn, Den.; to US 1877; educ. Augsburg Theol. Sem., Minneapolis, Minnesota; ordained 1881 by Norw.-Dan. Conf.; pastor in Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska; prof. Trin. Sem., Blair, Nebraska, 1890–96; pres. United Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. in Am. 1896–1921.

Christian Socialism.

1. Revolts of the masses in mid-19th c. Eur. and theories assoc. with these revolutions occasioned a religious response called Christian socialism. It appeared in different forms in various parts of W Eur. and N. Am.; it usually involved an effort to include many ideals of soc. reform in a framework of liberal Christian theol. and popular action. The movements have been described as attempts to socialize Christianity and Christianize socialism by making Christianity the religion of which socialism is the practice. Christian socialism gen. represented an attack on laissez-faire economics and the clerical status quo In the case of Bismarck's (1815–98) Christian socialism (or state socialism) the term was taken over for opposite purposes, namely to denote an attempt on the part of the govt. to provide for some of the needs of workers.

2. Christian socialism in Eng. was prefigured in the soc. program of R. Owen.* As a formal movement it was founded 1848 by J. M. F. Ludlow,* C. Kingsley,* T. Hughes,* and particularly by J. F. D. Maurice.* This group provoked hostility on the part of the est. forces of the ch. of Eng. and suffered from failure to rally secular socialist forces. A workingmen's coll. was est. in London 1854. But by 1858 the movement had spent most of its force. Several times since, the Brit. Isles have seen Christian socialism in action, e.g., the Guild of St. Matthew, beginning 1877, and the ch. Socialist League, founded 1906. In gen. these movements grew out of the High ch. party and were motivated by a proclamation of divine sovereignty over all realms of life, against a background of evolutionary optimism.

3. On the Continent Christian socialism included more varied emphases than in Eng., from Bismarck's inversion of its use to the Russ. (A. S. Khomyakov*; F. M. Dostoevski*) apocalyptic form, to O. Prohàszka's* program in Hungary in the 1920s, or E. Dollfuss'* partisan use of the term in Austria in the 1930s. The latter reflected RC emphasis sanctioned by some liberalizing soc. emphases of Leo XIII and Pius XI (who, however, called Christian socialism as a philos. a contradiction in terms).

4. Most consistent interest in Christian socialism has been shown in Germany. J. H. Wichern* and F. von Bodelschwingh* considered themselves Christian socialists, though their efforts for redress of soc. evils appeared in a conservative pol. framework. The Ritschlian school of theol. (see Ritschl, Albrecht), in the yrs. just before WW I, produced a number of Christian socialist tendencies, but the movement came under criticism by Karl Barth, who had earlier found it congenial but later considered it pervaded by humanism. Shortly after WW I, under P. Tillich* and others, the movement was revived, with increased interest in Marxist sources, under the name Religious Socialism; but it failed to win wide support of clergy or masses and disintegrated in the face of Hitler's National Socialism.

5. Some emphases of Christian socialism were assumed by the Life and Work branch of the Ecumenical* Movement through efforts of N. Söderblom* of Swed. and others. In the US the Social* Gospel of W. Rauschenbusch* and others provided a parallel to Eur. interests in seeing the Lordship of Christ asserted in various causes of soc. reform and revolution.

See also Stoecker, Adolf.

G. C. Binyon, The Christian Socialist Movement in England (London, 1931); C. E. Raven, Christian Socialism, 1848–1854 (London, 1920); P. Tillich, The Protestant Era, tr. J. L. Adams (Chicago, 1948).


Christian Social Union.

Founded June 14, 1889, in Eng. by C. Gore* and H. S. Holland*; B. F. Westcott* was 1st pres. Objectives: to claim for Christian law the ultimate authority to rule soc. practice; to study applications of Christian truths and moral principles to contemporary soc. and economic problems; to present Christ as Master and King, enemy of wrong, power of righteousness and love. Spread socialist teaching and was influential at Pan-Angl. Congress and Lambeth Conf. 1908.

G. C. Binyon, The Christian Socialist Movement in England (London, 1931), pp. 158–179.

Christian Union.

Founded 1864, when local unions or feds. of Christian (see also United Church of Christ, I B) and Disciples* of Christ chs. banded together under James F. Given, J. V. B. Flack, and others to achieve freedom from pol. and ecclesiastical interference in worship. The group has no binding creed and endeavors to grant every individual the right to his own interpretation of the Bible without controversy on disputed theol. questions, but stresses 7 principles: oneness of the ch., headship of Christ, Bible only rule of faith and practice, fruits of faith condition of fellowship, Christian union without controversy, autonomy of local cong., avoidance of pol. preaching. Ordains men and women. Speaks of baptism and Lord's Supper as ordinances. Local groups differ somewhat in name. Gen. organization includes a Gen. Council. See also Churches of Christ in Christian Union.

In 1886 R. G. Spurling* Sr. and others organized an indep. body called Christian Union. See also Church of God of Prophecy, The.

Life History of J. V. B. Flack, ed. J. Clevenger (Excelsior Springs, Missouri, 1912); H. Rathbun and A. C. Thomas, Christian Union and Bible Theology (Excelsior Springs, Missouri, 1911).


(1626–89). Queen of Swed. 1632–54. Daughter of Gustavus* II. B. Stockholm; d. Rome. Trained, after death of her father, by Axel Oxenstierna to become ruler; crowned 1644; abdicated 1654; joined the RC Ch. 1655. See also Vatican City.

Christina, Fort.

Settlement of Swed. Luths. made 1638 on the present site of Wilmington, Delaware. When R. Torkillus* arrived, services were held at the fort until a chapel was built 1641 or 1642.

Christ Jesus.

The Son of God who became man, incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, and suffered and died for the sins of the world. He rose again from the dead, ascended into heaven, sits at the right hand of God, and will return to judge the world. All who believe in Him and accept Him as their Savior are the children of God and receive eternal life.

Christ is referred to by many different names in the Bible. These names are not mere titles, but accurate descriptions of His person. “Jesus” (derived via Gk. from Heb.) means Savior (Mt 1:21; cf. Acts 4:12). “Christ” (derived from Gk.; “Messiah,” equivalent in meaning, is derived from Heb.) means Anointed. He was anointed with the Holy Spirit at His baptism (Jn 1:32, 33; Is. 11:2). “Messiah” is the name the Jews used after the Babylonian Captivity in referring to the Savior who was to come. (Jn 1:41; 4:25)

I. Person of Christ. Christ Jesus is true God, begotten of the Father from eternity, and also true man, conceived by the Holy Ghost and born of the Virgin Mary.

A. Deity. So completely is the doctrine of Jesus' deity the foundation of the Christian faith, that Jesus recognizes only that faith which acknowledges Him as the Son of God (Mt 16:16). Christ is at times identified with the Angel* of the Lord, Jehovah, Lord in the OT (cf. 1 Co 10:4 with Ex 13:21; 14:19; Jn 12:41 with Is 6:1–5; Heb 12:18–26 with Ps 68:7, 8, 17, 18). The NT naturally provides clearer evidence of the deity of Christ. The Gospel of John was written “that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God” (Jn 20:31). Because of the unity of His essence with the Father, Jesus could say: “I and My Father are one.” (Jn 10:30; cf. Jn 14:9)

Christ is begotten or born of the Father from eternity (Jn 1:14, 18; Ro 1:3; 8:32; 1 Jn 1:7; 1 Ptr 1:3; 1 Th 1:1; Heb 1:5; Mi 5:2; Ps 2:7). The words “this day” (Ps 2:7) refer to the eternal day of the Father. In His eternal life the Father generated the Son, who is also eternal.

Those who deny the deity of Christ (Cerinthus, Arius, some modern theologians) reject the foundation of the Christian faith.

B. Humanity. Jesus was conceived by the Holy Ghost and born of the Virgin Mary (Is 7:14; Mt 1:23–25; Lk 1:35; Heb 2:14; Mt 1:16). He was miraculously (Lk 1:37) made of a woman (Gl 4:4) as had been prophesied (Gn 3:15). The conception of Jesus was a sinless conception (Lk 1:35). The question of how a sinless nature could originate out of the sinful blood of Mary caused RCs to evolve the doctrine of the immaculate conception of Mary (see Roman Catholic Confessions, C), and others to hold that God preserved a sinless flesh from the time of Adam (both ideas are contrary to Scripture, Jn 3:6; Ro 5:18). M. Chemnitz* held that the Son of God assumed our human nature, which in conception was cleansed from sin. (“De Peccato Originali,” in Enchiridion; cf. WA 44, 311–314)

By His birth Jesus became a man in the full sense of the word. He took part of the flesh and blood of children (Heb 2:14; Ro 9:5; Jn 1:14), had a real body and soul and a human will, ate, drank, grew weary, and died a real death (cf. WA 52, 815–816). Only in one respect did Jesus differ from His brethren: He was without sin (original as well as actual, Heb 7:26; Ro 5:18, 19; 2 Co 5:21) and hence free from the germ of death (Ro 6:23; Jn 10:18). The humanity of Christ is essential for our salvation, for the Redeemer of the world had to assume the guilt and penalty of the Law which was binding on all men; this was possible only if He became like us in all things, in a perfect human nature. (Gl 4:4)

Though otherwise a human nature is also a person, it is peculiar to the human nature of Christ that it does not constitute a separate being and never existed by itself. The human nature did not receive the divine, but the divine assumed the human.

C. Jesus Christ is true God and true man in one person (Jn 1:14; 1 Ti 2:5), in which person the human nature and the divine nature are united in the most intimate communion (1 Ti 3:16; Ro 1:3, 4). This uniting of God and man in one being is called the personal union (unio personalis) and is expressed in the axiom: Neither is the flesh without the Word, nor the Word without the flesh.

But despite the intimacy of the union of the 2 natures in Christ, each nature remains intact, just as soul and body remain what they are, though united in 1 person (Cl 2:9). There is no commingling of the natures. By the union of God and man in Christ there did not originate a 3d nature, the divine-human nature. Because the 2 natures are so closely conjoined in Christ, the dogmaticians speak of propositiones personales (personal propositions, statements that express or describe the personal union). Thus one can say on the basis of Scripture: this man is God; and: this God is man. (Lk 1:31, 32; 2:11; Gl 4:4; Acts 20:28; Ro 5:10; 1 Ti 3:16)

See also Perichoresis.

D. Communication of Attributes. Though in the person of Jesus Christ each nature retains its essenial attributes unchanged and undiminished in kind and number, yet each nature also communicates its attributes to the other in the personal union, so that the divine nature participates in properties of the human nature and vice versa. The FC and most Lutheran dogmaticians distinguish 3 kinds (genera) of Scripture statements teaching the communication of attributes (communicatio idiomatum): genus idiomaticum, genus maiestaticum, and genus apotelesmaticum. See also Idiomata.

1. Scripture passages classified as statements or the genus idiomaticum, the genus of appropriation, are those whereby attributes of either nature are ascribed to the entire person of Christ. (Jn 8:58 and Lk 3:23; Jn 21:17 and Lk 2:52; Cl 1:16 and Jn 18:12)

2. Propositions of the genus maiestaticum, the genus of glory, deal with the divine attributes showing forth the glory of the only begotten of the Father. Though the human nature of the person of Christ remains truly human, yet all divine properties and perfections and the honor and glory pertaining to this divine nature are communicated to His human nature; the divine perfections, which the divine nature has as essential attributes, the human nature has as communicated attributes. In Christ dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily (Cl 2:9; Heb 1:3). By virtue of the personal union the Son of Man, while on earth and in conversation with Nicodemus, was also in heaven (Jn 3:13); and now, though ascended into heaven, He, the Son of Man, is also with His church on earth to the end of the world (Mt 28:20). By communication of attributes Jesus was an omnipotent man; in Him there dwelt eternal life, infinite wisdom, immutable holiness and righteousness, boundless power, love indivisible and everlasting as God Himself. Although Christ, according to His human nature, was exposed to temptation, this human nature, by communicated holiness, was not only sinless, but absolutely impeccable.

3. The term genus apotelesmaticum is derived from the Gk. word for the performance of a task. Scripture texts under this head assert a union by which, in official acts, each nature performs what is peculiar to itself with the participation of the other. Not only did the entire person, Christ, die for our sins (1 Co 15:3), but we were reconciled to God by the death of His Son (Ro 5:10). The obedience of the child Jesus was a fulfillment of the 4th Commandment rendered by the Son of God. He suffered and died; this passion and death was endured by His human nature in communion with His divine nature. The 3d genus, particularly, might appear as an unnecessary burdening of Christian dogmatics. It is, like the Luth. treatment of Christology in gen., occastoned by the Ref. opposition. Ref. theol. separates Christ's actions as man from His actions as the Son of God.

II. The States of Humiliation and Exaltation. 1. For the work of redemption Christ, the God-Man, humbled Himself (Ph 2:8). To humble oneself is to forgo prerogatives which one might rightfully claim. Christ humbled Himself according to the human nature, the divine nature as such not being capable of humiliation or exaltation or any other change of state or condition. Yet it was not the man Christ, independent of the Logos, who humbled Himself (for thus the man Christ never existed) but the indivisible person Jesus Christ. This humiliation did not consist in the assumption of the human nature by the divine nature, for then His exaltation must have consisted in an abandonment of the human nature by the divine nature and a dissolution of the personal union (the error of Gnosticism*); in this case the Son of Man would not now sit at the right hand of the Father Almighty. The humiliation of the God-Man rather was that self-denial by which He forbore using and enjoying fully and constantly the divine majesty communicated to His human nature. When He might have deported Himself as the Lord of Lords, He took upon Himself the humble form of a servant. Being rich, He took upon Himself poverty. He who fed the thousands by the lakeside suffered hunger in the desert and thirst on the cross. It was the Lord of Glory who was crucified, the Prince of Life who was killed. Lastly, the body of the Holy One of God was laid in another man's grave. Through all the yrs. of His humiliation, from the night of His nativity to the night which shrouded Golgotha in darkness at midday, rays and flashes of the glory of the Only-Begotten of the Father bore witness to the majesty of the Son of Man. He knew what was in Nathaniel's heart, read the past hist. of the Samaritan woman, and saw the thoughts of the disciples as well as of His enemies. He was in heaven while He taught Nicodemus by night.

The purpose of this humiliation of the God-Man was the redemption of the world. The Holy One of God humiliated Himself and became obedient unto death to make atonement for our rebellious disobedience. God in His righteousness demanded that man should fulfill the Law in perfect love toward God and his neighbor. Hence man's Substitute was “made under the Law” (Gl 4:4). But as the continued use of His divine majesty would have placed Jesus beyond the power of His human enemies, it was necessary for Him to forgo full and constant use of His divine power and majesty, in order that the work of redemption might be performed and the Scriptures fulfilled. (Mt 26:53, 54)

2. The resumption and continuation of such full and constant use of His divine attributes according to His human nature was and is the exaltation of Christ, the God-Man (Eph 4:8; Heb 2:7). Before coming forth from the tomb He, according to His human nature, descended to hell and manifested His glory to the spirits condemned because of their unbelief (1 Ptr 3:18–20. See Descent into Hell). Christ's resurrection was the public proclamation of His victory over sin and death. By His ascension He visibly entered according to His human nature into His heavenly kingdom. Sitting at the right hand of God the Father Almighty, He exercises dominion also according to His human nature over all creatures, esp. over His church. The form of a servant has been forever put away; when His exaltation will culminate, He will come again, indeed, as the Son of Man, but in His glory and will sit on the throne of His glory with power and great glory. (Mt 25:31; Lk 21:27)

III. The Office of Christ. Strictly speaking, “Christ” is not a proper name but designates a person as set apart by anointing for a special office, purpose, and task; our Lord is “the Anointed” who functioned and functions in an absolutely unique sense as Prophet, Priest, and King. While Luther, Melanchthon, and other early Luth. theologians do not use this distinction technically, it appears even in Eusebius. It was introduced into Luth. theol. by J. Gerhard.* “Anointed” means that Jesus received the office to which He was divinely appointed (Heb 5:4–10), qualified (He received the Spirit “without measure,” Jn 3:34, C. K. Williams' tr.), commissioned (Jn 20:21; cf. Is 49:6), and accredited (Acts 2:22), and for this office He received the gift of the Holy Ghost. (Acts 10:38)

1. Prophet. Jesus is the great Revealer of divine Truth, both in His own person and by His Word; the Logos of God to man, revealing to lost mankind the holiness and, above all, the mercy and love of God. See also Prophet, Christ as.

2. Priest. By His spotless, perfect obedience unto death He propitiated, in the place of all mankind, the offended majesty of God. “Himself the Victim and Himself the Priest,” He has by His vicarious life and suffering fulfilled all righteousness and atoned for all sin. See also Atonement; Faith; Justification; Priest, Christ as.

3. King. Possessed of “all power in heaven and on earth,” Jesus, also according to His human nature, is now “Lord of all,” so that all external events in the world of man and of nature and all spiritual influences are equally under His control. As King He carries into full effect the great purpose of His revelations as Prophet and of His atoning sacrifice as High Priest. Particularly, He governs and protects the ch. and rules the world in the interest of the ch. Also in the last judgment and to eternity He rules supreme over all; there is no appeal from His verdict. The saints and angels in heaven are His Kingdom of Glory. See also King, Christ as.

See also Ascension; Filioque Controversy; Last Things; Logos; Symbolism, Christian, I 5; Trinity.

J. Bodensieck, “The Person and the Work of Christ,” What Lutherans Are Thinking, ed. E. C. Fendt (Columbus, 1947), pp. 192–218; O. Cullmann, Christology of the New Testament, tr. S. Guthrie and C. Hall (Philadelphia, 1959); W. Elert, Morphologic des Luthertums, tr. W. A. Hansen, The Structure of Lutheranism, I (St. Louis, 1962), pp. 222–253; O. C. J. Hoffmann, “Office, or Work, of Christ,” The Abiding Word, ed. T. Laetsch, II (St. Louis, 1947), 112–144, 769; T. S. Kepler, Contemporary Thinking About Jesus (New York, 1944); L. J. Roehm, “The Person of Christ,” The Abiding Word, ed. T. Laetsch, I (St. Louis, 1946), 18–38, 583; J. Schaller, Biblical Christology (Milwaukee, 1919); bibliography and notes on FC SD VIII, in Die Bekenntnisschriften der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche, 5th ed. (Göttingen, 1964), 1017–49; see also references under Dogmatics; Jesus, Lives of.

Christlieb, Theodor

(1833–89). B. Birkenfeld, Württemberg; d. Bonn. Helped found Ger. Evangelistic Union 1883, Johanneum* 1886. With P. R. Grundemann* and G. A. Warneck* founded Allgemeine Missions-Zeitschrift 1874.


Earliest certain mention of celebration on December 25 is in the Philocalian Calendar of 354, which gives the Roman practice in 336. Commemoration of the Nativity on January 6 originated in the E and was combined (e.g., in Jerusalem) with commemoration of Jesus' baptism. By the 5th c. most E chs. accepted the Roman date, though Jerusalem celebrated the Nativity January 6 till 549 or later.

Most customs connected with Christmas are borrowed from pagan sources. The Roman Saturnalia, marking return of the sun with the practice of giving and receiving presents, as well as Yuletide customs of people of N Eur., left their mark on the outward observance of Christmas. Possibly the use of evergreens, holly, ivy, mistletoe, and rosemary was suggested by non-Christian customs, though they soon received Christian significance. Burning the Yule log was an important part of Christmas festivities in Eng. The domestic Christmas tree first appeared in Ger. in the 16th c. From Ger. the custom carne to Eng. and Am. Festivities connected with Santa* Claus derived from Christian and pagan sources. The use of lights and bells accords well with the spirit of the festival. See also Church Year, 1, 16 B; Schwan, Heinrich Christian.

H. K. Usener, Das Weihnachtsfest (Bonn, 1911); F. X. Weiser, The Christmas Book (New York, 1952); L. Fendt, “Der heutige Stand der Forschung über das Geburtsfest Jesu a.m. 25. XII. und über Epiphanias,” Theologische Literaturzeitung, LXXVIII (January 1953), columns 1–10; Celebrating Christmas Around the World, ed. H. H. Wernecke (Philadelphia, 1962); Christmas: An American Annual of Christmas Literature and Art, ed. R. E. Haugan (Minneapolis, 1931– ); W. G. Polack, “The First Christmas Tree in an American Church Service,” CHIQ, XVII, No. 1 (April 1944), 4–6.

Christmas Conference.

Meeting at Baltimore December 24, 1784, at which ca. 60 lay preachers formed the ME Ch.

Christoffel, Ernst J.

(d. 1955). Est. homes for blind, crippled, and orphaned in Turkey (Malatya 1908 to 1919) and Iran (Tabriz 1925; Isfahan 1928). Worked esp. with blind; created oriental alphabet for blind and educ. them as evangelists, teachers, etc.


That part of dogmatics, or doctrinal theol., which treats of the person of Jesus Christ as the God-man, with the human nature and the divine nature included in one person. See also Christ Jesus.


Term used to describe the view (e.g., of Karl Barth) that revelation comes to us only in the incarnation.


(1515–68). Duke of Württemberg 1550–68. Worked for unity of Ref. and Luth. theologians. Laid foundation for ev. ch. govt. Used income from chs. and monasteries for support of chs. and schools.


Patron saint of travelers, ferrymen, etc. Acc. to tradition, a 3d c. martyr. A legend refers the name Christopher (Gk. Christophoros, “Christbearing”) to his carrying Christ, in the form of a child, across a river.

Christs, False.

Those who make the false claim of being the promised Christ. Jesus prophesied that deceivers of that kind would appear (Mt 24:5, 23–28; Mk 13:22). Men of this nature before the destruction of Jerusalem were possibly Simon* Magus, Theudas, mentioned in Josephus as causing trouble in the days of gov. Fadus (Antiquities, XX, 5, 1), the Egyptian mentioned Acts 21:38, and Dositheus and Menander, whose names are reported by somewhat later writers. In the 2d c. appeared Bar Cocheba, a leader of the Jews in the disastrous insurrection of 132–135. See also Simon Magus.

Christ Seminary—Seminex.

Organized 1974 by dissident faculty mems. and students of Concordia* Sem., St. Louis, Missouri; recognized 1976 by the Association* of Ev. Luth. Chs. as an institution of the AELC Adopted its name (Seminex: short for sem. in exile) 1977. Discontinued as a separate institution 1983, with faculty mems. redeployed to the Luth. School of Theol. at Chicago, Illinois, Pacific Luth. Theol. Sem., Berkeley, California, and the Austin, Texas, extension of Wartburg Theol. Sem., Dubuque, Iowa, students transferred to these and other Luth. sems., and programs administered from Chicago.

Exodus from Concordia: A Report on the 1974 Walkout, by the Bd. of Control, Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Missouri (St. Louis, 1977); F. W. Danker, No Room in the Brotherhood (St. Louis, 1977); K. E. Marquart, Anatomy of an Explosion: A Theological Analysis of the Missouri Synod Conflict (Ft. Wayne, Indiana: Concordia Theological Seminary Press, 1977).

Christ's Sanctified Holy Church.

Began in Colored ME Ch. in Louisiana with preaching by white evangelists; organized ca. 1903/04 as Colored Ch. South. See also Holiness Churches, 2.

Christus Crucifixus; Christus Victor.

Terms popularized by G. E. H. Aulen,* who referred Christus Crucifixus to the eschatological drama of redemption including the work of Christ finished on the cross, namely the act of divine love through which God establishes reconciliation bet. Himself and the world. Christus Victor is used for the finished work that appears to faith as a victory over those demonic powers that have enslaved humanity and is the victorious breakthrough of the divine will and the establishment of “the new covenant.”

Christus Victor.

Fellowship of Cong. pastors in US organized 1942 to promote neoorthodox and Trinitarian theol.


B. early in 8th c.; d. 766. Frankish Christian leader. Bp. Metz ca. 742; abp. 754. Reestablished relationship bet. his country and Rome. Known for efforts in behalf of ch. discipline and morals. Strictly enforced the rule of Benedict* of Nursia. Helped spread Roman customs through Ger. Works include Regula.

Chronology, Biblical and Ecclesiastical.

Science of fixing dates and chronological sequence of events in sacred and ecclesiastical hist. See also Time.

Chrysanthos, Notaras

(d. 1731). Metropolitan of Caesarea 1702; patriarch of Jerusalem 1707 as successor of his uncle Dositheus*; author of confession signed by Gk. bps. at the 1727 council at Constantinople.

Chrysoloras, Manuel

(1355–1415). Humanist. B. Constantinople; sent to It. and Eng. to seek help against Turks; settled in It. ca. 1396; taught at Florence and other It. cities; works include a Gk. grammar.

MPG, 156, 9–60.

Chrysostom, John

(ca. 345–407). Patriarch of Constantinople. Name Chrysostom (from Gk. chrysostomos, “goldenmouthed”) not applied to him till after his death. Mem. of a rich patrician family; studied rhetoric and philos.; intended to follow law, but turned to the Bible instead, leading the life of a strict ascetic in the first yrs. after his baptism; priest in Antioch 12 yrs.; patriarch of Constantinople 398. Immediately inaugurated needed reforms and laid the foundation for systematic charitable work. But his position became increasingly insecure because of enemies he made by his rigorous rules and fearless attacks on luxury. Under auspices of Eudoxia, Theophilus* of Alexandria assembled the Syn. ad. Quercum* 403 that deposed and banished Chrysostom. After his recall another syn., at Constantinople, again condemned him; banished by force to Asia Minor; died at Comana, Asia Minor, before reaching destination. Fame rests chiefly on his sermons, in which he reached great heights of oratory. Writings may be divided chiefly into homilies, treatises, and letters and include On the Priesthood; On Penance; On Celibacy. See also Acacius of Beroea; Amulets; Agapetae; Doctor of the Church; Fathers of the Church; Patristics, 6.

C. Baur, John Chrysostom and His Time, tr. M. Gonzaga, 2 vols. (Westminster, Maryland, 1959–60); J. A. W. Neander, Der heilige Johannes Chrysostomas und die Kirche, 2 vols., 3d ed., new and improved print. (Berlin, 1858), Vol. I: The Life of St. Chrysostom, tr. J. C. Stapleton (London, 1838); W. R. W. Stephens, Saint John Chrysostom: His Life and Times, 3d ed. (London, 1883). ACR


(4th–3d c. BC). Chinese philos.; teacher of Taoism*; stressed love of nature, logic, and the attention of the sages to the sublime and the common. See also Chinese Philosophy, 2.


1. The word “church” is commonly applied to the whole number of true believers, the communion of saints, the invisible ch. of Christ; any particular denomination of Christian people; particular congs. of any Christian denomination; the religious establishment of any particular nation or govt. (e.g., Ch. of Eng.); the sum total of the various Christian denominations in a country; and the house of Christian worship.

2. Biblical meaning. The word “church” is derived from the Gk. kyriakos, “of, or belonging to, the Lord.” In the OT 2 words were used for the idea of assembly: edah and qahal (Lv 4:13, 14; cf. Heb 12:23). In the NT the term is ekklesia, derived from ekkalein, “call out”; hence the term describing the town meeting of the Gk. city is transferred to the gathering of those who have been summoned by the call of God and His Spirit to belong to His people in Christ (Eph 1:22, 23; 4:1–6). The 80-plus instances of the term in the NT designate the body of all believers in all the world, or the believers gathered in a particular place (e.g., Gl 1:2; “ch. in the house” Cl 4:15; Ro 16:5). In no case is the term used of gatherings in which also unbelievers are essentially numbered, unless Rv 2–3 is so interpreted. The picture of the ch. used by Paul (cf. 1 Co 12; Eph 4:1–16; Ro 12:4–18; 14:1; 15:1) and probably implied by Jesus (Mt 25:31–46), that the mems. of the ch. are the body of Christ on earth, stresses that they stand in a functional relation toward each other, namely that they “edify” (1 Co 14:26; Eph 4:12) or build up one another in faith for life. This mutual relation is termed koinonia (“sharing”) and involves mutual care expressed in forgiveness and admonition (cf. Mt 18; Eph 5:19, 20), the Lord's Supper (1 Co 10:16, 17), and care for physical need (2 Co 8:4). The breaking of this mutual activity receives vivid rebuke (Ro 16:17, 18; 3 Jn 9–11). Other analogies for the ch. stress that it is the place where God is worshiped (Eph 2:19–22), the means by which God is glorified to the world (1 Ptr 2; Ph 2:14–16).

3. Visible and invisible. In reaction to RC stress on the political quality of the ch. in its submission to the pope, the concepts of “visible” and “invisible” ch. were developed, though the terms are not in the Bible and the Luth. confessions. The term “invisible” is a useful adjective for the ch., if it denies a political essence to the ch. (Ap VII and VIII, 23–28), reminds of the worldwide community in which true Christians should live together, and denotes God's own recognition of each believer (2 Ti 2:19); it is harmful if it makes of “church” an abstract idea without counterpart in fact (Ap VII and VIII, 20) or allows the assumption that a perfect unity already exists that does not need the careful ministry of every mem. of the ch. (cf. Eph 4:1–16). The term “visible” is useful if it sets up a sphere of activity in which Christians genuinely labor for each other and in witness to their world; it is harmful if activism is allowed to replace Word and Sacrament as the means of propulsion of the ch. See also Luther, Chief Writings of, 7.

4. Marks. In contrast to the position that the episcopate or apostolic succession are the esse of the ch., the Luth. symbols have developed the concept of the Gospel and the Sacraments as the marks of the ch. (AC V, VIII, XIII). Special ministers of the Word are significant for the ch. as they use Gospel and Sacraments and train Christians for their mutual ministry (Eph 4:7–13).

See also Church Militant; Church Triumphant.

C. Bergendoff, The Doctrine of the Church in American Lutheranism (Philadelphia, 1956); R. R. Caemmerer, The Church in the World (St. Louis, 1949); R. R. Caemmerer and E. L. kueker, Church and Ministry in Transition (St. Louis, 1964); F. E. Mayer, “The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel and the Terminology Visible and Invisible Church,” CTM, XXV (March 1954), 177–198; P. S. Minear, Images of the Church in the New Testament (Philadelphia, 1960); F. Pieper, Christliche Dogmatik, III (St. Louis, 1920), 458–534, Eng. tr. Christian Dogmatics, III, ed. W. W. F. Albrecht (St. Louis, 1953), 397–435; H. A. Preus, The Communion of Saints (Minneapolis, 1948).

Church Administration.

1. There is growing need in the ch. for good administrative procedure. S. W. Blizzard, “The Minister's Dilemma,” Christian Century, LXXIII (April 25, 1956), 508–510, showed that though Prot. ministers put administration at the end of the list of preferred pastoral tasks, it was first on the list in terms of time consumed. Since administration is a necessity, it should be viewed in its proper perspective and carried out with maximum efficiency and minimum time.

2. The word “administration” occurs in some form only twice in the NT RSV, representing 2 Gk. words. In 1 Co 12:28 “administrators” are among Godappointed ch. functionaries; here the Gk. word means “those who steer, pilot, direct”; in this sense administrators give proper direction to an enterprise. 2 Co 8:20 speaks of administering the gift given by the chs. for the poor in Jerusalem; here the Gk. word means “serving” (cf. Mt 20:28); in this sense administrators are servants; their greatest service is speaking and sharing God's Word.

3. If an administrator is to function effectively as leader and servant, (1) he must help people see and set goals indicated in the Bible; the ch. is the people of God, who are to carry out God's will through worship, nurture, service, and witness in the world. (2) An administrator should help people analyze the situation in the ch. in order to see where they are and where God's goals indicate they should be; such analysis should consider resources of the group for meeting the goals. (3) People should be involved in determining functions that need to be performed and planning means or structures by which these functions can be performed. (4) People should be organized for the tasks to be done; they need to be asked, trained, and put to work in the functions that have been determined as necessary. (5) Provision should be made for supervision, to help assure progress and offer resources to increase efficiency. (6) Evaluation should ask: “How are we doing in the light of our goals?” Everything going on in the ch. should be critically viewed as measured by effectiveness in helping people reach God-given goals.

H. Coiner, “The Pastor as Administrator of the Christian Fellowship,” CTM, XXXV (May 1964), 271–283; R. R. Caemmerer, Feeding and Leading (St. Louis, 1962); O. Tead, Democratic Administration (New York, 1945) and The Art of Administration (New York, 1951). RC

Church and Ministry, Walther's Theses on.

Theses from C. F. W. Walther's* Die Stimme unserer Kirche in der Frage von Kirche und Amt; an elaboration of his 1841 Altenburg* Theses. The 1850 Mo. Syn. conv. authorized preparation of a formal reply to the Buffalo* Syn. and its leader, J. A. A. Grabau,* in regard to the controversy that had arisen bet. the 2 syns. on ch. and ministry. Walther submitted theses and an outline for a book to the 1851 Mo. Syn. conv.; they were discussed and approved. Shortly thereafter Walther and F. C. D. Wyneken* went to Ger. to confer with authorities there on the dispute, to do further research for the book at the Erlangen library, and to arrange for its pub.; it appeared in Erlangen 1852. It contains copious testimonies from the ch. fathers and orthodox Luth. theologians and is regarded as a classic statement on ch. and ministry.

The 9 theses on the ch. distinguish bet. the ch. in the proper (eigentlich) sense of the term, i. e. the communion of saints or the totality of believers in Christ, and the ch. in a figurative (uneigentlich) sense, i. e., visible groups, or congs. (particular chs.). The ch. in the proper sense may be described as invisible, though its presence may be identified by concrete marks, namely the Word of God purely preached and the Sacraments administered according to Christ's institution. Walther was contesting the view of Grabau that tended to identify the community of true believers, known only to God, with a particular empirical or institutional form of the ch.

The 10 theses on the office of the pub. ministry were directed in part against what were considered hierarchical tendencies in Grabau's position. They begin by affirming vigorously that the pub. ministry (1) is different from the ministry of the royal priesthood common to all believers, (2) is a divine, not a human institution, and (3) is obligatory, not optional, for the ch. Walther avoided the view (e.g., of J. W. F. Hofling*) that the pub. ministry is merely a derivation of the gen. priesthood, a soc. expediency, a dispensable feature of ch. order left to human discretion. But he held that, though God created the office and calls ministers, the pub. ministry is not a special class in the ch.; it is not an autonomous, self-perpetuating institution, indep. of and superior to the gen. priesthood of believers. Rather, the pub. ministry is transmitted (übertragen; hence: Übertragungslehre, doctrine of transference or transmission) by God through the cong., the possessor of ch. powers. The ministry exercises in pub., on behalf of the corporate body, the same powers that any spiritual priest may exercise privately. The theses guard the rights and responsibilities of the laity and preserve the divine institution, distinctiveness, and inalterability of the pub. office of the ministry.

C. F. W. Walther, Die Stimme unserer Kirche in der Frage von Kirche und Amt, [5th ed.] (Zwickau, Saxony, 1911) and “The Church and the Ministerial Office,” tr. A. G.[räbner], TQ, I (July 1897), 271 to 276; W. Dallmann, W. H. T. Dau, and T. Engelder (editor), Walther and the Church (St. Louis, 1938), pp. 47–86. KW

Church and State.

1. Relations bet. ch. and state, individual Christians and govts., organized chs. and civil forms have varied through the centuries.

2. When Christianity first appeared in the Medit. world of the Roman Empire it was confused with Judaism. But soon the distinctions were noted, and Christianity was classified as an unlawful religion (religio illicita). Though the early Christians were respectful in submission to the pagan state, their refusal to acknowledge the divinity of the emp. could be construed as disloyalty. Trajan's instructions to Pliny est. a pattern of dealing with Christians, discountenancing Christianity, but not allowing measures against it to become exaggerated. Yet at times violent persecutions broke out. See also Alexander Severus, Marcus Aurelius; Persecution of Christians.

3. The Edict of Milan* (313) by Constantine* I gave official toleration to the Christians, but not preference over other religious bodies. Theodosius* I outlawed pagan worship and declared the Christian religion the religion of the empire (380). Domination of ch. over state, of state over ch., or coexistence of the two seemed to be possible lines of development. See also Ambrose; Papocaesarism.

4. In the E Byzantine Empire caesaropapism was adopted; the absolute monarchy obtained supreme control over the ch. and exercised its dominion even in matters normally reserved for ecclesiastical authorities; the ch. in effect became a dept. of the state.

5. In the W, Valentinian III and Theodosius II recognized the pope as head of the W Ch. 445. The decentralized govts. after the “fall” of the Roman Empire (see Papacy, 3) permitted the RC Ch. to gain preeminence. In 494 Gelasius I formulated his view on the relationship bet. ch. and state: two powers governed Christendom, the secular and the spiritual, each with its own sphere of action in which the other was not to interfere, the spiritual comparatively the higher of the two. But by 800, with the revival of imperial dignity by Charlemagne,* the W Ch. was threatened at least with a mild form of caesaropapism. About this time the RC Ch. began to augment its territorial holdings, a factor in the relationship bet. the RC Ch. and various states from the 9th to the 20th c.

6. Disintegration of the Carolingian Empire and invasions of the N tribes and Saracens brought on moral and pol. decay, from which the emergence of feudalism rescued Eur. The Cluniac* reform movement and the Hildebrandian papacy (see Popes, 7) set aside dominance over the papacy by the Roman aristocracy or the revived imperium; Henry IV stood before Gregory VII at Canossa 1077 as a penitent for pol. faults. Acknowledgment of papal suzerainty by R. Guiscard* (1059) and John of Eng. (1213) illustrate the extent of the power of the ch. in the feudal Middle Ages. Resistance of secular rulers may be illustrated by the Constitutions of Clarendon* (1164), enacted by Henry II of Eng., and the efforts of Frederick* I (Barbarossa) to control the papacy. See also England, A 3.

7. The 13th c. saw the zenith of papal pol. power in the struggle bet. the imperium and the sacerdotium. Innocent III defined the plenitudo potestatis of the papacy. See Popes, 10.) The formulations of Aegidius* Romanus and Augustinus* Triumphus bolstered the “two* swords” theory of papal supremacy. In Unam sanctam (1302) Boniface VIII (see Popes, 12) claimed that all power, spiritual and temporal, was given to the ch., which controlled temporal power also when exercised by princes. Dante* in De monarchia looked for control of all temporal power by a universal monarchy alongside the papacy with its supreme spiritual power. Marsilius* of Padua, together with John* of Jandun, wrote Defensor pacis 1324, the classic treatise on supremacy of state over ch.

8. Growth of nationalism and the rise of strong monarchies in W Eur. in the later Middle Ages gave rise to measures against papal claims, including the Pragmatic* Sanction of Bourges 1438.

9. During the Reformation the right of princes to determine the religion of their territories was firmly acknowledged in the Peace of Augsburg* 1555 and reaffirmed in the Peace of Westphalia* 1648. In Eng. Henry VIII's control of the ch. was confirmed 1534 in the Act of Supremacy (reenacted 1559 in revised form under Elizabeth I). Also in RC countries the monarchs obtained a large measure of control over the ch.

10. Luther permitted the princes to take over affairs of the ch. as Notbischöfe. This led to Luth. state chs. in Ger. The Scand. Luth. countries, likewise, continued state control of the ch. AC XXVIII set forth distinction bet. the two powers. (See Luther and Civil Authority.)

11. J. Calvin* upheld a theocratic polity, subjecting state to ch. In the words of the 2d Helvetic Conf. 1566, it is the duty of the magistrate to “advance the preaching of the truth and the [pure and] sincere faith.” (See also Reformed Confessions, A 6.) He has authority, “and it is his duty to take order,” according to the Westminster Conf. 1647, “that unity and peace be preserved in the Church, that the truth of God be kept pure and entire,” and that ecclesiastical discipline be carried out; the ch. was to be determinative in all the matters. (See also Presbyterian Confessions, 3, 4.)

12. Against extreme Calvinism, T. Erastus* in Explicatio gravissimae quaestionis maintained ascendancy of state over ch. in ecclesiastical matters. Erastianism* was defended 1594 by R. Hooker* in Ecclesiastical Polity. In Ger. it was modified by collegialism.* T. Hobbes* in Leviathan set forth a system of pol. absolutism that in its theories of ch.-state relations virtually embraced Erastianism. Under impact of growing secularism and development of toleration extreme Erastianism was modified, as were extreme theocratic views.

13. Views of Anabaptist, Independents, Separatists, and like-minded sectaries also contributed to acceptance of theories that favored separation of temporal and spiritual powers.

14. Such separation was effected in the First Amendment to the Constitution of the US: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.” The presence of many nationalities and varied forms of religious belief prevented formation of close ties bet. any one ch. and the state. Writings of J. Wise,* labors of I. Backus,* and efforts of T. Jefferson* and others brought about the establishment and recognition of the voluntary principle. The Virginia Statute of Religious Liberty 1785–86 was the first enactment in the states to grant freedom of conscience. The abolition of support to the Cong. Ch. in Massachusetts 1833 marked the end of state support for chs. in the US In the 19th and 20th c. there have been various attempts to subvert the First Amendment. But Supreme Court decisions have maintained separation bet. ch. and state. POAU is among militant groups organized to further separation of ch. and state. Other groups in the US staunchly supporting separation of ch. and state include Baps., Seventh-day Adv., and Jeh. wit. See also Public Aid to Church-Related Elementary and Secondary Schools.

15. In Eur. the struggle for separation of ch. and state was esp. violent in Fr., where the Revolution first set aside RCm and replaced it with the cult of reason. The 1801 Concordat* restored RCm, but throughout the 19th c. anticlericalism opposed ultramontanism.* Separation of ch. and state was accomplished in Fr. 1905. In It. and Sp. RCm is the state religion (1966). Port. allows freedom of worship, though RCm is predominant. In Lat. Am. ch. and state are gen. separate. See also Kulturkampf.

16. Resurgence of world religions (e.g., Buddhism,* Shinto,* Islam*) has been coupled with nationalism. Esp. the aggressiveness of Islam has worked for union of that religion with the states in which it is predominant.

17. Atheistic Marxist-Leninist socialism has been antagonistic to Christianity esp. in Russia and China. Totalitarianism, esp. Nazism, advanced the omnicompetent state and a nat. religion. In the US in the 20th c. a religion of “Americanism” began to develop. CSM

See also United States, Religious History of the, 10.

AC XVI and related literature; G. Hillerdal, Gehorsam gegen Gott und Menschen: Luthers Lehre von der Obrigkeit und die moderne Staatsethik (1954); F. E. Cranz, An Essay on the Development of Luther's Thought on Justice, Law, and Society, extra number of the Harvard Theological Review (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1959); W. Künneth, Politik zwischen Dämon und Gott: Eine christliche Ethik des Politischen (Berlin, 1954); A. P. Stokes, Church and State in the United States, rev. ed. by the author and L. Pfeifer, 3 vols. in 1 (New York, 1964); Church and State Under God, ed. A. G. Huegli (St. Louis, 1964).

Church Architecture.

1. That specific area of architecture which relates to the construction of houses of worship, concerns the housing of specific liturgies, and acts, as does religious art, as individual and communal expression of faith life. This article deals specifically with architecture executed for the Christian faith, though Hebraic, pagan, and secular influences on Christian architecture could not be ignored in a more elaborate dissertation.

2. From apostolic times to the end of the 15th c. the hist. of architecture was the hist. of ch. bldg. The decline of the ch. at the time of the It. Renaissance (15th–16th c.) also saw a gen. decline in architecture that is only now beginning to abate.

3. The decision of Constantine* I to make Christianity the state religion had momentous effect on Christian art and architecture. Congregations assembled openly rather than in homes of mems. Increase in membership was met with new and impressive architectural settings. Constantine brought much power and wealth to bear. Large, imperially sponsored chs. were soon built in Rome, Constantinople, and throughout the empire. Their basic form was basilican, a combination house, temple, and assembly hall. But this new form was more than a derivation. It had qualities of original creation. Many authorities consider the basilica the most important single architectural form. It was gen. oriented on a longitudinal axis running from W to E. Before entering the ch. proper, the atrium, a colonnaded court, had to be traversed. The far side of the atrium formed the narthex.* Then came the nave* with its large center aisle and 4 side aisles, 2 on either side. At the E end of the nave was the great (triumphal) arch that framed the altar and the vaulted apse beyond. The altar stood in a separate compartment that was at right angles to the nave and aisles and was called the bema. See also Orientation of Churches; Transept.

4. An important aspect of early Christian architecture was the marked contrast bet. exterior and interior. The exterior was left unadorned, merely a shell whose shape reflected the space enclosed. This ascetic treatment of the exterior gave way very often to utmost richness on the interior.

5. One other type of structure entered the tradition of Christian architecture in the time of Constantine I, namely the round, or polygonal, bldg. crowned with a dome. This type of bldg., developed by the Romans (e.g., the Pantheon), was by the 4th c. given Christian meaning in baptisteries and funerary chapels.

6. Though there is no clear-cut division bet. early Christian and Byzantine art, we find the latter evidencing a more E or oriental influence and style. This shift to the E was completed during the reign of Justinian* I, an art patron equal to Constantine* I. Churches built during his reign exist with much of their original splendor today. The most beautiful examples of chs. built in this First Golden Age survive in Ravenna, It., not in Constantinople, where much was destroyed by iconoclasts. In many respects the most interesting ch. in Ravenna is S. Vitale, completed 547. Of octagonal plan with a domed central core, only the merest remnants of the longitudinal axis of the early Christian basilica remain. From the time of Justinian I, domed central-plan chs. were to dominate the world of Orthodox Christianity, while the basilica plan dominated the architecture of the medieval W. The most important ch. from this period existing in Constantinople is Hagia Sophia (St. Sophia; Holy Wisdom), one of the outstanding creative triumphs of all time; in Byzantine architecture it is unmatched in monumental ambitions and engineering genius. See also Schism, 6. Other important structures include St. Mark's, Venice, a fine example from the Second Golden Age, lavishly decorated and beautifully situated, and the cathedral of St. Basil, Moscow, with its fairyland domes.

7. The Middle Ages marked the shift of the center of Eur. civilization from the Medit. to the N boundaries of the Roman world. Many factors account for this shift, e.g., the split bet. the RC and Orthodox faiths and the impact of invasions by Germanic tribes. These factors also contributed to artistic and architectural changes in Eur. The Carolingjan age under Charlemagne* produced fine chs., particularly the Palace Chapel at Aachen and Abbey ch. of Saint-Riquier, Fr. But 1000 marks an important point in the development of ch. architecture. Possibly expectation of the millennium led to few chs. built 600–1000. Certainly the Crusades* and simultaneous growth of religious enthusiasm created desire for new chs. New wealth and the new middle class of craftsmen and merchants helped recapture the power and imaginative bldg. of ancient Rome; hence the name Romanesque. Chs. not only became more numerous but also were gen. larger, more richly decorated, and looked more “Roman” since their naves used vaults and, unlike any previous ch. styles, used architectural ornamentation and sculpture on exteriors. Romanesque chs. of importance are scattered throughout what was at that time the RC world: from N Sp. to Ger., from Cen. It. to N Eng. The finest, most inventive, and greatest variety are in Fr. Of these a few bear special mention: St. Sernin, Toulouse, illustrates a high degree of regularity in its plan; Notre-Damela-Grande, Poitiers, is particularly noteworthy for its elaborately bordered arcades; St. Etienne (Abbayeaux-Hommes), Caen, is important because of systematic use of the ribbed groin vault above the nave. The cathedral at Durham, Eng., chiefly in Norman Romanesque, is noted for the proportionate disposition of its masses. The design of the imperial cathedral at Speyer helps convey a feeling of sheer enormity. The cathedral at Pisa is unique for the delicacy and color of its exterior. All these chs. displayed extraordinary inventiveness by architectengineer and artist. Use of buttresses, ribbed groined vaults, and sculpture, plus striving for height and light, mark this 200-yr. period as one of the most inventive times, architecturally speaking, since ancient Greece.

8. It would be wrong to describe Gothic as a synthesis of Romanesque traits. Such an idea would not explain the new spirit of Gothic, the emphasis on strict geometric planning, and the search for delicacy and luminosity. There was a kind of quest for sacred mathematic. Harmony (the perfect relationship among parts in terms of mathematical proportions and ratios) was the source of beauty, symbolizing the laws according to which, in Gothic thought, divine reason constructed the universe. The search for height and light reached its crest, and light streaming through stained glass became symbolic of mystic revelation of the Spirit of God.

9. The engineering “experiments” of the Romanesque era were continued and refined. Architectural details were more rationally planned and executed. Rather than using a “horseshoe” or rounded arch with its restrictions, Gothic architects used the pointed arch, which could be more loftily extended. Vaulting became more flexible; areas of any shape could be covered. Buttressing was now more fully understood, and the resultant delicacy achieved on exteriors created a more successful aesthetic solution than that found in Romanesque structures. Use of sculpture as architectural detail, begun by Romanesque architects, was carried to a precise and refined role on Gothic chs. Particularly facades used niches and piers onto and into which sculpture was placed, making the entire structure a kind of carving.

10. The most significant Gothic cathedrals are in Ile-de-France. Cathedrals at Paris, Chartres, Reims, Rouen, and Amiens compete as national monuments. Such concentrated expenditure of effort and money has seldom been seen. It was an expression of the combined religious and patriotic fervor of the Gothic age that reached its peak by the middle of the 13th c. Then work slowed, projects became less ambitious, and architectural concerns deteriorated to concentration on decoration rather than structure. See also Notre Dame Cathedral of Paris, France.

11. Outside Fr. the Gothic style received wide acceptance. Eng. proved very receptive to it; excellent examples are found at Salisbury, at Gloucester, and in Henry VII's Chapel, Westminster Abbey, London. From ca. 1250 Gothic had strong impact in Ger. The cathedral at Cologne was begun 1248 but not completed till modern times. The ch. of St. Sebald, Nürnberg, is an excellent example of Ger. Gothic. But It. had great difficulty with Gothic. The closer one gets to Rome, the less good Gothic is found. Probably the most truly Gothic ch. in It. is the Milan cathedral. Though ambitious, the building lacks cohesion and has come to be one of the world's architectural jokes.

12. The It. Renaissance cannot be said to have contributed any great concepts to the development of church architecture. Humanism overtook the ch., and its architecture shows it. St. Peter's, Rome, is spectacular; that is why it was built. No uniform spiritual motivations are evidenced. The importance of bldg. seemed to be to display theories that had been expounded 1,500 yrs. earlier.

13. It is not right to reject out of hand all chs. built from the Renaissance to the present. St. Paul's, London, was rebuilt in Eng. Renaissance style according to designs of C. Wren* after the Great Fire of 1666. Even the rococo style produced some amazing chs. The Ch. of Our Lady, Zwiefalten, S. Ger., is an amazing blend of painting, sculpture, and architecture; but one must ask if it is a ch. or simply the reply of the Counter* Reformation.

14. It is a rare event when a ch. is built that shows true architectural inventiveness as well as understanding of the building's function. New technical advances and materials have resulted in new approaches and solutions. Often results have shown lack of sincerity either in the client or architect, or both. Successful examples show proper and vital approach to the liturgical function of the place and not simply architectural ingeniousness. Eur. has provided the most successful chs., designed by such architects as Auguste Perret and Le Corbusier of Fr., and Dominikus Böhm, Rudolf Schwarz, and Otto Bartning of Ger. These showed great architectural ability, responsibility to the time in which they worked, and knowledge of liturgies involved.

15. Outstanding US ch. architects of the past and present include Ralph Adams Cram, Eero Saarinen, Pietro Belluschi, Edward A. Sovik, Charles Stade, Gyo Obata, and Edward Dart; these, and a few others, have shown rare ability to design a ch. from the inside out. Such men as Adalbert R. Kretzmann and Edward S. Frey have done much to keep theol. concerns foremost in ch. bldg. The Am. Soc. for Ch. Architecture and the Ch. Architectural Guild of Am. provide resources for those interested in knowing more about ch. architecture. No one form will answer the problem of ch. design. Various forms arise at the intersection of God's action toward man and man's response to God in community with his fellowmen. Only God, in His rightful place in the lives of people, can make a bldg. a ch. RRCj

See also Art, Ecclesiastical and Religious; Building Program, Parish; Theology.

A. Christ-Janer and M. M. Foley, Modern Church Architecture (New York, 1962); K. M. McClinton, The Changing Church (New York, 1957); J. Pichard, Modern Church Architecture, tr. E. Callmann (New York, 1960); J. I. Sewall, A History of Western Art (New York, 1953).

Church Congress.

Unofficial meeting of lay and clerical delegates of the Ch. of Eng.; first such congress was held 1861.

Churches of Christ.

This assoc. of congs. traces its hist. to the beginning of the 19th c. and revivals under leadership of J. O'Kelly,* B. W. Stone,* and others opposed to every form of denominationalism and “ecclesiasticism.” The congs. banded together as the Chs. of Christ must be viewed less as a denomination than as an assoc. of congs. The movement received impetus through the work of T. and A. Campbell,* who held that creeds, confessions, and unscriptural words and phrases contributed to moral decline in Christendom. (See Disciples of Christ, 2 a, b). Originally the names of Churches of Christ and Disciples of Christ were used interchangeably by congs. which held that nothing could be tolerated in NT chs. unless it is expressly sanctioned in the Bible. Claiming to follow the example of the primitive ch., they rejected the use of denominational names, creeds, ecclesiastical terminology, and ch. govt. Each local cong. is considered autonomous; ecclesiastical govt. or supervision is viewed as contrary to the NT When miss. societies were organized on a “money basis” with membership on the basis of fixed annual contributions, when some of the chs. introd. instrumental music and others adopted “unscriptural means of raising money,” the Conservatives gradually separated from the Progressives; there is a clear line of demarcation bet. the Disciples of Christ (“Progressives,” modernistic) and the Chs. of Christ (“Conservatives,” fundamentalistic). The latter group is strong esp. in Texas, Tennessee, and Arkansas The All-Can. Committee of the Chs. of Christ (Disciples) was organized 1922.

Churches of Christ in Christian Union.

Organized 1909 in Ohio by a group that separated from the parent Council of Christian* Union Chs. Holds the 4 basic Holiness principles of regeneration, entire sanctification, divine healing, and the premillennial coming of Christ. Ref. Meth. Ch. (see Methodist Churches, 4b) merged with the group 1952. See also Holiness Churches, 3.

Churches of God, General Conference.

Resulted from revival among Germans in Pennsylvania 1825. Organized 1830 in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, by 7 men under leadership of J. Winebrenner* (hence also called Winebrennerians) as Gen. Eldership of the Ch. of God; name changed 1845 to Gen. Eldership of the Ch. of God in N. Am., and in 1896 to Gen. Eldership of the Chs. of God in N. Am. Present name adopted ca. 1974. Local eldership, held to be divinely instituted, consists of a teaching and a ruling elder. Doctrine, set forth in Twenty-Seven Points of 1849 and Doctrinal Statement of 1925, is Arminian. Distinctive views: that sectarianism is anti-Scriptural; that each local ch. should be called Ch. of God; that all such things as ch. offices and customs should be given names drawn from the Bible; that baptism by immersion, the Lord's Supper, and foot washing are obligatory. No written creed is recognized. The Bible is accepted as the only rule of faith and practice.

Churches of God, Holiness.

Organized 1914 in Atlanta, Georgia, by a group of 8 under leadership of K. H. Burruss in the interest of Holiness doctrines. See also Holiness Churches, 2.

Church Furniture.

1. In the furniture of the chancel* the altar* stands first, not because a special intrinsic value attaches to it, but because it is the place of prayer and the table for the distribution of the Lord's Supper (1 Co 10:21; in the E Orthodox and Angl. liturgies the altar is called the “Lord's Table,” a term occasionally found in gen. Prot. circles). Its antecedents were altars for sacrifice and tables for incense. The mensa* is used for service books and the Communion vessels, a special shelf usually holding the cross (see Cross, 4) and candelabra (see 2). The reredos is the screen, or partition wall, behind the altar and is often elaborate with ornament and religious symbolism, usually triptych in form (3 compartments side by side). Altar paintings or statues are usually placed high so as not to interfere with the cross. The pulpit (elevated preaching stand) is, as a rule, on the Gospel* side of the chancel (formerly in the center in many Prot. chs.). Some Prot. chs. used merely a desk on a raised platform; more formal chs. built pulpits that rise from a single shaft or stem and are richly decorated. Panels of the railing may be carved in rich effects or constructed in the form of niches, with statues of the evangelists or major prophets (see Prophecy). The baptismal font should have a definite, permanent place, either in a special baptismal chapel or at the entrance of the sanctuary, but not so as to interfere with movement of communicants. Some fonts are sculptured of marble with a cover of like material or of ebony wood. Simplest fonts consist of a pedestal and basin holder; others are elaborate with sculpture. The lectern (reading desk from which Scripture lessons are read) takes the place of the ancient ambo (elevated pulpit in early Christian chs.; often there were two, one for reading the Gospel, one for the Epistle). Among forms of lecterns is that of an eagle with wings partly extended, symbol of John the Evangelist. See also Epistle Side of Altar.

2. A special shelf above the mensa (see 1) is designed to hold the cross (see Cross, 4) or crucifix* and candelabra (branched candlesticks, usually ornamented). Though the Luth. Ch. defended the crucifix against iconoclastic tendencies, many of its mems. have advocated return to the plain cross.

3. The pieces of a regular Communion set are chalice,* or cups for distributing the wine, flagon,* paten,* and ciborium.*

See also Piscina; Symbolism, Christian.

E. Geldart, A Manual of Church Decoration and Symbolism (London, 1899); J. C. Cox, English Church Fittings, Furniture, and Accessories (London, [1923]); E. J. Weber, Catholic Ecclesiology (Pittsburgh, 1927); F. R. Webber, The Small Church, rev. ed. (Cleveland, 1939); J. B. O'Connell, Church Building and Furnishing (Notre Dame, Indiana, 1955); P. F. Anson, Fashions in Church Furnishings 1840 to 1940 (London, [1960]); J. F. White, Protestant Worship and Church Architecture (New York, 1964); P. H. D. Lang, What an Altar Guild Should Know (St. Louis, 1964).

Churching of Women.

Public thanksgiving in ch. by women after childbirth. The custom is based on Lv 12:6 and is mentioned in a letter by Augustine* of Canterbury to Gregory I. The rite varies in Angl., RC, and Luth. chs.

Church's Ministry among the Jews, The. See London Jews' Society.

Church Militant.

Ecclesiastical term denoting mems. of the ch. on earth as distinguished from the church* triumphant.

Church Missionary Society

(Angl.). Founded at London April 12, 1799, as Soc. for Missions in Afr. and the E; preparations for a med. miss. dept. began 1882; women's dept. fully organized 1895. Included some Luths. Fields include Afr., Ceylon, India, Pakistan, Iran, Palestine, and the Far E. See also Abdul Masih.

Church of Christ (Holiness) U. S. (A.)

Organized 1896 at Jackson, Miss., by C. P. Jones, a Bap. preacher. Episc. govt. Emphasizes original sin, atonement, gift of the Holy Ghost, baptism by immersion, Lord's Supper, foot washing, and divine healing.

Church of Christ, Scientist.

Founded by Mary Morse (nee Baker) Eddy,* who claimed to have experienced a miraculous healing at Lynn, Massachusetts, after reading Mt 9:1–8. Of this experience she says: “It was in Massachusetts, in the year 1866, that I discovered the Science of Divine Metaphysical Healing, which I afterwards named Christian Science. The discovery came to pass in this way. During twenty years prior to my discovery I had been trying to trace all physical effects to a mental cause; and in the latter part of 1866 I gained the Scientific certainty that all causation was Mind, and every effect a mental phenomenon” (Retrospection and Introspection [Boston, 1891], p. 32). “I knew the Principle of all harmonious Mind-action to be God, and that cures were produced in primitive Christian healing by holy, uplifting faith; but I must know the Science of this healing, and I won my way to absolute conclusions through divine revelation, reason, and demonstration.” (Science and Health, p. 109)

She spent 1866–75 in retirement and preliminary work. Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures was pub. 1875; all authorized eds. have uniform paging. Scholars have explored the connection bet. the tenets of this book and the metaphysical method of healing of P. P. Quimby,* oriental religions and philosophies, Neoplatonism,* mysticism,* and Gnosticism*

The Church of Christ, Scientist, was founded in Boston 1879. Christian Scientists from other areas were at first added to this cong. In 1892 the ch. was reorganized and est. as The Mother Church, The First Church of Christ, Scientist; all other Christian Science chs. (ca. 3,200) are branches of it. Its Church Manual forbids numbering its mems. and reporting such figures for pub.

The Church of Christ, Scientist, has no clergy; readers conduct services; teachers instruct classes in Christian Science; practitioners engage in healing.

The fundamental principles of Christian Science are: “1. God is All-in-all. 2. God is good. Good is Mind. 3. God, Spirit, being all, nothing is matter. 4. Life, God, omnipotent good, deny death, evil, sin, disease.—Disease, sin, evil, death, deny good, omnipotent God, Life” (Science and Health, p. 113). God is “the divine Principle,” individual but not personal, reflected by everything real and eternal; as mind He fills all space. Life, truth, and love constitute the trinity. The atonement of Christ exemplifies “man's unity with God, whereby man reflects divine Truth, Life, and Love.” (Science and Health, p. 18)

Christian Science holds that all reality is in God and His creation, which is good. The only reality of sin, sickness, and death is the fact that unrealities seem real to erring human belief. Its adherents are taught to overcome evil by regarding it as unreality.

Publications: The Christian Science Journal, founded 1883; Christian Science Quarterly, 1890; Christian Science Sentinel, 1898; The Herald of Christian Science, 1903, pub. in various languages; The Christian Science Monitor, 1908. EL.

See also New Thought.

Church of Christ

(Latter Day Saints). See Latter Day Saints, g 3.

Church of England Book Society.

Organized 1880 to circulate Christian literature in English and other languages.

Church of England Zenana Missionary Society.

Organized 1880 to support CMS work among Indian women.

Church of God (7th Day), The

(Salem, West Virginia). Became a discrete body 1933. Governed by an “apostolic council” of 12 “apostles.” Ministry supported by tithes. Leaders chosen by drawing names from a hat, because democratic election is considered unbiblical. Seventh day observed as Sabbath. A. N. Duggan, a leader of this group, went to Jerusalem, which he called The World Headquarters of the Church of God. See also Church of God (Seventh Day), The.

Church of God, Inc., The (Original).

Organized 1886. Claims to be the first ch. organized according to the apostolic pattern. “(Original)” included in name 1917. Headquarters Chattanooga, Tennessee.

Church of God (Seventh Day), The.

Two groups withdrew from Seventh-day Adventists (see Adventist Bodies, 4) because of disagreement over the name of a new press. They were joined by another group that objected to Mrs. E. G. White's* status as prophetess. These formed the Ch. of God (Adv.) and est. headquarters at Stanberry, Missouri Later this body split into 2 groups centering in Denver, Colorado, and Salem, West Virginia.

See also Church of God (Seventh Day), The (Denver, Colorado); Church of God (Seventh Day), The (Salem, W. Virginia).

Church of God (Seventh Day), The

(Denver, Colorado). Claims to continue The Church* of God (Seventh Day). Keeps Saturday as Sabbath; believes in imminent, personal, and visible return of Jesus, and that the righteous will inherit the earth forever. Pub. house at Stanberry, Missouri.

Church of God, The.

Organized by H. A. Tomlinson,* son of A. J. Tomlinson, after the latter's death 1943, as a continuation of the Church* of God movement. Episc. in govt.; officers appointed. Stresses sanctification, baptism of the Holy Ghost, speaking with tongues, miraculous healing.

Church of God (Which He Purchased with His Own Blood).

Organized 1953 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, by W. J. Fizer after he was excommunicated by the Church* of the Living God over disagreement on the Lord's Supper, for which he insisted on grape juice and unleavened bread. Non-Pentecostal; administers Baptism in the name of the Triune God; condemns tobacco and strong drinks.

Church of God.

1. Ca. 200 religious groups in the US use this name in some form, including Pent., Adv., Dunker, Holiness, Winebrennerian, and Mennonite groups. Many are not listed because they object to pub. statistics and other information.

2. Many Pent. reject the use of any name except Ch. of God. Many of these trace their origin to the Latter* Rain Movement started 1886 by R. G. Spurling* Sr. and R. G. Spurling, Jr. The father organized a fellowship first called Christian Union in Monroe Co., Tennessee (See Church of God [Cleveland, Tennessee]). In 1892 R. G. Spurling, Jr., led a revival near Turtletown, Tennessee; another meeting was held by this group at the home of W. F. Bryant, a Meth. preacher, at Camp Creek, on Burger Mountain, Cherokee County, North Carolina. The Christian Union was reorganized as the Holiness Ch. 1902. A. J. Tomlinson* joined the group 1903; overseer 1909; impeached 1923; organized Tomlinson Ch. of God (name changed 1953 to The Church* of God of Prophecy). When A. J. Tomlinson died 1943, his son Milton A. Tomlinson continued this group; another son, H. A. Tomlinson,* organized followers as The Church* of God.

3. These chs. are agreed in insistence on reestablishing the so-called apostolic ch. order, holding that the Holy Spirit must govern the ch. as He did in apostolic times. They are inclined toward theocratic ch. govt.

4. These chs. stress such fundamental doctrines as inspiration of the Bible, deity of Christ, His atonement, resurrection of the body. They also teach entire sanctification as an instantaneous experience (different from and subsequent to conversion), charismatic gifts in preternatural form (e.g., speaking in tongues), faith healing, imminent return of Christ, and His premillennial reign. In gen. they reject denominational creeds, though some (e.g., at Cleveland, Tennessee) pub. declarations of faith. They gen. adhere to literalistic interpretation of the Bible.

See also the Church of God entries that follow.

E. T. Clark, The Small Sects in America, rev. ed. (Nashville, 1949); C. W. Conn, Like a Mighty Army Moves the Church of God, 1886–1955 (Cleveland, Tennessee, 1955); see also works listed under Religious Bodies (US), Bibliography of.

Church of God

(Anderson, Indiana). Founded ca. 1880 by D. S. Warner.* Opposes ecclesiasticism; looks for the ideal NT ch. in a concrete embodiment of Christ's spiritual body. The Prot. Reformation is said to have restored the NT purity of doctrine; the Ch. of God is said to be restoring the NT form of ch. govt. This group holds that the visible ch. must be Spirit-filled and Spirit-directed and that the Holy Spirit will restore such gifts of the early ch. as prophecy, baptism with the Holy Ghost, and divine healing. Pub. house at Anderson, Indiana.

Church of God

(Cleveland, Tennessee). Organized August 19, 1886, as Christian Union by R. G. Spurling* Sr., Monroe Co., Tennessee; reorganized 1902 as Holiness Ch.; renamed Ch. of God 1907. Govt. is centralized; state assemblies and annual gen. assemblies; chs. elect their officers. Operates Lee College (Cleveland, Tennessee), 3 Bible schools, 1 preparatory school. Fundamental and Pentecostal in doctrine; emphasizes entire sanctification; regards baptism, Lord's Supper, and foot washing as ordinances; practices divine healing; rejects use of alcohol, tobacco; opposes membership in secret societies. See also Church of God, 2; Tomlinson, Ambrose Jessup.

Church of God

(Greenville, SC), The. Founded 1925 by J. R. Martin, J. R. Lamb, and Elma S. Davis. Emphasized that the whole Bible is the Word of God.

Church of God

(New Dunkers [Dunkards]). See Brethren, 5.

Church of God and Saints of Christ.

Sometimes called Black Jews; organized 1896 by W. S. Crowdy at Lawrence, Kansas; nat. headquarters at Philadelphia 1900, internat. headquarters at Belleville (near Portsmouth, Virginia) 1917. Crowdy and his successors are accepted as prophets divinely called and in true communication with God. This ch. holds the Negro race to be descended from the lost 10 tribes of Israel; claims to follow the Bible rigidly; observes OT customs, esp. the Jewish calendar, Sabbath, OT festival days, tithing, marriage within their own group; also observes baptism by immersion, Lord's Supper, and foot washing.

Church of God by Faith, The.

Founded 1919 in Jacksonville Heights, Florida by John Bright. Holds that Christ is only mediator bet. man and God; places hope of salvation in the Word of God as interpreted by Jesus Christ. Teaches regeneration; sanctification; baptism of the Holy Ghost and with fire; speaking in tongues; one Lord, faith, and baptism; isolation of willful sinners from the ch. Gen. Assembly meets 3 times a yr. Officers: bp., overseer, ex. secy.

Church of God in Christ, The.

Founded 1906 in Memphis, Tennessee; organized by Charles Harrison Mason. Teaches doctrine of the Trinity, repentance, regeneration, justification. Stresses holiness as prerequisite for salvation, speaking in tongues, divine healing. Regards baptism by immersion, Lord's Supper, and foot washing as ordinances. Its ch. structure (bps., apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors, elders, overseers, teachers, deacons and deaconesses, missionaries) is regarded as deriving from Scripture. Conducts annual nat. convs.

Church of God in Christ, The, International.

Organized 1969 Kansas City, Missouri, by bps. of The Church* of God in Christ (organized 1895) as a result of disagreement over polity and governmental authority; Wesleyan in theol.; stresses gift of tongues as evidence of full baptism of the Holy Ghost. See also Pentecostalism.

Church of God of All Nations.

Small group that withdrew 1957 from The Church* of God of Prophecy under leadership of Grady R. Kent in Cleveland, Tennessee.

Church of God of Prophecy, The.

Organized 1886 as Christian Union (see also Church of God, 2) by R. G. Spurling* Sr. and Jr. et al. at Barney Creek Meeting House, Monroe Co., Tennessee; reorganized 1902; in 1903 A. J. Tomlinson* of Culbertson North Carolina was ordained pastor of holiness people who met at Camp Creek, Cherokee Co., North Carolina, by R. G. Spurling Jr. and W. F. Bryant. Tomlinson moved to Cleveland, Tennessee, 1904 became leader in Christian Union movement. Impeached, he organized the Tomlinson Church of God (name changed 1953 to The Church of God of Prophecy). His son, Milton A. Tomlinson, succeeded him as overseer. Doctrines emphasize regeneration, sanctification, baptism with Holy Ghost, divine healing, premillennial return of Christ. Headquarters Cleveland, Tennessee.

Church of God of the Abrahamic Faith.

Adv. body organized 1888 in Philadelphia as Churches of God in Christ Jesus; permanent Conference organized 1921; corporate name today: Church of God General Conference, Oregon, Illinois

A. G. Huffer, Systematic Theology (Oregon, Illinois, 1960).

Church of Illumination, The.

Organized 1908 by Reuben Swinburne Clymer (b. 1878). Tries to harmonize philos. with religious truth. Teaches spiritual, esoteric, philos. interpretation of the Bible. “Seekers” initiated into mysteries of divine law are the “priesthood of Melchizedek.” Holds that man must unearth his soul (called Christos and regarded as a spark of the divine) from deep debris and bring it into consciousness in a process called regeneration. Headquarters Quakertown, Pennsylvania.

R. S. Clymer, The Teachings of the Masters: The Wisdom of the Ages, enl. and rev. ed. (Quakertown, Pennsylvania, 1952) and Manual: Order of Service and Ritual: Church of Illumination (Quakertown, Pennsylvania, 1952).

Church of North India.

Inaugurated November 29, 1970, at Nagpur. United the Ch. of India, Pakistan, and Ceylon (Angl.); United Ch. of Northern India (a Presb.-Cong. union); Meth. Ch. (Brit. and Australian conferences); Conference of Bap. Chs. in North India; Disciples Ch.; Ch. of the Brethren. See also England, C 12.

Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ of the Apostolic Faith, Inc.

Organized in Ohio; moved to New York, New York, 1919. Claims to be the true ch. according to apostolic basis. See also Bible Way Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ World Wide, Inc.

Church of Revelation, The.

Organized 1930 by Janet Stine Wolford at Long Beach, California; practices various forms of healing. 1973 inclusive membership; 750.

Church of South India.

Formed September 27, 1947, by the Angl. chs. of S India, Burma, and Ceylon, most of the S India United Ch. (Congregationalists, Presbyterians, Evangelicals), and Meth. chs. See also India, 14.

Church of the Brethren

(Conservative Dunkers). See Brethren, 2.

Church of the East (Assyrians).

Aramaic-speaking Am. branch of the E Orthodox Ch.; patriarch resides at Seleucia-Ctesiphon, Chaldea, Mesopotamia. See also Eastern Orthodox Churches, 6.

Church of the Gospel.

Organized 1911 Pittsfield, Massachusetts Stressed holiness of heart, discipleship, baptism by immersion.

Church of the Living God.

1. The Church of the Living God (Motto: Christian Workers for Fellowship) was organized 1889 at Wrightsville, Arkansas, by William Christian (b. Miss. 1856; d. Memphis, Tennessee, 1928), who claimed a divine call to create the office of chief. He held that Freemasonry has the true mode of religion, called his group an “organism … known as operative Masonry” with baptism, Holy Supper, and foot washing as its “first three corporal degrees.” Other features include tithing and believer's baptism by immersion; chs. are called temples.

2. In 1919 a group seceded from the Church of the Living God, largely because of differences regarding management, and adopted the name House of God, Which Is the Church of the Living God, the Pillar and Ground of the Truth, Inc.

See also Holiness Churches, 2.

Church of the Lutheran Brethren of America.

Organized 1900 at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, by Norwegians influenced by revival that swept through the Norw. settlements in the 1890s; 5 congs. were original nucleus; 1st spiritual leader was K. O. Lundeberg.* Emphasizes conscious experience of conversion, godly life, nonliturgical forms of worship, lay activity, miss. work. Accepts only those into membership who profess personal experience of salvation. Has done extensive miss. work in China, Afr., Jap., and Formosa. Operates Broen Memorial Home, Fergus Falls, Minnesota, and Sarepta Home, Sauk Centre, Minnesota Seminaries: 1. Luth. Brethren Schools (Hill-crest Luth. Academy) est. 1903 at Wahpeton, North Dakota, as Luth. Bible School; to Grand Forks, North Dakota, 1915; to Fergus Falls, Minnesota, in the 1930s. 2. École Biblique Centrale, Kaélé, Camcroon, Afr. 3. École Biblique Centrale, Gouna Gaya, Chad, Afr. See also Africa, F 7; Ministry, Education of, VIII C 2, X L; XI A.

Church of the Lutheran Confession.

This group of Luths., mostly from the Wis Syn., the ELS, the Orthodox Luth. Conf., and the LCMS, adopted a const. at Watertown, South Dakota, August 9–12, 1960 (additions August 6–11, 1964); formally organized and elected the 1st permanent officers (1st pres.: Paul Albrecht) January 1961, at Sleepy Eye, Minnesota. The const. lists the following purposes: A. To aid its mems. so that all things may be done decently and in order; B. To afford its membership additional opportunities and facilities for the exercise of Christian stewardship in the service of the Lord Jesus Christ, in accordance with the commands and promises of His Word; C. To facilitate the exercise of true Christian fellowship and to help maintain the same through mutual strengthening and fraternal vigilance, in keeping with the will of God; D. To protect this fellowship against encroachment of error and unionism through united testimony and doctrinal discipline.

This ch. accepts the canonical Scriptures as verbally inspired; 3 ecumenical creeds; Book of Concord of 1580; Brief* Statement of 1932. It defines its position in the statements Concerning Church Fellowship; Theses on the Relation of Synod and Local Congregation to the Holy Christian Church; and Theses on the Ministry of the Keys and the Public Ministry. It owns and controls Immanuel Luth. Coll., Eau Claire, Wisconsin, and pub. the Journal of Theology. It has a miss. in Tokyo, Japan. Its greatest concentration of chs. is in Wisconsin and South Dakota.

Church of the Nazarene.

1. One of the larger groups emerging from the holiness movement (see Holiness Churches, 1). Organized Pilot Point, Texas, 1908. Its theol. and doctrinal foundations are in holiness and sanctification as taught by J. Wesley.*

2. In Brooklyn, New York, the Utica Ave. Pent. Tabernacle was founded 1894, the Bedford Ave. Pent. Ch. and the Emmanuel Pent. Tabernacle 1895; these 3 formed the Assoc. of Pent. Chs. of Am. 1895; were joined 1896 by chs. of the Cen. Ev. Holiness Assoc., a New Eng. group.

3. In 1895 a First Ch. of the Nazarene was organized in Los Angeles, California; it formed an organization called Ch. of the Nazarene with related chs. as far E as Chicago; this group united 1907 with the Assoc. of Pent. Chs. of Am. at Chicago to form the Pent. Ch. of the Nazarene. Basis of Union was the merger document.

4. In 1894 a Ch. of Christ was organized in Tennessee and spread through Arkansas and W Texas Holiness chs. were organized 1898 in Texas, the first Indep. Ch. of Christ 1900. These groups merged 1904 to form the Holiness Ch. of Christ, which joined the Pent. Ch. of the Nazarene at Pilot Point, Texas, October 1908. This is usually considered the beginning of the Ch. of the Nazarene.

5. Holiness people of Tennessee formed the Pent. Alliance (later called Pent. Miss.) 1898; joined the Pent. Ch. of the Nazarene 1915; Pentecostals of Scot. also joined the group 1915.

6. Name changed 1919 to Ch. of the Nazarene. “Pentecostal” was dropped to avoid confusion with “tongue talking” groups.

7. The Manual is largely influenced by the Meth. Discipline. Since mems. came from Episc., Cong., Presb., and Meth. backgrounds, the Basis of Union sought a middle course by giving organized chs. the right of indep. action subject to Gen. Assembly approval and at the same time entrusted the care of the chs. to supts.

8. Teaches divine inspiration of the canonical Scriptures; Trinity; deity of Christ; atonement; justification; regeneration; 2d coming of Christ; resurrection; judgment; eternal bliss; and damnation. Holds that original depravity is corruption by reason of which everyone is “very far gone” so that no one can convert himself without the grace of God by Christ assisting him. Distinctive tenets are divine healing (but not to exclusion of medical agencies), entire sanctification (as 2d work of grace subsequent to regeneration), Holy Spirit's witness to such sanctification. Baptism (adults and children; pouring, sprinkling, or immersing) and the Lord's Supper (only unfermented grape juice used) are divine ordinances. Opposes use of tobacco and alcohol. Applicants for membership are required to show evidence of salvation by following rules of behavior in Manual.

Manual of the History, Doctrine, Government, and Ritual of the Church of the Nazarene, 1923, 4th ed. (Kansas City, 1924); Journal of the Sixth General Assembly of the Church of the Nazarene, eds. E. J. Fleming and C. A. Kinder (Kansas City, [1923]); J. B. Chapman, A History of the Church of the Nazarene (Kansas City, 1926); E. T. Clark, The Small Sects in America, rev. ed. (Nashville, 1949); see also Religious Bodies (US), Bibliography of. EL

Church Orders

(Kirchenordnungen). Regulations, under the gen. ecclesiastical const. of a state, by which canonical ch. forms that had previously prevailed in a land or city were modified in agreement with directions drawn up by men representing the Reformation, while the newly developing ch. system became progressively est. Those of the 16th c. are the most important. They usually open with a statement of the doctrinal position of the country or state or city, followed by regulations concerning the liturgy, the appointment of ch. officers, and the whole administration of the various congs. included in the resp. jurisdiction. Since later compilations often used earlier, acknowledged forms, the orders are grouped in families, by countries or districts.

L. D. Reed, The Lutheran Liturgy, rev. ed. (Philadelphia, [1960]); C. Daib, “Church Order and the Confession,” CTM XVII (February 1946), 128–138.

Church Peace Mission.

Formed 1950 in Detroit by Quakers, Mennonites, and Brethren to coordinate peace efforts.

Church Suffering

(Church Expectant). RC term denoting the souls in purgatory.*

Church Triumphant.

1. Ecclesiastical term denoting the mems. of the ch. who enjoy bliss of union with Christ in the hereafter. (See also Hereafter, A, C 1, 2). In the terminology of the E Orthodox Ch. the ch. triumphant is equivalent to the ch. invisible (see Church, 3).

2. See Communistic Societies, 5.


Laymen appointed in the Angl. Ch. to assist in managing the temporal affairs of the ch.

Church World Service.

Dept. of the National* Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA that engages in relief work in war-stricken and other needy areas. Founded 1946.

Church Year.

1. The ch. yr. may be divided into 6 seasons, opening with Adv. The early part of this season is devoted to discussion of eschatological subjects in the lessons and liturgy; in the latter part, esp. on and after the 4th Sunday in Adv., the Christmas theme is prominent. The Christmas Festival, December 25 in the W, is the 1st primary festival, with 2 or 3 days at times devoted to its observance (see also Christmas). It is followed by the feasts of St. Stephen (December 26), St. John the Evangelist and Apostle (December 27), and the Holy Innocents of Bethlehem (December 28). Thus the feast of the birth of the King of martyrs is followed by the “heavenly birthdays” of the first martyr in will and in deed, the apostolic martyr in will but not in deed, and the infant martyrs in deed but not in will.

Note: “Feast” and “festival” are synonymous in this context; both reflect the Lat. dies festus; “feasts and festivals” indicates only that both words are used in reference to certain special days other than fast days.

2. The octave of Christmas is the Festival of the Circumcision and the Name of Jesus; it concurs with the New Year's Day of the civil yr. In the W the festival of Epiphany, January 6, recalls the episode of the Magi*; the feast has an octave. The number of Sundays in the post-Epiphany season varies with the date of Easter.

3. The season of pre-Lent (Septuagesima, Sexagesima, and Quinquagesima, the 3 Sundays before Ash Wednesday, take their names from Lat. words indicating that they fall resp. within 70, 60, and 50 days before Easter) partakes of some of the characteristics of Lent. See also par. 18.

4. The season of Lent, beginning on Ash Wednesday, is a period of penitential reflection. It climaxes in Passiontide (the last 2 weeks of Lent: Passion Week, the 2d week before Easter; and Holy Week, also called Great Week, formerly called Passion Week, in which Palm* Sunday and the “3 great days,” Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and Holy Saturday [also called the Great Sabbath] receive most attention. See 8.).

5. The Easter* season begins on Easter Sunday, the 2d great festival of the ch., with 2 or 3 days at times devoted to the contemplation of the resurrection of the Lord; it extends to Ascension Day (see 9). Ascensiontide is followed by Pent. (see 10), the 3d great festival of the ch., at times observed with 2 or 3 festival days. See also Judaism, 4.

6. In the 2d part of the ch. yr., the post-Trin. season, there are no festivals of the 1st rank. The number of Sundays after Trin. (or after Pent.) varies with the date of Easter. See also par. 18.

7. The ch. yr. developed slowly. At first the Good Friday-Easter event was thought of as being commemorated every week. The 1st festival commemorated annually was Easter. An early controversy about the date of Easter was settled 325 by the Council of Nicaea,* which decreed that Easter be celebrated on the 1st Sunday after the 1st full moon on or after the spring equinox, or one week later if the full moon falls on Sunday. See also Easter Controversy.

8. From early days Easter was preceded by a period of preparation called Lent. The custom of fasting* during this time was gen. at an early date, but the length of the fast varied. Finally the fast was extended to 40 days (excluding Sundays), after the analogy of the period of the Lord's temptation, Mt 4:2. Ash Wednesday (so called from the custom of daubing the foreheads of worshipers on that day with ashes of the previous yrs. palms, in token of penitence and human mortality) has been the 1st day of Lent since the Gelasian* Sacramentary. The season of preparation for Easter closed with the Great Week, also called Holy Week. Wednesday of Holy Week was formerly call Spy Wednesday by some because of the preparations of Judas for betraying Christ. Thursday of Holy Week commemorated the institution of the Lord's Supper; it was called Holy Thursday by some; its Ger. name is Gründonnerstag* (Green Thursday); since the Gospel of the day was Jn 13:1–15, the day was also known as the Day of Foot Washing; its present Eng. name, Maundy Thursday, is derived either from the words of Jn 13:34 (Lat. Mandatum novum do vobis) or from the custom of carrying gifts to the poor in maunds (hand baskets) on that day. Good Friday (Ger. Karfreitag, a name expressing sorrow) was a day of deep mourning, with a complete fast till 3 or 6 o'clock in the afternoon.

9. Forty days after Easter (Acts 1:3) came the Festival of the Ascension, which seems to have originated in the 4th c.

10. Pent. (from Gk. pentekostos, “fiftieth”), the 50th day after Easter, can be traced to the 3d c. It is also called Whitsunday (very likely from white garments worn on that day), esp. in Eng. Tertullian* calls the whole time from Easter to Pent. by the latter name and gives each day of the entire period the importance and dignity of a Sunday

11. In the early ch. less stress was laid on the birthday of the Lord than on the fact that the Son of God became man (Jn 1:14). Accordingly we find a festival celebrating this fact as early as Clement* of Alexandria (beginning of the 3d c.). The 6th of January was the accepted date for the Festival of Epiphany, or the Manifestation of the Lord, at the end of the 3d c.; it commemorated not only the birth of Christ, but also His baptism and, in some cases, His first miracle, thus expressing very well the gen. idea of the revelation and manifestation of the divinity of Christ in His humanity.

12. Just as Easter had its special season of preparation, so a similar period was set aside before Christmas. The length of the Adv. season varied according to the ancient Comites (see Comes), Milan observing 5 Sundays, Rome only 4. Finally the custom of having 4 Sundays was gen. accepted.

13. After the 5th c. the number of festivals in the ch. increased rapidly. With increasing veneration of Mary her festivals gained ground. The Feast of the Annunciation (also called Lady Day), celebrating the conception of our Lord, was fixed for March 25, and that of the Presentation of Our Lord and the Purification of Mary for February 2; the latter festival is known in Eng. as Candlemas, from the custom of blessing candles, carrying them in procession, and holding them lighted during the reading of the Gospel and from the Sanctus through the Communion. Mary's meeting with Elizabeth is commemorated on the Feast of the Visitation, July 2. See also Mariology.

14. Naturally the feasts of Apostles and Evangelists were soon celebrated, esp. those of Peter and Paul. With the rising tide during the Middle Ages came the many saints' and martyrs' days. All Saints' Day, November 1, commemorated all the saints together and All Souls' Day, November 2 (November 3 when November 2 is a Sunday), commemorated the faithful departed. Many of the Sundays of the ch. yr. are known by special names, usually after the first words of their resp. introits, the names of the Sundays in Lent being: Invocavit (Ps 91:15 in some old Lat. versions; Vulgate: clamabit); Reminiscere (Ps 25:6); Oculi (Ps 25:15); Laetare (Is 66:10); and Judica* (Ps 43:1). The name Palm Sunday is derived from the traditional use of palms in ceremonies of the day. The first 4 Sundays after Easter are Quasimodogeniti (1 Ptr 2:2), or Low* Sunday, or Dominica* in albis; Misericordia(s) Domini (Ps 33:5); Jubilate (Ps 66:1); Cantate (Ps 98:1). Rogate precedes the Rogation* Days, from which it takes its name. Exaudi (Ps 27:7).

15. The Luth. reformers of the 16th c. gen. retained the ancient festivals in honor of Christ and the Triune God as a matter of course, preferring also to regard Marian commemorations as Christ festivals. Relatively few commemorations of extra-Biblical saints survived. Economic considerations played a prominent role in reducing the number of saints' days. The Festival of the Reformation, October 31, commemorating the posting of the 95 Theses,* goes back to the 17th c.

16. The historic Luth. ch. calendar includes the following Sundays, feasts, and other special days: A. Movable. Four Sundays in Adv.; Septuagesima; Sexagesima; Quinquagesima; the Sundays after the Epiphany, ending with the Transfiguration (also kept August 6); Ash Wednesday; Invocavit; Reminiscere; Oculi; Laetare; Judica; Palm Sunday; Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday of Holy Week; Maundy Thursday; Good Friday; Holy Saturday; Easter and the 2 days following; Quasimodogeniti; Misericordia(s) Domini; Jubilate; Cantate; Rogate; Ascension; Exaudi; Pent. (or Whitsunday) and the Sundays after Pent.; Trin. (and the Sundays after Trin.) B. Fixed. St. Andrew, November 30; St. Thomas, December 21; Christmas, December 25; St. Stephen, December 26; St. John the Evangelist and Apostle, December 27; Holy Innocents, December 28; Circumision and the Name of Jesus, January 1; Epiphany, January 6; Conversion of St. Paul, January 25; Presentation and Purification, February 2; St. Matthias, February 24; Annunciation, March 25; St. Mark, April 25; SS. Philip and James the Less May 1; Visitation, May 31 (or July 2); Birth of St. John the Baptist, June 24; SS. Peter and Paul, June 29; (Visitation, July 2 [or May 31]); St. Mary Magdalene, July 22; St. James the Elder, July 25; St. Bartholomew, August 24; St. Matthew, September 21; Michaelmas, September 29; St. Luke, October 18; SS. Simon and Jude, October 28; Reformation, October 31; All Saints, November 1.

17. Other commemorations observed by Luths. have included: St. Nicholas,* December 6; Christmas Eve, December 24; the Baptism of Our Lord, Sunday after New Year; St. Gregory I (the Great), March 12; the Presentation of the AC, June 25; St. Lawrence,* August 10; the Beheading of St. John the Baptist, August 29; the Birth of Mary, September 8; Holy Cross Day, September 14; St. Martin of Tours (see Celtic Church, 2), November 11; St. Catherine* of Alexandria, November 25. The Festival of Harvest (Harvest Home) is often kept on the Sunday after Michaelmas, a Day of Humiliation and Prayer on the Wednesday before the last Sunday after Trin., Thanksgiving* Day on the 4th Thursday in November in the US and on the 2d Monday in October in Can., and the commemoration of the Faithful Departed on All Souls' Day, November 2 (November 3 when November 2 is a Sunday).

18. In the 1970s a movement arose to extend the Epiphany season to the Sunday before Ash Wednesday and to have the 2d part of the ch. yr. more gen. recognized as an “after Pent.” rather than “after Trin.” season. ACP

See also Christ the King, Feast of; Departed, Commemoration of; Name of Jesus, Feast of the; Post-Pentecost Season; Quadragesima; Rorate Masses; Tre ore.

A. A. McArthur, The Evolution of the Christian Year (Greenwich, Connecticut, 1953); L. Eisenhofer and J. Lechner, The Liturgy of the Roman Rite, tr. from the 6th Ger. ed. by A. J. and E. F. Peeler, ed. H. E. Winstone (New York, 1961); G. Rietschel and P. Graff, Lehrbuch der Liturgik (Göttingen, 1951); G. Kunze, “Die gottesdienstliche Zeit,” Leiturgia, I (Kassel, 1954), 437–534; E. T. Horn III, The Christian Year (Philadelphia, 1957); L. D. Reed, The Lutheran Liturgy, rev. ed. (Philadelphia [1960]).

Chytraeus, David

(Kochhafe; 1531–1600). B. Ingelfingen, Württemberg; studied law, philol., philos., and theol. at Tübingen (influenced by J. Camerarius,* E. Schnepf,* J. Heerbrand*), theol. at Wittenberg (under P. Melanchthon,* M. Luther,* P. Eber*); taught languages at Heidelberg 1546; returned to Tübingen 1547; lectured on rhetoric, astronomy, and Melanchthon's Loci communes at Wittenberg 1548; traveled abroad ca. 1550; prof. of religion 1551, theol. 1553 at Rostock. Present at Diets of Augsburg 1555 and 1566, Consultation of Worms* 1557; with other theologians at the 1561 Naumburg* Diet he warned against “the acceptance of the later editions” of the AC; wrote reactions of Rostock U. to Weimar* Confutation 1567; helped prepare Kirchenordnung for Lower and Upper Austria 1569, Styria 1574; mem. of consistory of Rostock 1570; rewrote articles on free will (II) and Lord's Supper (VII) for Swabian-Saxon Concordia 1574; one of 17 who prepared Torgau Book 1576; produced the Bergen Book with Jakob Andreä,* M. Chemnitz,* N. Selnecker,* A. Musculus,* and C. Cornerus*. Works include Chronicon Saxoniae; Historia Augustanae Confessionis; Commentaries. See also Lutheran Confessions, C 2. JWM

O. Krabbe, David Chytraeus (Rostock, 1870); J. W. Montgomery, Chytraeus on Sacrifice (St. Louis, 1962); T. Pressel, David Chyträus, in Leben und ausgewählte Schriften der Väter und Begründer der lutherischen Kirche, ed. J. Hartmann et al., VIII, in vol. 4 (Elberfeld, 1862).

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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