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(Cabbala[h], Kabala, Kabbala[h], Qabbala[h]; Heb. “received or traditional lore”). System of Jewish theosophy that interpreted the OT by esoteric methods to reveal hidden doctrines. The interpretation was to some extent literal, allegorical, anagogical, and homiletical, but noted for permutation of letters and combination of numbers. In the course of its development it was influenced by various philosophies and religions including Gnosticism,* Neoplatonism,* and Pythagoreanism.*

Cabalism probably originated in Palestine; it experienced significant development in Babylonia (550 to 1000), moving to Eur. in the 9th and 10th centuries. Zohar (“brightness”; commentary on the Pentateuch), compiled by Moses de Leon (ca. 1250 to ca. 1305) of Granada, Sp., attributed in large part by him to Simeon* ben Yohai (bar Yochai; 2d c.), and pub. ca. 1300, was long regarded holiest of cabalistic writings.

Cabalism blossomed in the 16th c. and exerted marked influence also in the 17th and 18th c. in Palestine and Poland. Important Cabalists: Isaac ben Solomon Ashkenazi Luria,* Hayyim Vital (1543–1620). R. Lully,* Pico* della Mirandola and J. Reuchlin* were Christian scholars interested in Cabalism.

Cabalists tried to explain the nature of deity (En-Sof: “Infinite”) and its manifestations. They connected the finite universe with the infinite God through a system of emanations and tried to account for evil and achieve perfection of life.

Cabasilas, Nicolas

(Nickalaos Cavasilas; b. ca. 1322). Eastern mystic (see Mysticism); probably layman; not to be confused with the anti-RC churchman of Thessalonica (also 14th c.). Works include De vita in Christo, in which ascent of soul corresponds to sacraments.

MPG 150, 355–772.

Cabet, Étienne

(1788–1856). Fr. socialist; views on taxation, compulsory labor, and old-age pension treated in his Voyage en Icarie (connects socialism with religion); bought land for an Icarian settlement in Texas, but later moved the settlement to Nauvoo, Illinois

Cabrera, Juan Baptista

(1837–1916). Bp. Iglesia Española Reformada; leader of ev. movement in Spain.

Cabrol, Fernand

(1855–1937). Benedictine* monk; b. Marseilles; prior Solesmes; abbot Fernborough, England. Wrote in area of liturgics; ed. with H. Leclercq* Dictionnoire d' archeéologie chrétienne et de liturgie.

Cadman, Samuel Parkes

(1864–1936). Cong. clergyman; liberal theol. pastor Millbrook, Yonkers, New York, and Brooklyn, New York; pres. FCCCA; radio preacher. Works include Charles Darwin and Other English Thinkers; Christianity and the State; Imagination and Religion; Pursuit of Happiness.


(d. ca. 345). Bp. Carthage ca. 311 or 307; involved in Donatism. See also Donatist Schism.


(d. ca. 680). Eng. Christian poet; according to Bede* he was the first to compose Bible stories in Old Eng. verse.

Caeremoniale Episcoporum.

RC liturgical book containing ceremonies to be observed by bps. and other ecclesiastics in metropolitan, cathedral, and collegiate churches. A rev. ed. promulgated by Clement* VIII by bull Cum novissime 1600. See also Pontificale Romanum.

Caeremoniale Romanum

(The Roman Ceremonial). Book of ceremonies of the Roman Curia compiled in the 15th c.; contains directions for the ceremonies of nominating and crowning the pope, canonizing saints, creating cardinals, and other papal functions.

Caerularius, Michael.

Patriarch of Constantinople 1043–ca. 1058; brought to completion the schism between the Roman and the Gk. Ch. 1054; excommunicated by Leo X 1054; exiled ca. 1058 by Emp. Isaac I Comnenus to Imroz, where he died. See also Schism, 6.

Caesarius of Arles

(ca. 470–ca. 542). RC entered monastery at Lérins; bp. Arles 502; presided at 2d syn. of Orange, which defended Augustine* of Hippo's doctrines against Pelagianism and semi-Pelagianism (see also Pelagian Controversy, 11); introd. many reforms; founded several monasteries. See also Agde, Council of.

MPL 39; 67, 998–1166; Sancti Caesarii episcopi Arelatensis Opera omnia nunc primum in unum collecta, 2 vols., ed. G. Morin (1937–42); Caesarii Arelatensis opera, I: Sancti Caesarii Arelatensis sermones, ed. G. Morin, 2d ed., in Corpus Christianorum, Series Latina, vols. 103–104 (Turnhout, 1953).

Caesarius of Heisterbach

(ca. 1180–ca. 1240). Preacher at Cologne. Wrote Dialogus miraculorum; Libri VIII miraculorum; Vita sancti Engelberti.


(from Peter Paul Cahensly [1838–1923; b. Limburg, Ger.], who proposed it 1890). Plan to assign RC bps. and priests to US dioceses and parishes to match the majority of the people in nat. origin and language; abandoned under pub. pressure. See also Ireland, John.

Caird, Edward

(1835–1908). Scot. philos. prof. Glasgow 1866; master Balliol Coll., Oxford, 1893; gave theistic interpretation to Hegelianism (see Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich); taught unity of man because he shares a common rationality and evolutionary development; classified religions as objective (Gk.), subjective (Jewish), and universal (Christian). Works include Hegel; The Critical Philosophy of Immanuel Kant; The Evolution of Religion; Lay Sermons and Addresses.

Caird, John

(1820–98). Brother of Edward; Scot. theol. and philos.; principal and vice-chancellor Glasgow; held thought to be the reality; works include Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion.


(It. Geereno; real name Tommaso de Vio; Jacopo Vio; ca. 1468–1534). B. Gaeta (hence Gaetano, or Cajetan); joined Dominicans* 1484; held disputation with Pico* della Mirandola in Fertara 1494; taught philos. and theol. at Padua; gen. of Dominican order 1508–18; cardinal 1517; bp. Gaeta 1519. Urged reform at Lateran* Council V; papal legate in Ger. 1518–19; urged crusade against Turks at Diet of Augsburg; reasoned with Luther* after Diet 1518; supported election of Charles V* and Hadrian VI; opposed divorce of Henry VIII.* Wrote commentary on Summa theologiae of Thomas* Aquinas. See also Augsburg Diet (1518); Luther, Martin, 10.

J. F. Groner, Kardinal Cajetan (Louvain, 1951).

Cajetan of Thiene

(1480–1547). RC priest; secy. of Julius II (see Popes, 19); tried to reform the clergy; cofounder of Theatines*; active in Counter* Reformation.

Calamy, Edmund

(1600–66). Eng. clergyman; noted preacher; leader of Puritan pastors (see Puritans); deposed 1662.

Calas, Jean

(1698–1762). Fr. Prot.; accused of murdering son because latter intended to become RC; died on wheel, goods confiscated; later the decision was reversed and the property restored.

Calhoun, Simeon Howard

(August 15, 1804–December 14, 1875). B Boston, Massachusetts; ABCFM miss. 1843; head of miss. sem. on Mt. Lebanon, syria, 1844–75; helped W. Goodell* tr. the Bible into Armeno-Turkish.


(Arab. “successor”). Successor of Muhammad as head of the Islamic empire and religion. Orthodox Caliphate: abu-Bakr* 632–634, Omar 634–644, Othman 644–656, Ali 656–661; Omayyad Caliphate 661–750; Abbasid Caliphate 750–1256; Omayyad Caliphate of Córdoba 756–1031; Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt 909–1171.

Calixtus, Friedrich Ulrich

(1622–1701). Son of G. Calixtus*; Prof. theol. Helmstedt, Ger.; involved in crypto-Catholicism.

Calixtus, Georg

(Callisen; 1586–1656). Father of F. U. Calixtus*; educ. Helmstedt; traveled in Ger., Neth., Eng., Fr. 1609–13; prof. theol. Helmstedt 1614; it became center of his irenic school. Patristic scholar; influenced by Melanchthon* (esp. his humanism); acquainted with Ref. scholars; tried to reestablish the consensus* quinquesaecularis by differentiating bet. fundamental and non-fundamental doctrines; separated dogmatics and ethics; followed analytic method in dogmatics; held that only doctrinal matter of Scripture is inspired, but writers kept from error also in other matters. At the 1645 Colloquy of Thorn* he sided with the Reformed. Calov characterized his doctrine as syncretistic. Works include Concordia evangeliorum; De praecipuis christianae religionis capitibus hodie controversis disputationes XV; Epitome theologiae; Epitome theologiae moralis. See also Dorsche, Johann Georg; Erbermann, Veit; Novators; Syncretism.

E. L. T. Henke, Georg Calixtus und seine Zeit, 2 vols. (Halle, 1853–60); H. Leube, Kalvinismus und Luthertum in Zeitalter der Orthodoxie, I (Leipzig, 1928); H. Schüssler, Georg Calixt: Theologie und Kirchenpolitik: Eine Studie zur Ökurnenizität des Luthertums (Wiesbaden, 1961); J. Wallmann. Der Theologiebegriff bei Johann Gerhard und Georg Calixt (Tübingen, 1961).

Calixtus, III

(Alfonso Borgia [de Borgia], or Borja; 1378–1458). Pope 1455–58; b. near Jativa [Xativa], Sp. uncle of Alexander VI (see Popes, 18); bp. Valencia 1429; cardinal 1444; attempted (unsuccessfully) a crusade to recover Constantinople from the Turks; in 1457 he ordered universal observance on August 6 of the ancient Feast of the Transfiguration (see Church Year, 16) to commemorate victory over Turks at Belgrade August 6, 1456.

Callenberg, Johann Heinrich

(1694–1760). Prof. Halle; known for the extensive miss. work among Jews and Muslim which he inaugurated. See also Institutum Judaicum.

Calov(ius), Abraham

(1612–86). B. East Prussia. Educ. Königsberg and Rostock; prof. and pastor Königsberg; supt. of schools and churches 1641; pastor Danzig; pastor Wittenberg and gen. supt. of the district; head prof. and dean of faculty Wittenberg.

A man of great administrative ability and indefatigable industry, active in almost every phase of the church's work: administration, preaching, teaching. and writing. An effective teacher, lecturing to as many as 500 students at times. Wrote scores of books on every area of theol. many against syncretism*. Greatest work is his immense Biblia illustrata (1672–76), a commentary on the Bible which treats both individual verses and longer passages. Next in importance is his Systema locorum theologicorum (1655–77), in 12 vols., one of the most original and scholarly, if also tedious, dogmatic works of the day. lsagoges ad ss. theologiam (1652) was a very important contribution in the development of dogmatic prolegomena. All his works evince prodigious learning and great breadth of knowledge. Was particularly well versed in mathematics, philos., law, Heb., and patrology.

A controversial figure, a stubborn man, highly respected by his partisan colleagues, but despised by his theol. adversaries. Chief proponent of confessional Luth. orthodoxy against the syncretists of his day. His polemics were more tenacious than bitter; Kunze remarks that his continuous involvement in controversy has left a misleading impression of him.

J. W. Kunze, “Calovius,” Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche, ed. A. Hauck, 3d ed. III (Leipzig, 1897), 648–654; A. Tholuck, Der Geist der lutherischen Theologen Wittenbergs im Verlaufe des 17. Jahrhunderts (Hamburg and Gotha, 1852); G. Walch, Historische und Theologische Einleitung in die Religions-Streitigkeiten der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Kirchen von der Reformation an bis auf jetzige Zeiten, 5 vols. (Jena, 1730 to 1739). RDP


1. George (ca. 1580–1632). 1st Baron Baltimore; Brit. secy. of state 1619; announced conversion to RC faith 1625; granted territory of Maryland but died before charter issued. 2. Cecilius (1605 to 1675), 2d baron. Son of George; received charter for Maryland, which became haven for RCs 3. Leonard (1606 to 1647). Son of George; gov. Maryland province 1634 to 1647. 4. Charles (1637–1715), 3d baron. Son of Cecilius; gov. Maryland 1661–75; proprietor 1675–1715. See also Baltimore, Lord; United States, Religious History of the.

Calvin, John

(July 10, 1509–May 27, 1564). 1. B. Picardy; son of a fiscal official employed by the local bishop. As a young man he began studies for the priesthood at Paris, but soon transferred to law, studying Orléans and Bourges. He early came in contact both with humanism and with the ev. movement initiated by Luther. The exact details of his conversion to Protestantism are absent from his writings, but it is apparent that it occurred no later than 1533. As a result of espousing the Prot. cause, he fled Fr., arriving Basel 1535, where he planned to devote himself to scholarship.

2. Aroused by the persecution of the Prots. in Fr., he issued 1536 a treatise in their behalf, addressed to Francis I. This was the famous lnstitutio religionis christianae (tr. as Institutes of the Christian Religion), the classic exposition of Calvin's theology. A 2d ed. appeared 1539, and the first Fr. ed. 1540. The Institutes, which show a close dependence on Luther, present Calvin's theol. in lucid, systematic, and exhaustive form and established him at the age of 27 as a theol. of the first rank.

3. While passing through Geneva in 1536, Calvin was prevailed upon by the local Prot. leader Farel* to remain. His first major accomplishment there was Articles concernant l'organisation de l'eglise et du culte a Genève, 1537. With Farel he prepared a confession of faith (which they expected all to accept) and a catechism. This created wide resentment, and Calvin was forced to leave Geneva when the city council turned against him. He planned to return to Basel, but at the insistence of Bucer he went instead to Strasbourg.

4. Calvin was impressed by Bucer's emphasis on the community character of the ch. in Strasbourg. Under Bucer's influence, too, his doctrinal views concerning predestination and ch. order came to maturity during his Strasbourg sojourn. There, too, in 1541, he married a widow, Idelette de Bure, whom he called “the excellent companion of his life.” She died 1549, leaving Calvin to rear two stepchildren. Calvin's natural austerity was accentuated by domestic troubles.

5. Meanwhile, in 1541, Calvin was called back to Geneva, where Farel's Prot. party had succeeded in regaining control of the city. As a condition of his return, Calvin insisted on complete authority as leader of the Genevan “theocracy.” Under him Geneva became the “city of God.”

6. At Calvin's direction, 4 ch. orders were est.: ministers, elders, teachers, deacons. The former 2 constituted the ecclesiastical consistory, with full power of ch. discipline. Calvin was unyielding in his efforts to extirpate heresy; in a notable case, the city council in 1553, at Calvin's insistence, executed M. Servetus* on charges of heresy.

7. Calvin's authority in Geneva was now unquestioned and his influence spread throughout Europe. Though subject to a chronic illness, he engaged in prodigious work. He lectured and preached several times a week; wrote exegetical and homiletical commentaries, besides innumerable theol. tracts and opinions; carried on a voluminous correspondence; and supervised successive eds. of Institutes. In 1559 he founded the Academy of Geneva, which attracted thousands of students from all parts of Europe. Always frugal and plain in his manner of life, he usually slept no more than 4 hrs. a night. He died in the arms of his friend Beza.*

8. Calvin was a systematic theol. and the Institutes bear the impress of his logical and comprehensive theol. method. This work originally contained 4 main chapters: Commandments, Creed, Prayer, and Sacraments. He continued to revise and expand the Institutes, so that the final definitive ed. of 1559 contains 80 chapters divided into 4 books: Of the Father; Of the Son; Of the Holy Spirit; Of the Church.

9. His theol. orientation is consistently Biblical, and Luther's influence on his doctrinal formulations is undeniable. There existed, nevertheless, a distinct difference bet. the two reformers, characterized by Calvin's predominantly formal and legalistic approach to Christianity in contrast to Luther's warm and ev. spirit. “Luther stresses the glory of God's love; Calvin stresses God's love of glory.”

10. The idea of the sovereignty, honor, and glory of God is paramount in Calvin's system. He emphasizes God's love of “docility” and speaks of Him as “spiritual legislator.” In the doctrine of justification, Calvin is close to Luther, though his approach is more intellectual and judicial. He accepts the Bible as the sole and infallible source of divine truth. Man, since the fall of Adam, is totally depraved and is redeemed only by the blood of Christ, whom he must accept through faith engendered by the Holy Spirit. He conceives of the church as the total number of the elect and insists on the 4 orders of ch. govt. (see 6 above; Polity, Ecclesiastical, 7). He believes the 2 sacraments to be efficacious means of grace. He understands the real presence of Christ in a spiritual sense. The state is God's instrument, subject to His sovereignty, and its laws must conform to His; thus Calvin regards every mem. of the state as also under the discipline of the church.

11. In his doctrine of predestination, the “horrible decree,” Calvin is swayed by logic: Since only some are elect, he deduces that the others must be reprobate. The Scripture passages on universal grace he applies only to the elect. Concerning this doctrine he asserts that “God will be glorified in His own way.” See also Double Predestination.

12. The influence of Calvin spread throughout Switz., and in 1549 the Consensus Tigurinus (see Reformed Confessions, A 8) provided a doctrinal basis for the unification of Zwinglians and Calvinists in that country. From Geneva Calvinism branched out into all parts of Eur. and gave rise to the Fr. Huguenots,* the Dutch Reformed (see also Netherlands; Reformed Churches, 2, 4), the Scotch Presbyterians (see also Presbyterian Churches, 1), and the Eng. Puritans.* TC

T. Beza, “Life of John Calvin,” J. Calvin, Tracts and Treatises on the Reformation of the Church, tr. H. Beveridge, I (Edinburgh, 1844), reprint with addition of hist. notes and introd. by T. F. Torrance (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1958), lvii–cxxxviii; J. Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, tr. F. L. Battles, ed. J. T. McNeill, The Library of Christian Classics, XX–XXI (Philadelphia, 1960); W. Walker, John Calvin (New York, 1906); J. Mackinnon, Calvin and the Reformation (New York, 1962); G. Harkness, John Calvin; the Man and His Ethics (New York, 1931).


The term, derived from the name of J. Calvin,* is employed variously to denote the individual teachings of Calvin; the doctrinal system confessed by the “Reformed” or “Calvinistic” churches; the entire body of conceptions, theol., ethical, philos., soc., and pol., that owe their origin to Calvin. Sometimes also the term comprehends his views regarding both theological doctrine and ecclesiastical polity. At other times it is limited to the former, esp. to his view on the doctrine of grace. These views are sometimes called the Five Points of Calvinism: 1. particular election (supralapsarianism); 2. particular redemption; 3. moral inability in the fallen state; 4. irresistible grace; 5. final perseverance. These Five Points were opposed by the rival system of Arminianism,* which was presented by the Remonstrants* at the 1618–19 Syn. of Dordrecht.* The syn. condemned the Arminian doctrines and enforced adherence to Calvinism. In addition to a doctrine of grace, Calvin held the spiritual presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper but not the doctrine of the real presence of Christ's body in the sacrament. He stressed the sovereignty of God. His views of ch. govt. were essentially such as are now called Presbyterian. Holding that the ch. should he spiritually indep. of the state, he yet was willing that the discipline of the ch. should be carried out by the civil magistrates.

The Institutes of the Christian Religion, first pub. 1536, were the earlier systematic presentation of Calvin's thought. Various Prot. chs. adopted Calvin's theol. views, together with his ecclesiastical polity. Thus J. Knox* carried both Calvin's theol. and polity to Scot., where the first Presb. Gen. Assem. was held 1560. The early reformers of the Eng. Ch. mostly held Calvin's doctrine of grace, which prevailed to the end of Queen Elizabeth's reign. When the rival system of Arminius was brought to trial 1618 at the Syn. of Dort, Holland, the Eng. clerical representatives cast Calvinistic votes. In spite of this, Arminianism took deep root in the Eng. Ch. and elsewhere. Abp. Laud* was its warm friend and advocate, as was the High Ch. party gen. Low Churchmen continued Calvinistic. The ecclesiastical polity of Calvin was embraced by the Puritan* party, but never enjoyed the favor of the majority of the Eng. people. Of the 2 great Eng. revivalists of the 18th c. Whitefield* was Calvinistic (Calvinistic Methodists), and J. Wesley* was Arminian (Wesleyan Methodists). Most Eng. Baps. are Calvinistic. The theol. tenets and ecclesiastical polity of Calvin have nearly always been dominant in Scot., though the sterner features of both have been softened.

Calvinistic chs. include Calvinistic Bap., Calvinistic Meth., Cong., Ev. Ch., Ger. Ref., Presb.

See also Grace, Means of, I 7; Scotland, Reformation in, 1.

J. Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, tr. F. L. Battles, ed. J. T. McNeill (Philadelphia, 1960); E. F. K. Mueller, Die Bekenntnisschriften der Reformierten Kirche (Leipzig, 1903); J. Calvin, Tracts and Treatises on the Reformation of the Church, with a short life of Calvin by T. Beza, tr. H. Beveridge, I–III (Edinburgh, 1844–51), reprint. with addition of hist. notes and introd. by T. F. Torrance (Grand Rapids, 1958); J. T. McNeill, The History and Character of Calvinism (New York, 1954).

Calvinistic Methodism.

G. Whitefield* separated from J. Wesley* with whom he had been assoc. in the great revival of Eng. on the question of predestination and free will. Wesley was Arminian; Whitefield was Calvinist. The Countess of Huntingdon, interested in the religious revival of Methodism, took Whitefield under her special patronage and became responsible for organizing the Calvinistic Methodists, also known as Lady Huntingdon's Connection. Calvinistic Methodism is found chiefly in Wales, where it is known as Welsh Methodism.

Calvisius, Sethus

(Kallwitz; 1556–1615). First cantor of St. Thomas, Leipzig, to enjoy wide fame; versatile scholar, excelling in music, mathematics, chronology, astrology, linguistics, and musicology. Fostered simple music, notably through his Harmonia cantionum ecclesiasticarum (1597), in 4-part harmony and containing some of Luther's hymns; active in disposing the youth of the ch. to good music. See also Becker, Cornelius.

F. Blume Die evangelische Kirchenmusik (Potsdam, 1931); E. Koch, Geschichte des Kirchenlieds und Kirchengesangs (Stuttgart, 1866–76); S. Kümmerle, Encyklopädie der evangelischen Kirchenmusik, 4 vols. (Gütersloh, 1888–95); C. von Winterfeld, Der evangelische Kirchengesang (Leipzig, 1843–47).

Calvör, Caspar

(1650–1725). Learned theol. of the school of G. Calixtus*; interested in liturgics; works include Rituale ecclesiasticum, homiletical part of which is of continuing interest.


(Camaldolites; Camaldulians; Camaldulensians). Strict monastic order, originally eremitic, later partly cenobitic, founded by Romuald (ca. 952 to 1027) ca. 1012 at Camaldoli, near Arezzo, Italy. See also Counter Reformation, 6; Hermits.


SE Asia, in S part of Indochina; ca. 69,890 sq. mi.; Fr. protectorate 1863; Theravada Buddhist (see Buddhism, 5–6) kingdom 1946; autonomous 1949; indep. 1953; rep. 1970. RC contacts began in the 16th c. Prot. missions 1922 (Christian and Missionary (Alliance); other Christian work has included BFBS colporteur and Seventh-day Adv. The Bible in Cambodian was pub. 1956. See also French Indochina.

Cambrai, Peace of

(Ladies' Peace). Peace concluded at Cambrai 1529 by Louise of Savoy, mother of Francis I, and Margaret of Austria, aunt of Charles V, in behalf of the 2 monarchs. The treaty gave Spain unquestioned supremacy in Italy and left French territory undiminished. See also Charles V; Speyer, Diets of, 2.

Cambridge Platonists.

Latitudinarian* school founded by Benjamin Whichcote, Ralph Cudworth,* John Smith, and Henry More in the 17th c. tried to reconcile reason and religion; believed that good and evil exist apart from God; views led to mysticism and transcendentalism; held data of revelation could be judged by reason because God dwells in the mind.

Cambridge School.

English philosophers influenced by G. E. Moore, prof. Cambridge; defended “common-sense” and opposed idealism.

Camerarius, Joachim

(1500–74). Educ. Leipzig and Erfurt; prof. Nürnberg, Tübingen, and Leipzig; Gk. classicist; friend of Melanchthon* and Luther; assisted Melanchthon in preparing material for the Apology; favored the Leipzig Interim, December 1548; present at the Religious Peace of Augsburg and the Diet of Regensburg; wrote biographies of Melanchthon and H. E. Hessus.* See also Religious Drama, 3.

Cameron, James

(January 6, 1800–October 3, 1875). B. Scot.: sent by LMS to Madagascar; erected cotton factory and printing press; assisted in erecting chs. active in exploration, surveying, and cartography.

Cameron, John

(d. 1446). Secy. of James I 1424; keeper of Privy Seal 1425; chancellor Scot. ca. 1426; bp. Glasgow 1428. Supported king in attack on ecclesiastical courts; prominent at Council of Perth; excommunicated by Eugenius IV for refusing to come to Rome to answer charges; active at Council of Basel.

Cameron, John

(ca. 1579–1625). Prot. theol.; educ. Glasgow; taught at Bergerac and Sedan, Fr. tutored at Paris, Geneva, Heidelberg; pastor Bordeaux 1608: prof. Saumur* 1618; returned to Eng. 1620; principal Glasgow 1622; supported James (VI) I; returned to Saumur 1623; prof. Montauban 1624. Advocated passive obedience to government. Held that God's action on will is moral, not physical. Followers called Cameronites, and sometimes Amyraldists, because Amyraut* adopted Cameron's doctrine of grace and free will.


Also called Society People. Group of Scot. Presbyterians founded by R. Cameron (d. 1680). Held that the Solemn League and Covenant was perpetually binding; opposed efforts of Charles II to enforce the episc. form of government. J. Macmillan* was their 1st minister. See also Presbyterian Churches 1.


See Cameron, John (ca. 1579–1625).


Name of uncertain origin. Also called Barbets, Assemblers, Vagabonds, Children of God, Fanatics. French Prot. sect in Cévennes; some of its members experienced trances and convulsions; ecstatic phenomena included prophecies. After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes 1685 Louis XIV tried to suppress them; in a counter move the Abbe du Chayla was assassinated; war followed (1702–05) in which J. Cavalier* became a famous Camisard leader. Clement XI issued a bull against the sect 1703. In 1705 the Camisards were decisively defeated and suppressed.

Campanella, Tommaso

(Giovanni Domenico; 1568 to 1639). Italian philos.; joined Dominicans* ca. 1582; his first book, Philosophia sensibus demonstrata, because of disavowal of Aristotelianism, aroused suspicion of ecclesiastical authorities; he was accused of conspiracy against the Sp. govt., arrested 1599, condemned to life imprisonment 1602; freed by Spanish 1626, definitively by Urban VIII 1629. Held that individual consciousness is fact of existence. Doubting results of senses and reasoning, he held that the fact of one's own existence is the basis of inferences. Equally certain was the awareness of an external world to which sensual experiences referred. Works include also Prodromus philosophiae instaurandae, seu de natura rerum and De sensu rerum et magia.


(from LL campana, “bell”). Bell tower, usually freestanding, as originated in Italy. Most famous example: leaning tower of Pisa. Others are at Florence, Cremona, and Bologna.

Campanius, Johan

(Johannes; John; August 15, 1601 to September 17, 1683). B. Stockholm; educ. U. of Uppsala; ordained 1633; to Am. with Johan B. Printz (1592 to 1663), gov. of New Sweden, arriving February 15, 1643. Lutheran pastor to Swedes on the Delaware, replacing R. Torkillus.* Printz est. the seat of govt. on Tinicum, a Delaware river island below Philadelphia, and caused to be built for the Swedes who settled there a Luth. ch. which Campanius dedicated September 4, 1646, and served. Campanius' work among Indians antedated that of J. Eliot* a few years. Returned to Swed. 1648; navy chaplain for a yr.; then served in the Uppsala diocese. Translated Luther's Small Catechism into so-called American-Virginia (Indian) language; completed it after return to Sweden; it was pub. Stockholm 1696 with 2 Indian-Swedish vocabularies also prepared by him.

Campanus, Johannes

(ca. 1500–ca. 1575). B. in bishopric of Liège. Anti-Trinitarian and Anabaptist. Held that Holy Spirit is not divine; Son not coeternal with Father. Imprisoned more than last 20 yrs. of his life.

Campbell, Alexander

(1788–1866). Son of T. Campbell*; b. Ballymena, Co. Antrim, Ireland; studied U. of Glasgow; to US ca. 1809; began preaching 1810; joined his father in Christian Assoc. of Washington, Pennsylvania helped organize Disciples* of Christ. Works include The Christian System.

Campbell, David Elliott

(June 7, 1825–June 13, 1857). B. Pennsylvania; grad. Western Theol. Sem., Allegheny, Pennsylvania, 1849; went to India under Presb. Bd. of For. Miss. 1850. With wife and 2 children put to death at Cawnpore by order of Nana Sahib, rebel chief.

Campbell, John McLeod

(1800–72). Scot. divine; taught that Christ was representative of humanity in repentance rather than substitute under penalty of its sin. Excluded from Presb. Gen. Assem. 1831. Followers sometimes called Campbellites, but not to be confused with Disciples* of Christ.

Campbell, Reginald John

(1867–1956). Eng. Cong., later Ang., preacher. His New Theology (1907), which tried to harmonize Christian beliefs with modern critical views, gained wide attention. Other works: A Faith for Today; Problems of Life; Christianity and the Social Order. See also New Theology.

Campbell, Robert

(1814–68). Educ. Glasgow and Edinburgh; advocate; joined Episc. Ch. of Scot. later RC Ch.; poet; among his hymn translations: “Christians, Come, in Sweetest Measures.”

Campbell, Thomas

(1763–1854). Father of A. Campbell*; b. Glasgow, Scot. (or in Ireland?); educ. U. Glasgow; minister Secession Ch. (see Erskine, Ebenezer); to US 1807; formed Christian Assoc. of Washington, Pennsylvania (see Disciples of Christ, 2 a); helped found Disciples of Christ. Works include Declaration and Address of the Christian Association of Washington.

Campeggio, Lorenzo

(ca. 1474–1539). Ordained priest 1510 after death of his wife; bp. Feltre 1512; nuncio at imperial court 1513–17; cardinal 1517; papal legate to Eng. 1518; sent to Ger. to enforce Edict of Worms*; abp. Bologna; leader at Regensburg 1524; at Augsburg with Charles V* 1530, where he tried to bribe Melanchthon.*

Campello, Enrica de

(1831–ca. 1902). RC priest 1855; canon St. Peter's, Rome, 1868. Most important exponent of Old Catholicism in It.; founded Ref. It. Cath. Ch. 1882; returned to RC Ch. 1902.

Camp Fire Girls.

Founded 1910 by a group of educators under the leadership of Luther Halsey Gulick and his wife to perpetuate ideals of the home, initiate and develop habits making for character and health. and train girls to be useful homemakers and citizens. The program is designed to serve 4 age brackets: Blue Birds (7–8), Camp Fire Girls (9–11), Junior Hi Camp Fire Girls (12–13), and Horizon Club Girls (14 through high school). Membership in individual groups in the first 3 age brackets ranges from 6 to 20, and in the 4th from 10 to 30. Each group is led by a woman volunteer. Some Camp Fire groups are organized and sponsored by chs. with the pastor as spiritual leader. Publications include The Book of the Camp Fire Girls and a periodical, Camp Fire Girl.

Camp Meetings.

Religious meetings held outdoors and usually lasting several days. Probably first held by Presb. and Meth. pastors in Kentucky 1799; later almost exclusively by Methodists and Baptists. At first participants lived in temporary shelters; later, permanent camps were built.

Campus Crusade for Christ International.

Founded 1951. Object: to “present the Gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ to the students of the colleges and universities of the United States and also foreign countries.” See also Students, Spiritual Care of, A 5.

Camus, Albert

(1913–60). B. Mondovi, Algeria; Fr. writer, moralist, and pol. theorist; to Paris 1940. Works include La Chute (The Fall). See also Christian Faith and the Intellectual, 4.

Canaanites, Religion of.

The inhabitants of Palestine W of the Jordan at the time of the Israelite conquest were called Canaanites. For several hundred yrs. after that time many Israelites were tempted to accommodate, modify, or neglect the covenant religion of Israel in favor of the religion of the Canaanites. A series of discoveries at Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit) in N Syria, beginning 1929, included a number of clay tablets describing the myths and rites of the ancient gods of Canaan. According to these myths the patriarch of the 70 gods (or “holy ones”) of the Canaanite pantheon was the majestic god El, “the father of years.” El also was one of the names given to the God of Israel in the OT The female consort of El and the mother god of the pantheon was Athirat, who is designated Asherah in the OT (2 K 23:4 RSV). The Asherim (plural of Asherah) were common wooden female cult pillars of the Canaanites used during the Israelite occupation of Canaan. (Ex 34:13 RSV)

Probably the most popular of the Canaanite gods was Baal, the god whom many of the Israelites worshiped as late as the time of Jeremiah. Baal had various significant titles or names. He was sometimes dubbed “Zebul (Prince), Lord of heaven and earth” (cf. “Beelzebul” Mt 12:24 RSV). He was sometimes called “Son of Dagon,” grain god of the Philistines (1 Sm 5:2). Baal's title “Rider of the Clouds” is also applied to Yahweh, God of Israel (Ps 68:4 RSV). A fourth title, “Baal the Victor,” underscores the role of Baal as the conqueror of Prince Yam (Heb. and Canaanite word for sea) or Judge River (cf. Hab 3:8); of the chaos monster Leviathan, who is described as the twisting serpent both in the Ras Shamra tablets and in Is 27:1; and of Mot (Heb. and Canaanite word for death). In one of the texts from Ras Shamra, Baal is recognized as king of the gods because of his decisive victory over Yam, sea or chaos god, who appeared as foe of the gods. It is of interest to note that the first time Yahweh, God of Israel, is acclaimed King in Israel is after His decisive victory over Egypt, terrifying foe of Israel (Ex 15:1–18). After Baal had won his kingship, he built a house or temple-palace in the great mountain of the gods in the far North. Comparable imagery is employed to describe Jerusalem as “Mount Zion, in the far north, the city of the great King” (Ps 48:2 RSV). It was from this great temple in the clouds of the far North that Baal was thought to appear as the mighty storm god, brandishing his thunder club in one hand and his spear of lightning in the other. Baal was therefore considered a god of life, nature, and fertility who needed to be placated to ensure adequate rainfall. Included among cultic objects of Baal worship mentioned in the OT are altars for animal sacrifice (Ju 6:25) and stone pillars (Ex 34:13). Sacred prostitution was also associated with the fertility rites of Baal and his female consorts (Hos 4:14). Of these consorts, Anat, the goddess of love and war, is the most prominent in the myths of Ras Shamra. However, the female goddess most frequently represented among the finds of archaeologists in Palestine is Astarte (Ashtoreth). The Ashtaroth (plural of Ashtoreth) are mentioned many times in the OT (Ju 2:13). According to another Ras Shamra text Baal died and entered the netherworld of Mot, god of death. Thereupon El gashed himself in a ritual lamentation similar to that of the Baal prophets on Mt. Carmel (1 K 18:28), and Anat fought with Mot, ripped him open, and scattered him across the fields. Baal then returned to life, and El cried aloud, “I know that the victor Baal lives.” A similar portrait of the conquest of death is employed in the OT (Is 25:8). The dying and rising of Baal was thought to correspond with the annual death and rebirth of nature; in other Baal texts, however, the battle with Mot is fought every 7 yrs. This cycle of death and rebirth of a deity is a common feature of ancient mythologies. In stark contrast to this phenomenon stands the biblical portrait of Yahweh, God of Israel, as the “living” God who is in no sense restricted by the boundaries of nature. Yahweh is portrayed as the creator of fertility, nature, the sea, and the entire earth. Moreover, the activity of Yahweh was not concerned primarily with the cycles of nature or the rebirth of creation, but with the course of the hist. of His covenant people Israel. It is probable that the major religious function of the Canaanites was a New Year festival revolving around the rebirth of the god of nature. There is considerable evidence to indicate that the Canaanites had an organized priesthood and that they offered animal sacrifices and vows similar to those mentioned in the OT In addition, many Canaanite shrines, temples, and fertility cult objects have been discovered by archaeologists in recent yrs. Baal was frequently portrayed as a bull or calf, an image employed by the Israelites at various times (Ex 32:4). Oher Canaanite deities include Shachar, the dawn or morning star (cf. Is 14:12), and Resheph, god of pestilence (cf. Hab 3:5). It was this mythical religion of the Canaanites that held such attraction for the Israelites and that came into direct conflict with the religion of Yahweh as the Israelites entered the promised land and committed their covenant allegiance to Yahweh, the unseen, unbound Creator-God. (Jos 24). NH

G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends. Old Testament Studies, No. III (Edinburgh, 1956); J. Gray, The Legacy of Canaan: The Ras Shamra Texts and Their Relevance to the Old Testament, Supplements to Vetus Testamentum, Vol. V, 2d rev. ed. (Leiden, 1965); C. F. Pfeiffer, Ras Shamra and the Bible, Baker Studies in Biblical Archaeology (Grand Rapids, Michigan 1962); N. C. Habel, Yahweh versus Baal: A Conflict of Religious Cultures: A Study in the Relevance of Ugaritic Materials for the Early Faith of Israel, Conc. Sem., St. Louis, Graduate Study, No. 6 (New York, 1964).


A. Country occupying all North America N of the US except Alaska and the Fr. islands St. Pierre and Miquelon in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Area: 3,851,809 sq. mi.; pop. (1977): ca. 23,000,000. Contacted by Norsemen perhaps ca. 1000 AD; came under Fr. influence, esp. in Quebec, in the 16th c. (see also La Salle, Rene Robert Cavelier de; Marquette, Jacques), Eng. influence in the 17th c. Dominion of Can. formed 1867; mem. Commonwealth of Nations 1931, UN 1845; received its own constitution 1982. Ethnic composition: first inhabitants were Indians and Eskimo; now ca. 45% of Brit. descent; ca. 29% of Fr. descent; the rest Ger. It., Ukrainian, Neth. etc. Language: Eng. and Fr. are official. Religion: RC ca. 46%; United Ch. of Can. ca. 18%; Angl. ca. 12%; the rest Presb., Luth. Bap. Jewish, etc.

B. Lutheranism in Canada.

1. The 1st to conduct a Luth. service in Can. was R. Jensen (see Danish Lutherans in America, 1). In 1749 a wave of immigrants, among them many Ger. Luths. landed at Halifax, N. S.; the first documentary evidence of the existence of a cong. there bears the date October 12, 1752. Here was erected 1755 St. George Luth. Ch. the first Luth. Ch., on Can. soil. But not till 1783 did these Luths. obtain their own pastor, B. M. Hausihl* (1727–99); meanwhile they were served by a pious layman and later occasonally by an Angl. rector.

2. Lunenburg, N. S., was founded June 7, 1753, with the arrival of an expedition including many Ger. Lutherans. According to Andreas Jung, historian of the period, Paul Bryzelius (1713–73), a Swede, ordained by the Ch. of Eng., began to serve these Luths. 1767. About 1770 they tried to obtain pastoral services through H. M. Mühlenberg* of Philadelphia, but without success. Frederick Schultz became pastor of the group 1772 and dedicated Zion Luth. Ch. there 1772. In 1775 the cong. bad 185 families. It has the longest continuous hist. of any Luth. cong. in Canada.

3. The Nova Scotia Conf. of the Pittsburgh Syn. was organized 1876 and the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Nova Scotia 1903 (mem. Gen. Council 1903; ULC 1918; Atlantic Dist., E Can. Syn., LCA 1962). Represented in New Brunswick, Newf. and Nova Scotia.

4. Forty Ger. Luth. families joined other Loyalists in leaving the Mohawk Valley and emigrating to the neighborhood of Kingston, Ont.; there 2 congs. were organized 1783, one at Bath, the other at Ernestown. Barren soil caused the community to resettle near the present town of Morrisburg; there Zion Luth. Ch. was completed at Riverside 1789, the first Luth. ch. in Ont., dedicated by Samuel Schwerdtfeger,* newly called pastor of Albany, New York, and former mem. of the Pennsylvania Ministerium, who had moved to Williamsburg, Dundas Co., Ont. Later many of these St. Lawrence Luths. were lost to Angl. Meth., and pseudo-Luth. congs. New life was brought into this rapidly disintegrating community when Herman Hayunga (d. 1872) resigned his chair at Hartwick Sem. and accepted a call to the Saint Lawrence Luths. 1826, during a ministry of 46 yrs. he gathered a sizable cong. at St. John's, Riverside, and est. St. Peter's, N Williamsburg. These congs. and those in York Co. had joined the Can. Syn. but later severed their connections to join the syns. of New York and New Eng., from which the Eng.-speaking congs. again withdrew to form the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Cen. Can. 1908, mem. of the Gen. Council 1909 and of the ULC 1918; merged 1925 into the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Can. (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 1).

5. Another group of ca. 60 Ger. Luth. families moved from the Genesee Valley, New York, and settled in Markham Twp., ca. 20 mi. N. of Toronto 1793. According to the record in the Nat. Archives and Library, Ottawa, No. 3987, congs. were organized at Unionville and Buttonville 1794; their first pastor was G. S. Liebich. After a vacancy of nearly 16 yrs., an aged Christian, Adam Keffer, traveled several hundred mi. mostly on foot, to Klecknerville, Pennsylvania, to plead with the Pittsburgh Syn. for a pastor. His first visit brought no results other than a visit 1849 by G. Bassler,* pres. of the syn. But when Keffer appeared again 1850 with more insistent pleas, C. F. Diehl was sent in September to the congs. in the Markham and Vaughan area.

6. Luths. from Hesse, Alsace, and Württemberg began to settle in Waterloo Co., Ont., in the early part of the 19th c. and were served for ca. 30 yrs. by the aggressive miss. Frederick Wilhelm Bindemann (1790–1865), Ref. in name and liberal in doctrine. Bindemann organized many congs., but many conservative Luths. refused his ministrations; after a visit by J. H. Bernheim in Kitchener 1836, missionaries were sent from the Pittsburgh Syn. and the Pennsylvania Ministerium.

7. The Canada Conf. of the Pittsburgh Syn. was organized 1853; it in turn became the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Can. (Gen. Syn.) 1861. It was one of the syns. forming the Gen. Council 1867; joined ULC 1918.

8. St. Peter Ch., Kitchener (E Can. Syn.), founded 1863, is the largest Luth. cong. in Can.

9. On Waterloo Luth. Sem. and Waterloo Coll. see United Lutheran Church, in America, The, Synods of, 1.

10. The E Dist. of the Mo. Syn. began work in Ont. through J. A. Ernst,* who made miss. journeys into the Rhineland and Fisherville area from his home in Eden, New York, and organized congregations 1854 at Rhineland in February and at Fisherville in May. The Rhineland cong. thus became the mother ch. of the Mo. Syn. in Can.; it obtained official membership in this syn. 1854. Forced by illness to resign his charge in New York 1860, he went to Euclid, Ohio, then (1863) to Lecon and Elmira, Waterloo Co., Ont. (then called Canada West), where he served ca.; 18 yrs. and, with pastors Johann E. Roeder (d. February 21, 1902) and C. Henry Sprengeler (June 25, 1819–October 10, 1903), organizing many congs., in the Waterloo area. When the Can. Dist. of the Mo. Syn. was formed 1879, he became its first president. The name of this Dist. was changed 1923 to Ontario Dist.

11. Under the direction of the Minnesota Dist. the Mo. Syn. began work in W Can. 1879, when Ernst Heinrich Rolf (d. August 20, 1900) of St. Paul, Minnesota, came to serve Luths. at Berlin (Ossowo), Manitoba. Candidate H. Bügel was called to Winnipeg 1891 and was the first resident missionary. Candidate Emil Eberhardt began the work of pioneering in Alta. at Stony Plain 1894, after F. Eggers of Great Falls, Montana, had explored the territory. The congs. of the 2 W provinces were organized into the Alta. and Brit. Columbia Dist. 1921; the Man. and Sask. Dist. was formed 1922. Since 1921 the Mo. Syn. maintains Conc. Coll. at Edmonton, a residential high school and jr. college. Luth. radio (esp. “The Lutheran Hour”) and TV programs have been widely used.

12. The activity of the Wisconsin* Synod in Can. was for a number of yrs. confined to the work of Ewald Herrmann. He left the state ch. of Hannover, Ger., 1894 and came to Saskatchewan (Assiniboia) as a mem. of the General* Council, serving congs. at Josephsburg, Neudorf, and Wellesley. He was colloquized by F. Pfotenhauer* 1903 and became a mem. of the Mo. Syn. In 1905 he accepted a call to Lake Mills, Wisconsin, and joined the Wisconsin Synod. Then he accepted a call extended by a small group of families in Regina, Sask. While in Regina he joined the Nebraska Dist. of the Wisconsin Syn. Supported by that Syn. he remained pastor of Grace Luth. Ch., Regina, till 1924, when he resigned because of advancing age. His cong. had requested relations with the Mo. Syn. Another cong. of the Wisconsin Syn., Our Savior, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont., was organized 1956.—In Edmonton, Alta., a group of people left St. Paul Ch. (Mo. Syn.) under protest and on January 18, 1963, founded St. Matthew Luth. Ch. as an indep. cong. under the leadership of student Dieter Mueller. The cong. was accepted into membership by the Wisconsin Syn. in its 1963 conv. at Milwaukee. A ch. bldg. was completed December 1963.

13 Icelanders arrived at Gimli, Man., in October 1875; the first Icelandic service in Can. was conducted in their midst in August 1876 by Paul Thorlaksson (1849–82), grad. of Conc. Sem., St. Louis; October 1877 he accepted the call to 3 congs. comprising ca. 120 families. His conservative theol. did not find favor with 5 other congs, of 130 families; these 5 called Jon Bjarnason (1845–1914) in 1877. This latter group adopted the name The Icelandic Syn. of Am. the former were known as The Icelandic Cong. in New Iceland. In 1885 Icelandic congs. on both sides of the internat. boundary formally organized the Icelandic Ev. Luth. Syn. in (or of) (N) Am. In 1913 the Jon Bjarnason Academy was est. in Winnipeg and operated continuously up to 1940, when a change in the educ. policy of the province brought its closing. Most of the Icelandic pastors received their theol. training in ULC seminaries. This syn. joined the Can. Syn., LCA, 1962.

14. With the advent of the transcontinental railroad 1885, many Luths. arrived in W Can., esp. from Bucovina, Rumania, Galicia, the W provinces of Russia, and Ger. In 1888 forty Ger. Luths. of Winnipeg addressed a request for help to the Can. Syn. In response, Pres. F. Veit visited them and organized Trin. Ger. Ev. Luth. Cong. in Winnipeg December 16, 1888. Heinrich C. Schmieder, asst. pastor at St. Paul Ch., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, grad. of Kropp Sem., Ger., accepted the call as first pastor 1889. The long distance from the Can. Syn. in Ont. made the founding of a separate syn. in W Can. imperative; 4 pastors met July 22, 1897, in Winnipeg to org. a Ger. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Manitoba* and the NW Territories (entered ULC 1918); in 1947 it was changed to Ev. Luth. Syn. of W Can. The Gen. Council, to which the Man. Syn. belonged, was not able to supply enough missionaries for the rapidly growing field, and so an agreement was mad bet. the Gen. Council and Paulsen's Sem., Kropp, Ger., whereby the latter institution furnished many pastors for work in the Man. Syn.—In 1912 Spruce Grove Alta;, became the birthplace of the Luth. Coll. and Sem. That yr. several young men received some preliminary training in the home of Juergen Goos. In 1913 the institution was moved to S Edmonton, Alta., by the Ger. Ev. Luth. Syn. of Man. and other Provinces (see Manitoba and the Northwest Territories, Synod of); moved to Saskatoon, Sask., 1914; merged 1965 with Luther Theol. Sem. (see 20) to form Lutheran* Theol. Sem.. The Ev. Luth. Syn. of W. Can. became the W Can. Syn., LCA, 1962.

15. The work of the Nat. Ev. Luth. Ch. (Fin.). affiliated with the Syn. Conf., dates back to 1895. In that year Juho Heimonen began to preach at Fort William, Ont. As first miss. and first resident pastor he organized First Luth. Ch. in Fort William 1896 and the following yr. another cong. in Port Arthur, extending his activities also into Sask. Merged with LCMS January 1, 1964.

16. The Finnish Suomi Synod, with headquarters in Hancock, Michigan, has been interested in the spiritual welfare of the Finns in Can. ever since its founding 1890; but its work has always been handicapped by a shortage of ministers. Hence it sought assistance from the ULC A plan of cooperation was approved by both chs. (1921–30). Beginning 1930 the syn. authorized the ULC to send and support men to work among Finns in Can. In 1931 all Fin. work of this syn. was integrated with the Can. syns. of the ULC See also Finnish Lutherans in America, 2.

17. First Eng. Luth. Ch., Winnipeg, the only Can. cong. of the Eng. Ev. Luth. Syn. of the NW (ULC), joined the Cen. Can. Syn., LCA, 1962.

18. The 2 congs. of the Pacific Syn. (ULC) in Brit. Columbia merged with the W Can. Syn., LCA, 1962. The Slovak Zion Syn. (LCA) has 2 congs. with 329 souls.

19. The Joint Syn. of Ohio began its work in Can. when part of a former cong. of the Man. Syn. in Winnipeg appealed to H. Ernst, then pres. of the Minnesota Dist. of the Ohio Syn., to supply them with a pastor. G. Gehrke, later pres. and mission supt., accepted this call to Winnipeg 1905. In the fall of 1906 there were 14 pastors who ministered to many mission parishes throughout the prairie provinces; these parishes formed the Can. Conf., which in 1908 was organized into the Can. Dist. of the Ohio Syn., later a dist. of the ALC In 1913 an academy was erected at Melville, Sask., and relocated 1926 in Regina. Luther Coll. includes grade 9 to first yr. university and is affiliated with the U. of Saskatchewan.—In 1840 the Buffalo Syn. entered Ont. and organized St. John Ch., Gas Line. Later this body joined the ALC and its parishes in Ont. are now mems. of the E Dist. of the ALC

20. The Norw. Luth. Ch. began work in Can. at Parry Sound, Ont., 1876, when the Jarlsberg cong. was organized; in 1889 miss. work was begun in Vancouver and New Westminster, Brit. Columbia. With the exception of some work done by the Norw. Syn. in Man., aggressive work was started 1895. Work had been carried on indep. by the Norwegian Synod (see Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 7–10), The United* Norwegian Lutheran Church (see also Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 10–11), and the Hauge Norwegian Ev. Luth. Church (see Evangelical Lutheran Church, The, 4–6). In 1917 the parishes of these 3 bodies were organized into the Can. Dist. of the Norw. Luth. Ch. in Am.; in 1922 the Dist. was incorporated by an Act of Parliament under the name “The Norwegian Lutheran Church of Canada.” This body has 3 institutions of higher learning in Can.: Outlook Coll. in Sask., organized 1916, closed 1936 because of drought conditions and the depression, reopened 1939 under the name The Sask. Luth. Bible Inst., known today as Luth. Collegiate Bible Institute (151 students enrolled 1962–63), operating as a high school and a 2-yr. Bible school; Luther Theol. Sem., Saskatoon, Sask., conducted cooperatively with Luth. Coll. and Sem. of the Man. Synod (LCA) since 1939, merged 1965: Lutheran Theol. Sem.; Camrose Luth. Coll., Alta., with high school and commercial courses, opened 1911. In 1959 Camrose Luth. Coll. began first yr. university work.—This ch. with its institutions merged with the Ev. Luth. Ch. of Canada, ALC, 1960.

21. In 1885 the Minnesota Conf. of the August Syn. resolved to begin home miss. work in Can. At Stockholm, Sask., the first cong. was organized 1889. In 1913 the Can. Conf. of the Ev. Luth. August Syn. was formed. A school for training ministers was opened 1912 at Percival, Sask., but was closed several yrs. later because of financial difficulties. Joined W Can. Syn., LCA, 1962.

22. The work of the UELC (Dan.) was begun 1904 at Dickson, Alta., by J. G. Gundeson and later organized under the W. Can. Dist. of the United Dan. Luth. Ch. In the 1960's some congs. merged with the W Can. Syn., LCA, others with the Ev. Luth. Ch. of Can., ALC; some remained indep.

23. The Dan. Ev. Luth. Ch. has several congs. and is supported by the Dan. Ch. in For. Lands.

24. The Luth. Free Ch. has been active in Can. since 1895, when Christian Sangstad, with a group of ca. 80 Norwegians from Crookston, Minnesota, went to Bella Coola, Brit. Columbia, where he founded a cong. In 1903 work was begun in Alberta and in 1904 in Sask. This group merged with The Ev. Luth. Ch. of Can., ALC, 1963.

25. In 1928 John Horarik of the Slovak Ev. Luth. Ch. began to minister to Slovak people in Montreal, Toronto, Hamilton, and Oshawa.

26. The Ev. Luth. Ch. of Canada. The Can. Dist. of the ALC was constituted July 7, 1960; a charter was granted by Parliament at Ottawa, incorporating and est. the Can. Dist. as The Ev. Luth. Ch. of Can.; it began to function as an autonomous body January 1967. The Ev. Luth. Ch. of Can. covers the territory from the Lakehead, Port Arthur, to the Pacific Coast. Congs. in E Can. are mems. of the E Dist. (US) of the ALC Merged 1985 with the LCACan. Section (see 27 below) to form the Evangelical* Luth. Ch. in Can.

27. The LCACan. Section was organized in Toronto in April 1963, a result of the merger in 1962, which in the US involved the Am. Ev. Luth. Ch., the August Ev. Luth. Ch., the Suomi (Fin.) Luth. Ch., and the ULC The LCACan. Section is divided into 3 syns.: the E Can. Syn. (Ont., Quebec, and the Maritimes); the Cen. Can. Syn. (Man. and Sask.); and the W Can. Syn. (Brit. Columbia, Alta., and the Yukon). Mem. of Lutheran* Council in Can. Merged 1985 with The Ev. Luth. Ch. of Can. (see 26 above) to form the Evangelical* Luth. Ch. in Can.

28. Lutheran Church—Canada (mem. of Lutheran* Council in Can.). A federation of syn. districts of the LCMS in Can., namely the Alta. and Brit. Columbia Dist., the Man. and Sask. Dist., the Ont. Dist., and the Can. Conf. of the Eng. Dist. Article III of the const. mentions as objects of the federation: 1. To promote the extension of the Kingdom of God and the work of the Lutheran Church—Canada; 2. To speak unitedly and with authority (a) in matters of public relations, (b) in conferring with the federal and/or provincial governments, and (c) in dealing with other church bodies; 3. To work toward doctrinal unity with other church bodies; 4. To study the matter of the formation of an indep. Lutheran Church—Canada to be affiliated with the LCMS Article V adds that membership in Lutheran Church—Canada shall in no wise alter the relationship of a Dist. or cong. to its parent body, nor shall it interfere with the prevailing constitutional, administrational, or any other regulations of said parent body. The const, requires for representation at the annual conv. one delegate for each 4,000 communicants or fraction thereof, with equal representation bet. pastors and lay members. The LCC was organized in Winnipeg September 11–12, 1958. Here the const., previously approved by the 3 Can. Dists., was adopted. The first officers, elected for 3 yrs., were A. H. Schwermann, pres.; Arne Kristo, Eng. Dist., vice-pres.; Maynard F. Pollex, Ont., secy.; Clarence Kuhnke, Man., treas.; David Appelt, Sask., mem.-at-large. A Dominion Charter was granted by Parliament, Ottawa, June 1959. At the time of the organization 1958 all the parishes of the LCC numbered 75,827 souls, 47,237 communicants, 184 pastors, and 321 congregations. The question “Shall the federation become an independent synod?” was placed before all congs. in Can. in spring 1964. The voting regulations agreed on by the Dists. called for a 66 2/3% majority in each District. Since the Ont. Dist. split with a 50–50 vote, the proposed action to become an autonomous syn. was defeated. In the early 1980s all 3 Districts, by nearly unanimous vote, called for est. of an autonomous LCC as partner ch. of the LCMS In 1985 the 3 Districts approved a const. and requested dissolution by the LCMS In 1986 the LCMS approved an autonomous syn. composed of the 3 Districts. In May 1988 more than 500 delegates adopted the const. On January 1, 1989, The Lutheran Church—Canada (LCC), with ca. 83,000 mems., became an autonomous partner ch. of the LCMS See also Ministry, Education of, X C and D.

29. Canadian Luth. World Relief is an agency for immigration and material aid sponsored by the ALC, LCA, and the LCMS Aid has been given to needy in Algeria, Austria, Jordan, Yugoslavia, the Crown Colony of Hong Kong, and elsewhere.

30. The Canadian Luth. Council, organized in 1952, was superseded by the Lutheran* Council in Can. 1967.

31. Lutheran institutions of mercy in Can. include Good Samaritan Hosp. (inter-Luth.), Edmonton, Alta.; Bethany Chronic Hosp. (ALC), Calgary, Alta.; Bethany Old Folks Home (ALC), Calgary, Alta.; Bethany Home and Hosp. (ALC), Camrose, Alta.; Luth. Home for the Aged (LCA), Wetaskiwin, Alta.; Luth. Sunset Home (ALC), Saskatoon, Sask.; St. Paul Luth. Home (ALC), Melville, Sask.; Bethany Pioneer Village (LCMS), Middle Lake, Saskatchewan. AHS

V. J. Eylands, Lutherans in Canada (Winnipeg, 1945); J. E. Herzer, Homesteading for God: A Story of the Lutheran Church (Missouri Synod) in Alberta and British Columbia 1894–1946 (Edmonton, Alta., 1946); Grace and Blessing: A History of the Ontario District of The Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, compiled by a committee under direction of F. Malinsky (n. p., [1954]); K. F. Olafson, The Icelandic Lutheran Synod: Survey and Interpretation, 1885–1935 (Winnipeg, Man., n. d.); A. M. Rehwinkel, “Laying the Foundation of a New Church in Western Canada,” CHIQ, XXXVIII (1965–66), 3–15; D. L. Roth, Acadie and the Acadians, 3d ed. (Philadelphia, 1891); E. R. W Schultz, “Tragedy and Triumph in Canadian Lutheranism,” CHIQ, XXXVIII (1965–66), 55–72; A. H. Schwermann, “The Life and Times of Emil E. Eberhardt, Pioneer Missionary of Alberta and British Columbia, 20 April 1870 to 28 March 1957,” CHIQ, XXXIV (1961–62), 97–128; P. E. Wiegner, The Origin and Development of the Manitoba-Saskatchewan District of The Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod (n. p., 1957); Jubiläums-Büuchlein: Festschrift zur Feier des 50-Jährigen Jubiläums der evang.-luther. Synode von Canada (n. p., 1911); C. R. Cronmiller, A History of the Lutheran Church in Canada, I (n. p., 1961).

C. Protestantism in Canada.

Protestantism, represented chiefly by the Angl., Presb., Meth., and Cong. churches, is predominant in the West and Midwest.

As far back as the close of the 19th c. repeated attempts were made to unite the various Prot. denominations into one strong Canadian church. In sparsely settled areas many considered denominations unnecessary and wasteful. In 1904 a Joint Committee on Ch. Union was appointed by the Cong., Meth., and Presb. chs. to work toward amalgamation of these denominations. Doctrinal controversies and theol. issues were avoided as irrelevant and secondary in the face of the practical problems pressing on the church. After much deliberation a Basis of Union was drawn up and adopted by the 3 bodies; thus the United Ch. of Can. came into being June 10, 1925.

The Basis of Union guaranteed that there should be no disturbance of the local ch. in its freedom of action and form of govt.; yet there were upheavals in almost every community. Methodists were not prepared to accept Presb. ministers; Presbs. were not ready to sing out of Cong. hymnals.

Eventually all Meth. and Cong. chs., with isolated exceptions, joined the United Ch. of Can. and ceased to exist as denominations in Canada. Many Presb. chs. were divided and declined to join the merger. Comparatively few Presb. chs., except in the West, escaped disruption. HM

See also Canadian Council of Churches; Union Movements, 7.

D. Roman Catholic Church in Canada.

Since the territory now included in the Dom. Can. was largely settled by pioneers of the RC persuasion, the entire E section of the country is predominantly RC Jacques Cartier took possession of the Labrador region in the name of Fr. 1534 and ascended the St. Lawrence as far as Montreal 1535 to 1536. When the first permanent settlement was made at Quebec 1608 under the leadership of Samuel de Champlain, the settlement with its outposts was strongly RC from the beginning; the RC religious hist. of the Dom. may properly be said to begin 1625, when the Jesuits (see Society of Jesus) arrived, immediately beginning their educ. and miss. endeavors. For a while, after the country had come under Eng. control 1763, the number of Prots. increased rapidly in the E part of the Dom.; during the 18th c. immigration from Ireland was steady; the Fr. Cath. population was increased after the Franco-Prussian War by a number of Alsatians. There is no state ch. in the Dom. Can., but the RCs of Quebec are guaranteed the privileges which they enjoyed before the Eng. became masters of the country; RC schools have always received recognition before the law, but private schools conducted by Prot. bodies have often been conducted under a handicap which wrought much harm. 1871–1941 ca. 40% of the pop. of Can. was RC The 1961 percentage was 45.7% (8,347,826), the highest percentage being in Quebec. Can. has an apostolic delegate, who resides at Ottawa. AHS

Canada Congregational Foreign Missionary Society.

Organized 1881; collaborated with ABCFM; worked in W Cen. Afr.

Canadian Council of Churches.

Organized 1944. Mem. chs. 1973: The Angl. Ch. of Can.; The Armenian Ch. of Am.—Diocese of Can.; Bap. Fed. of Can.; Christian Ch. (Disciples of Christ); Gk. Orthodox Archdiocese of N. and S. Am.—9th Dist. (Can. and Alaska); LCACan. Section; Presb. Ch. in Can.; Ref. Ch. in Am.—Classis of Ont.; Religious Soc. of Friends—Can. Yearly Meeting; Salv. ArmyCan. and Bermuda; United Ch. of Can. Affiliated institution: Ecumenical Institute of Can.


In the ancient Christian basilica, barriers bet. the nave and the chancel. The railing sometimes (as in San Clemente, Rome) enclosed the seats of the lower clergy as well as the ambos (reading desks). In the E Orthodox Ch. the cancelli developed into the iconostasis. The rood screen of the medieval chs. shows another form of the development. In the West the epistle ambo was moved back (eastward) into the rood screen; preaching was done from there. Kanzel, a Ger. word now used for the pulpit alone, is derived from the word cancelli.


(Lat. candidatus, “one clothed in white as an aspirant to office”). One who presents himself, or is presented, for membership, office, position, right, or honor.

In Germany students who had passed their pro ministerio examination received the title candidatus reverendi ministerii (candidate for the sacred ministry). In Scandinavia a prospective minister becomes a “candidate of theol.” after passing a series of tests (usually in Biblical thought and languages, religion, philos., and theol.). In the Dutch Ref. Ch. a “candidate” is a licentiate who seeks ordination as a minister. The word is used in various ways in Am. churches. It designates a student preparing for the ministry as also an applicant for a pulpit engagement.

Candidatus reverendi ministerii (crm) is used in Luth. chs. in Am. for a student who has been officially declared a qualified candidate for the ministry and for a pastor who is temporarily in an inactive status.

Candidus, Pantaleon

(1540–1608). B. Austria; fled to Ger.; city pastor and gen. supt. Zweibrücken 1571; with Heinrich Schwebel, son of Johann Schwebel,* led Zweibrücken back to a decided Ref. position. Works include Dialogus de unione personali duarum in Christo naturarum.

Candler, David

(d. 1744). Early Luth. pastor in Maryland and Pennsylvania; activities extended from the Susquehanna to the Potomac.


1. Used in worship by chs. of E and W, esp. on altar; may have developed from lights carried in procession and placed beside altar. 2. Votive candles are lit before shrines and statues in RC Church.

Canisius, Peter

(1521–97). Prominent Jesuit of Ger.; educ. Cologne, where he founded the first Jesuit colony, the order spreading rapidly through Ger.; noted for his catechisms.

Canitz, Friedrich Rudolph Ludwig von

(1654–99). German statesman and poet. Pietist; educ. Leiden and Leipzig; traveled in Eng., Holland, It. and France. Close friend of P. J. Spener.* Wrote hymns, one of which, “Come, My Soul, Awake, Tis Morning,” tr. by C. Winkworth.*

Cannegieter, Tjeerd

(1846–1929). Prof. dogmatics Utrecht 1878–1916; wrote in area of systematics and liturgics; taught that religion is revelation and experience of God in the heart.


1. In E Orthodox matins, a liturgical sequence* or chain of troparia* ordered in 9 series. The initial troparion of each series is called the Catavasia. During the singing the worshipers descend from their stalls. 2. Ecclesiastical title of secular clergy belonging to a cathedral or collegiate church. 3. In music, a kind of perpetual fugue,* in which different parts, beginning one after another, repeat the same melody. See also Tallis, Thomas. 4. An ecclesiastical rule or law enacted by a council or other competent authority and, in the RC Ch., approved by the pope. (The Random House Dictionary of the English Language, 2d ed., unabridged, copyright 1987). See also Justification, 10; Rule of Faith.

Canon, Bible.

1. Canon is a Gk. word meaning “rule” or “list.” Since the time of Athanasius (d. 373) “canonical” has come to mean “authoritative, inspired, divine.” The word is used to denote the collection of inspired books of the Bible.

2. Originally it was the prophet's word which was “inspired.” As the prophetic oracles were incorporated in written records, many of them achieved canonical status after the voice of prophecy became silent in the 4th c. BC Discovery of the “Book of the Law” 621 BC had stimulated the canonical consciousness, though the Pentateuch as we know it today did not achieve canonical status until ca. 400 BC In addition to the Law and the Prophets, a 3d division known as Hagiographa* (Gk.) or Kethubim (Heb. “Writings”), consisting of Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and 1 and 2 Chronicles, was included in the canon of the OT The OT canon was completed ca. AD 100. Divergences are found among the mems. of the Dead Sea community (see Dead Sea Scrolls) at Khirbat Qumran who recognized or used books rejected by the rabbis. Jews in Alexandria were more liberal than their Palestinian brothers and included in their canon Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, additions to Esther, Judith, additions to Daniel, 1 and 2 Maccabees, I and 2 Esdras, Baruch, and the Prayer of Manasses. These writings are known as the OT Apocrypha.* Jesus and His disciples appear to have adhered to the more limited Palestinian canon. Paul and his converts relied heavily on the LXX, whose inspiration was viewed by many early Christians as equal to that of the Heb. originals. Almost all OT Scriptures, with the probable exception of Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, and Ezra, are either quoted or alluded to in the New Testament. References to apocryphal writings are also made (Ja 1:19 [Ecclus 5:11]; Mt 27:43 [Wis 2:13, 18–20]; Eph 6:11, 13–17 [Wis 5:17–21]). Occasionally also Pseudepigrapha are cited. Jude 14–16 quotes Enoch 1:9. Jerome says the quotation in Mt 27:9 was taken from a writing attributed to Jeremiah, but there is strong possibility that in this passage we are dealing with scribal interpretation. There has been no unanimous agreement in the Christian ch. on the extent of the OT canon. Jerome preferred to exclude the Apocrypha and transmit in the Vulgate* the Jewish canon of the 39 books contained in most Eng. translations. Because of wellest. use of the Apocrypha, these writings gradually became part of the Vulgate and were used also by the framers of the Book of Concord, who make no pronouncements on the extent of the OT canon. Luther's dictum on the Apocrypha expressed in his tr. of the Bible 1534, “These are books which are not held equal to the sacred Scriptures and yet are useful and good for reading,” influenced subsequent generations; we find the Apocrypha excluded from the sacred canon in the translations gen. used in Luth., Angl., and Ref. churches (though the KJV originally included them).

3. The canon of 27 books in the NT was fixed gradually. It took some time before all NT books were universally known and recognized as inspired. The ch. proceeded cautiously, concerned to est. the apostolic credentials of each writing.

4. Most scholars agree that all NT books had been written by the middle of the 2d c.; some think that the yr. 100 is the terminal date. Apostolic writings were gradually gathered into collections (cf. 2 Ptr 3:16), encouraged by the prestige these writings enjoyed in the worshiping community (see Cl 4:16: 1 Th 5:27; 2 Th 2:15; ), and by the use of the codex or book in place of scrolls. By the end of the 2d c. the 4 gospels, Acts, the Pauline letters (exclusive of Hebrews), 1 John, and 1 Peter seem to have enjoyed universal recognition. Most of these are attested by the Muratorian* Canon, dating from the latter half of the 2d c. In the earliest yrs. of the formation of the NT canon the question of authorship was not a major concern. Conflicts with heretics, however, prompted the ch. to emphasize apostolicity as a criterion for canonical status. Little difficulty was encountered with books that had est. themselves throughout the ch. from time immemorial (such as the 4 gospels), but Hebrews, James, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude, and Revelation were special objects of debate because of their limited use in certain areas of the church. Their canonical status, however, was recognized by the Synod of Laodicea,* and the persecutions begun by Diocletian* in 303 may have been a strong contributing factor. See also Carthage, Synods and Councils of.

5. The classification of Origen* into homologoumena (universally recognized), antilegomena* (not universally recognized), and spurious (mostly uncanonical gospels; the newly discovered Coptic Gospel of Thomas qualifies for this category) is paralleled substantially by Eusebius* of Caesarea. But Eusebius includes under the category antilegomena (1) disputed books (James, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude) and (2) spurious (Acts of Paul, Shepherd of Hermas, Apocalypse of Peter, Barnabas, Didache). Eusebius expresses no personal doubts about Hebrews, which he classifies as a homologoumenon; but he is not sure whether Revelation belongs among the “spurious” books. Eusebius' doubts about Revelation reflect the more conservative attitude of the Syrian chs. which have gen. adhered to a shorter canon of 22 books (lacking 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude, and Revelation).

6. Throughout the Middle Ages there was no doubt as to the divine character of any book of the NT Luther again pointed to the distinction bet. homologoumena and antilegomena* (followed by M. Chemnitz* and M. Flacius*). The later dogmaticians let this distinction recede into the background. Instead of antilegomena they use the term deuterocanonical. Rationalists use the word canon in the sense of list. Lutherans in Am. followed Luther and held that the distinction bet. homologoumena and antilegomena must not be suppressed. But caution must be exercised not to exaggerate the distinction.

Higher Criticism; Isagogics; Theology. WA FWD

F. Buhl, Kanon und Text des Alten Testamentes (Leipzig, 1891), tr. J. Macpherson, Canon and Text of the Old Testament (Edinburgh, 1892); H. E. Ryle, The Canon of the Old Testament, 2d ed. (London, 1895); W. R. Smith, The Old Testament in the Jewish Church, 3d ed. (New York, 1912); C. R. Gregory, Canon and Text of the New Testament (New York, 1907); B. F. Westcott, A General Survey of the History of the Canon of the New Testament, 7th ed. (London, 1896); T. Zahn, Introduction to the New Testament, tr. under direction and supervision of M. W. Jacobus and C. S. Thayer, 3d ed., 3 vols. (New York, 1909); W. H. Green, General Introduction to the Old Testament: the Canon (New York, 1916); A. H. McNeile, An Introduction to the Study of the New Testament, 2d ed., rev. C. S. C. Williams (New York, 1953); E. J. Goodspeed, The Formation of the New Testament (Chicago, [1926]) and The Meaning of Ephesians (Chicago, 1933); A. Souter, The Text and Canon of the New Testament, 2d ed., rev. C. S. C. Williams (London, 1954); K. Aland, The Problem of the New Testament Canon (London, 1962).


Word canonica (Lat. from Gk. “one living under rule”; virgo Deo sacrata [virgin dedicated to God]; sanctimonialis [consecrated one]) traced back to 4th c. in E and 8th c. in W. Used in W (e.g., Council of Chalon-sur-Saône* 813) for mem. of community of women who professed common life but did not bind themselves to full rule of Augustine (vowed chastity, obedience, but not poverty; vow not perpetual). Beginning with 11th c. canonesses regular are female counterpart of canons regular.*


In RCm, definitive sentence by which the pope declares a faithful departed (previously beatified) to have entered eternal glory and establishes a cult for the saint. Beatification allows only limited public veneration, whereas canonization establishes such veneration throughout the church.

In the early ch., martyrs were publicly venerated; later, also confessors. Local bps. controlled the cults of saints in their diocese; such control later devolved upon the pope. Canonization follows a long legal procedure (CIC, 1999–2141) in which the promotor fidei (advocatus diaboli, “devil's advocate”) produces arguments against canonization, while the postulator (advocatus Dei, “God's advocate”) urges the claims of the candidate. In the Russ. Ch. canonization was performed by the Holy Synod.

A. D. Severance, “Beatification and Canonization with Special Reference to Historic Proof and the Proof of Miracles,” American Society of Church History Papers, ed. W. W. Rockwell, 2d series, vol. 3 (New York, 1912), 41–62; G. Oesterle, “Heiligsprechung”, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, V (Freiburg, 1960), 142–143; E. W. Kemp, Canonization and Authority in the Western Church (New York, 1948).

Canon Law.

1. Rules or laws relating to faith, morals, and discipline, imposed by ecclesiastical authority.

2. The body of laws grew out of decisions of councils which originally had varying degrees of authority. The 20 canons of Nicaea were authoritative in E and W. Others were added, e.g., those of Sardica (343) in the W. Collections existed in the 5th c. The Council of Chalcedon (451) cites those of the Council of Antioch (341 or 330). Early collectors were Johannes* III Scholasticus (E), Dionysius* Exiguus (W), and the author of the Hispana Collection. Later, canonical letters of bps. (e.g., Dionysius* of Alexandria, Gregory* Thaumaturgus, Basil the Great) and decretals of popes attained canonical authority. In the 4th and 5th c. collections were ascribed to fictitious authors (e.g., apostolic canons to Hippolytus).

3. The Decretum (collection of Gratian, ca. 1140) marks the dividing line bet. ius antiquum (ancient canon law) and ius novum (contemporary canon law). Gratian's canon was supplemented by later collections: one, composed by Raymond of Peñafort, promulgated by Gregory IX bet. 1230 and 1234; the Sext, added by Boniface VIII; the Clementines, by Clement V, promulgated 1317 by John XXII; the Extravagantes of John XXII; the Extravagantes Communes (decrees of popes bet. 1261 and 1471). The canons of Trent are called ius novissimum.

4. The standard text of canon law is the Codex luris Canonici, begun 1904 by Pius X, promulgated 1917 by Benedict XV, rev. and promulgated 1983 under John Paul II (see Popes, 37) as a result of Vatican Council II (see Vatican Councils, 2). Official RC canon law is interpreted by a commission of cardinals created 1917. See also Corpus Iuris Canonici.

5. While the RC canon law was binding in England* in the Middle Ages, it was supplemented by provincial decrees of Canterbury. in 1433 the Syn. Constitutions of S. Langton* (1222) and H. Chichele (1416) were issued in the Provinciale by W. Lyndwood. Henry VIII by the Act of Submission made all canons dependent on the king's assent, 1532. The Book of Canons, a collection of 151 canons, was passed under the influence of Abp. R. Bancroft by the Convocation of Canterbury 1604 and of York 1606. In 1939 a Canon Law Commission was created to produce an “operative” body of canon law.

6. Calvin* regarded law as a gift of God and the external structure as a necessary element of the church's existence, for which rules and laws are necessary. He held that the state had the duty to uphold the commandments; it was to be concerned with the exteriora of the ch., while the interiora were the concern of preachers, elders, and deacons.

7. Luther differentiated bet. the spiritual kingdom of Christ and the kingdom of the world; he justified law for the ch. in the world on the basis of ius naturale divinum and ius spirituale divinum. The function of ch. law was to support Christians in the fulfillment of the commandments. Luther held that the creation of ch. law should be in the hands of mems. of the ch.; Christian secular govt. should have a concern for religion and remove abuses.

8. The Lutheran* Confessions contain no canon law but provide basic and theol. principles for ch. law (AC V, VII, XIV, XV, XXVIII).

9. The actual formulation of Luth. ch. law devolved upon secular rulers. The ch. orders of the 16th and 17th c. are largely governmental regulations. In the 19th and 20th c. the legislative functions came more into the hands of the Prot. and Luth. churches. Lay participation in legislative ch. assemblies also increased.

10. In Am., constitutions and other official statements of Luth. and Prot. bodies perform the function of canon law.

F. Lauchert, Die Kanones der wichtigsten altkirchlichen Concilien nebst den apostolischen Kanones (Freiburg, 1896); J. F. von Schulte, Die Geschichte der Quellen und Literatur des canonischen Rechts von Gratian bis auf die Gegenwart, 3 vols. (Stuttgart, 1875–80; reprint Graz, 1956); E. Eichmann, Lehrbuch des Kirchenrechts auf Grund des Codex Iuris Canonici, ed. K. Mörsdorf, 9th ed., 3 vols. (Paderborn, 1958–59); J. A. Abbo and J. D. Hannan, The Sacred Canons, 2 vols. (St. Louis, 1952); J. Johnson, A Collection of the Laws and Canons of the Church of England, 2d ed., 2 vols. (Oxford, 1850); J. Heckel, Lex charitatis, Eine juristische Untersuchung über das Recht in der Theologie Martin Luthers (Munich, 1953). EL

Canon of the Mass.

That part of the mass* which begins with the prayer Te igitur after the Sanctus and ends just before the Pater noster (according to others, with consumption of the sacred species). It is called “canon” (Gk. kanon, “rule”) because it follows a fixed rule.

Canons Regular

(canonici regulares). Canons living under rule that originated with reform movements of Gregory VII (11th c.). Largely adopted rule of Augustine.

Canstein, Karl Hildebrand von

(1667–1719). Founded Canstein Bible Institute in Halle. See Bible Societies, 2.


While, in the early hist. of the Luth. Ch., the mass, passion, and motet continued to play the important part they had played in ch. music of pre-Reformation days, the cantata began to flourish as Luth. music during the Baroque* Era. The cantata is a composite form that may include an instrumental prelude or overture, recitatives, arias, duets, and choruses. Cantatas are usually accompanied by an organ or orchestra. They may be lyrical or dramatic, secular (cantata da camera) or sacred (cantata da chiesa). The Luth. cantata, which differs from the RC cantatas of It. and Fr. and from the Angl. and Ref. types of Eng. and Am., became an integral part of Luth. worship in the 17th and 18th c. It was sung bet. the Epistle and Gospel of the day and was related directly to the same, presenting and interpreting the texts of the lections. Former liturgical texts were neglected to such an extent that often only the Kyrie and Gloria remained.

Cantatas based on chorales were known as chorale cantatas. Cantatas of this type were written largely by such masters as F. Tunder,* J. P. Krieger,* J. Kuhnau,* and esp. by J. S. Bach.* D. Buxtehude* preferred to base his cantatas on free poetic texts and relate them to the It. baroque style; but he by no means ignored the chorale.

Bach wrote no fewer than 5 cycles of cantatas (ca. 295) for the ch. yr.; of these, ca. 195 have been preserved. Among the Luth. antecedents of the cantata we find Gespräche zwischen Gott und einer gläubigen Seele, by A. Hammerschmidt,* and numerous works by H. Schütz,* notably his Symphoniae sacrae of 1629. After Bach, the cantata was practically absorbed by the oratorio*; cantatas of some sort were written by the masters of the Classical and Romantic Eras and by Eng. and Am. composers. WEB

G. Adler, Handbuch der Musikgeschichte (Frankfurt, 1924); W. Apel, Harvard Dictionary of Music, 9th print. (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1955); F. Blume, Die evangelische Kirchenmusik, in Handbuch der Musikwissenschaft (Potsdam, 1931); Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. E. Blom, 5th ed., 9 vols. (London, 1954), supplementary vol. 10 (London, 1961); H. Kretzschmar, Führer durch den Concertsaal, 7 editions, 2 parts in 4 vols. (Leipzig, 1887 to 1939); S. Kümmerle, Encyklopädie der evangelischen Kirchenmusik, 4 vols. (Gütersloh, 1888–95); H. J. Moser, Geschichte der deutschen Musik, 5 editions, 3 vols. (Stuttgart, 1920–30).

Cantate Domino

(Lat. “O sing ye unto the Lord”).

1. Psalm 98, from its first words in Latin. 2. Papal bull. See also Florence, Council of, 3.


Metropolitan see of Eng.; headquarters of Augustine's miss. work among Anglo-Saxons 597; primacy in Eng. est. by Vitalian (pope 657–672). confirmed by Alexander III (pope 1159–81).


Nonmetrical spiritual songs, Psalms, or hymns, taken directly from Scriptures and used in the ch. from the earliest times, usually chanted at prescribed place in the services. In some cases the Bible text has been paraphrased to some extent; in others it has remained unchanged. Canticles in use in the ch. include the Gloria* Petri (“Glory be to the Father”), based on the baptismal formula Mt 28:19, a paraphrase in use since the 1st c. and known as the Lesser Doxology; the Gloria* in excelsis, known as the Greater Doxology, the song of the angels, Lk 2:14, enlarged into a hymn of adoration celebrating God's glory as manifested in the gift of His Son; the Tersanctus,* or Sanctus,* a combination of the hymn of the seraphim before the throne of God, Is 6:2–3, and of the song of the multitudes as they went to meet Christ at His triumphal entry into Jerusalem, Mt 21:9, the section by the people being taken from Ps 118:25–26 (see also Hallel); the Nunc dimittis of Simeon, Lk 2:29–32, sung at the close of the Communion as well as at Vespers*; the Te* Deum, a hymn of praise, confession of faith, and petition; the Benedicite, beginning, “O all ye works of the Lord, bless ye the Lord,” from the Song* of the Three Children, the Magnificat,* beginning, “My soul doth magnify the Lord,” Mary's song of praise, Lk 1:46–55, used in Vespers; the Benedictus,* beginning, “Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, the song of praise of Zacharias, Lk 1:68–79, used in festival services, esp. at Christmastide. See also Worship, Parts of, 15.


Collection of ecclesiastical chants used either in the chief service of the day or as choruses appointed for Sundays and holidays, arranged in the order of the ch. year. Some of the best examples are the collections by J. Spangenberg,* L. Lossius,* Johannes Keuchenthal, Matthäus Ludecus, and B. Helder.* See also Service Books.


The precentor, or chief singer, of a section of the choir in an Angl. ch.; more loosely applied to an organist and choirmaster in Ger. chs., also in synagogs.

Canute IV

(Knut; Knud; Cnut; ca. 1040–86). “The Saint.” King of Den. 1080–86; supported ch.; tried to invade Eng.; patron saint of Den.


(canzone). 1. Serious lyrical poem of It. of the 13th to 17th c. 2. Lyrical song of the 18th and 19th c., or instrumental music of a simple character. 3. Forerunner of the fugue*; at times, notably among the Germans, the term was synonymous with fugue. Cf. J. S. Bach's Organ Canzone in D Minor.


Syncretistic Indo-Chinese religion; resulted from alleged revelation of the god Cao-dai; officially established 1926.

Cape of Good Hope.

Called Cape Colony before 1910. See also Africa, B 5; Union of South Africa.

Capernaitic Eating.

Term derived from literal interpretation of Jesus' discourse at Capernaum on the bread of life (Jn 6:26–58). See also Grace, Means of, IV 4.

Capital and Labor.

The industrial revolution and the development of the modern capitalistic system led to problems bet. owners and financiers of industrial enterprises (capital) and those carrying out the actual production (labor). The problems are complicated on the level of capital by the fact that those financing the operations are frequently concerned only by way of investment and return of interest or dividends, while the management of the operations is entrusted to employees; and on the level of labor by the modern organization of labor into unions, headed by professional leaders, who bargain with the management for the most advantageous wage and working conditions and enforce their demands by strikes.—The Christian is concerned with these problems on two levels. On the 1st level he is mind ful of the behavior of the Christian who is himself an owner or stockholder in industry, a unit in the management, or a worker. That behavior will be conditioned by Christian love. The Holy Spirit at work in the Christian because of the redemption of Jesus Christ will actuate in him the readiness to be concerned for the other person at the expense of personal sacrifice, if need be, and to look at his relationship as a field of calling in which he can glorify God through his acts of love. In these situations the Christian confronts reactions of his own flesh and patterns of selfishness in the world around him, in which disregard for the interests of the other party is rationalized. Since folkways of behavior and attitudes of class consciousness are deeply rooted, it behooves the Christian to be doubly alert and sober in maintaining the watchfulness of love, and in carrying out the principles of love (Eph 6:5–9; Cl 3:22 to 25; 4:1).

On the 2d level the Christian is concerned for the welfare also of those who do not profess the Christian religion, and for his fellow Christians under the influence of those who are not Christians. That means that he will be interested in the leadership of corporations, the techniques of management and labor relations, and the operations of labor unions. He will be anxious to have Christians be influential in their direction. He will be interested in the part which the govt. will play in the conciliation of labor disputes, the regulation of securities, the supervision of labor unions. He will be anxious that the right ethical guidance will be imparted in the schools and universities of the land.—Christians recognize that capital property is not in itself a sin, but are aware of the Savior's warnings that it can become a snare for the soul (Mk 10:23–31; cf. 1 Ti 6:17). On the other hand, while understanding that the drudgery of labor is one of the curses of sin, they are aware of the dignity of work and put the capacity of the spiritual man to work in a zestful carrying out of the opportunities of labor (Eph 4:28). RRC

J. Daniel, The Church and Labor-Management Problems of Our Day (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1947) and Labor, Industry, and the Church (St. Louis, 1957); Christianity and Property, ed. J. F. Fletcher (Philadelphia, 1947).


Term used to denote numerous economic systems in which the instruments of production and capital goods are owned by private individuals or corporations, investments determined by private decision, and production and prices largely set in a free market. Capitalism is at times regarded as the opposite of socialism* or communism. Some theologians and chs. have discussed capitalism from the viewpoint of social ethics* and human rights. See also Capital and Labor.

Capital Sins.

Sins which cause other sin; sometimes listed as pride, covetousness, lust, anger, gluttony, envy, sloth. In SA-III 1 original sin is described as capital sin. See also Sin; Sin, Original; Sins, Venial and Mortal.

Capito, Wolfgang Fabricius

(Köpfel; 1478–1541). Received degree in medicine at U. of Freiburg; turned to law, then to theol.; cathedral preacher at Basel 1515; preacher at Mainz 1519; espoused Reformation doctrines; to Strasbourg 1523, where he was chief preacher of the Ch. of St. Thomas. Instrumental in drawing up Tetrapolitan Conf. 1530. Helped with Wittenberg* Concord 1536, achieving agreement with Luth. party. See also Reformed Confessions, A 6; D 1; Regensburg Book.

J. W. Baum, Capito und Butzer, Strassburgs Reformatoren, in Roman Leben und ausgewählte Schriften der Väter und Begründer der reformirten Kirche, III (Elberfeld, 1860).


Cape, esp. as part of ecclesiastical or academic garb.

Cappadocian Theologians.

Three great teachers of the ch. who worked in Cappadocia in the 4th c.: Basil the Great, his friend Gregory* of Nazianzus, and Basil's brother Gregory* of Nyssa. Champions of the faith of Nicaea,* they carried on the work of Athanasius* and brought it to a climax. The virtual defeat of Arianism* at the Second Ecumenical Council in Constantinople 381 was largely due to their efforts. As ecclesiastical statesmen and organizers, impassioned orators, and skilled theologians they shaped a large part of the theol. and practice of the E Church.

1. Basil the Great (ca. 330–ca. 379). One of 10 children in a prominent family in Cappadocian Caesarea. Three became bps.: Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, Peter of Sebaste. Their sister, Macrina the Younger, devoted herself to ascetic life. Basil was early exposed to zealous Christianity by his grandmother, Macrina the Elder, and mother, Emmelia. His studies of rhetoric took him to schools at Caesarea, Constantinople, and after 351 to Athens, where his friendship with Gregory of Nazianzus flourished. Returning to Caesarea 356, he became a teacher of philos, and other subjects. A yr. later he embraced ascetic life and was baptized. He observed monasteries during a visit to Egypt and propagated monastic movements in Asia Minor. The cloister est. by him in Pontus became a pattern for E monasteries. In 358 he collaborated with Gregory of Nazianzus on Philocalia, an anthology of Origen's works, and the 2 Regulae, detailed and abbreviated principles for monastic life (see also Basilians, 1). Persuaded by Eusebius of Caesarea to become a priest ca. 364, he succeeded Eusebius as bp. of Caesarea 370. Supported the orthodox position in the Trinitarian controversies and actively opposed Arianism.* His refutation of the latter and Macedonianism (see Pneumatomachians) may be found in Adversus Eunomium (363–365) and Liber de Spiritu sancto (ca. 375), both of which affirm the consubstantiality of the Son and the Holy Spirit with the Father. Though threatened with confiscation and exile by the Arian Emp. Valens, he remained resolute. His contributions to liturgics and hymnology are valuable. The Byzantine Liturgy is traditionally ascribed to him. His Christian devotion led him to help establish hospitals, homes for the poor, and hospices for travelers and strangers. He himself lived in the humblest manner. The tasks of ecclesiastical administration and organization did not keep him from becoming a great theol., as his works attest. Besides the works mentioned, he wrote a treatise on the Christian attitude toward pagan literature and learning, and many sermons and letters. See also Acacius of Beroea.

2. Gregory of Nazianzus (“Theologus”; ca. 330–ca. 390). Apparently a counsin of Amphilochius*; oldest of 3 children in a wealthy Cappadocian family near Nazianzus, where his father was bp. His mother, Nonna, consecrated him to Christian service before his birth. He was educ. at Cappadocian Caesarea, Caesarea in Palestine, Alexandria, and Athens. He refusing a position as teacher of rhetoric in Athens and went home ca. 357 after being baptized.

His attempts to shun pub. life in favor of monastic solitude were not honored. His efforts were enlisted ca. 362 to check the spread of a semi-Arian formula in his father's diocese. Popular sentiment and the insistence of his father forced him into the priesthood. He fled in protest to the monastery of his friend Basil, later returning to take up his duties at Nazianzus. His Oratio 2 (Apologetica) is a defense of this flight and return. After the death of his father 374, he retired to Seleucia in Isauria only to be summoned 379 by the orthodox party in Constantinople to allay a rampant Arianism* in that city. His eloquent protests against Arianism (cf. the 5 Orationes [27–31] in defense of the Nicene doctrine of the Trinity) led to his consecration as bp. of Constantinople 381. Objections to his appointment from the Egyptian and Macedonian hierarchy caused him to resign the position within a few days and return to his native diocese. His friend Eulalias was consecrated bp. of Nazianzus 384; Gregory devoted the rest of his life to study and monastic practices at the family estate in Arianzus. He is best remembered as the great orator and rhetorician of the Cappadocian theologians. Works include 45 orations, 244 letters, and ca. 400 poems.

3. Gregory of Nyssa (ca. 331–ca. 396). Younger brother of Basil the Great, who was chiefly responsible for his education. After serving as lector in the ch., he embarked on a worldly career as a teacher of rhetoric. His marriage to Theosebia did not deter him from entering the Basilian monastery in Pontus under the influence of Basil and Gregory of Nazianzus. Named bp. of the small Cappadocian town of Nyssa by his brother 371; the position soon revealed his administrative inadequacies. A syn. of Arian bps. meeting at Nyssa 376 convinced Emp. Valens to depose Gregory on the charge of misappropriation of funds. After Valens' death 378, Gregory was welcomed back to his former diocese. On a visit to Pontus ca. 379 he was elected abp. of Sebaste against his will. With Gregory of Nazianzus he played a prominent role in the Second Ecumenical Council at Constantinople 381, which repudiated Arianism. Frequent visits to the capital followed, the last in 394. Lacking administrative and oratorical qualities, he nonetheless distinguished himself as the most gifted thinker and theol. of the 3 Cappadocians. Works include Oratio catechetica magna and De anima et resurrectione dialogus qui inscribitur Macrinia (dogmatic); De hominis opificio and Explicatio apologetica … in hexaemeron (exegetical).

See also Doctor of the Church; Fathers of the Church; Patristics, 6.

1. General: F. W. Farrar, Lives of the Fathers, 2 vols. (London, 1889); J. Quasten, Patrology, III (Westminster, Maryland, 1960); H. v. Campenhausen, The Fathers of the Greek Church, tr. S. Godman (New York, 1959); H. Weiss, Die Grossen Kappadocier: Basilius, Gregor von Nazianz und Gregor von Nyssa als Exegeten (Braunsberg, 1872); K. Weiss, Die Erziehungslehre der drei Kappadozier, in Strassburger theologische Studien, ed. A. Ehrhard and E. Müller, V, 3–4 (Freiburg, 1903).

2. Special: M. M. Fox, The Life and Times of St. Basil the Great as Revealed in His Works, in The Catholic University of America Patristic Studies, LVII (Washington, 1939); G. L. Prestige, St. Basil the Great and Apollinaris of Laodicea, ed. H. Chadwick (London, 1956); R. T. Smith, St. Basil the Great (New York, 1908); C. Ullmann, Gregorius von Nazianz, der Theologe, 2d ed. (Gotha, 1867); T. A. Goggin, The Times of Saint Gregory of Nyssa as Reflected in the Letters and the Contra Eunomium, in The Catholic University of America Patristic Studies, LXXIX (Washington, 1947); W. W. Jaeger, Two Rediscovered Works of Ancient Christian Literature: Gregory of Nyssa and Macarius (Leiden, 1954); W. Völker, Gregor von Nyssa als Mystiker (Wiesbaden, 1955). MPG, 29–32 (Basil the Great); 35–37 and 38, 9–846 (Gregory of Nazianzus); 44–46 (Gregory of Nyssa). HaWR

Cappa Magna.

In RCm, cloak with hood and long train, lined with fur, worn by cardinals, bps., and other dignitaries.

Cappel, Louis

(1585–1658). Prof. Heb. Saumur* OT textual critic; pointed out late origin of vowel signs and textual corruptions. Works include Critica Sacra. See also Reformed Confessions, A 10.

Capreolus, John

(Jean Capreolus; ca. 1380–1444). B. Rodez (or in the Languedoc region?), Fr.; Dominican philos. and theol.; active at Paris and Toulouse. Works include Defensiones, a defense of Thomism* against J. Duns* Scotus, G. Durandus* de Sancto Porciano, Henry* of Ghent, W. of Ockham,* et al.


(Ordo Fratrum Minorum S. Francisci Capuccinorum). Offshoot of Franciscan* order, founded in It. ca. 1528. Its mems. wear a pointed cowl (capuche), sandals, and beard. Its severe Rule had the purpose of restoring the rigor and simplicity of the Franciscan Rule. The severity of the Rule has been mitigated in practice. Active in Counter Reformation.

Caraccioli, Galeazzo

(Marquis de Vico; 1517–86). Nephew of pope Paul IV; left Naples because of his sympathy for Reformation; deacon, mem. of council and consistory at Geneva.


(It. “charcoal burners”). Secret political and pseudo-religious organization in It. and Fr.; arose ca. 1800; existed till ca. 1840. Opposed absolutism in politics; espoused natural religion.

Cardale, John Bate

(1802–77). B. London; d. Albury. “Apostle” of Catholic* Apostolic Church.

Cardinal Doctrine.

Basic, chief, essential, fundamental teaching, e.g., justification* by grace through faith in Christ, the 3 principles of the Reformation (grace alone, faith alone, Scripture alone), fundamental articles of faith treated in creeds and other accepted confessions.


RC dignitaries ranking immediately after the pope; his chief counselors. Three ranks: cardinal bps., cardinal priests, and cardinal deacons. In a series of increases 1959–73 their number was raised from 70, the limit set by Sixtus V (see Popes, 22), to 145. The number entitled to vote in papal elections was limited to 120. As of January 1, 1971, cardinals cease to be members of curial departments and offices and become ineligible to vote in papal elections at 80. They form the Sacred Coll., over whose meetings (consistories) the pope presides. Cardinals are created by the pope; all nations are supposed to be considered, but more cardinals are from It. than from any other country. Though the pope is not bound to ask or accept their advice, he consults them in all important matters, both in consistory and otherwise. The cardinals take an active part in the govt. of the RC Ch. through the offices they hold in the Curia* and various commissions. They often serve as legates. Since the 11th c. they elect the popes (see Conclave). Though in theory anyone, even a layman, is eligible to the papal chair, no one who was not previously a cardinal has been elected since Urban VI (1378). Cardinals wear red birettas and robes, are styled Your Eminences, and claim the right of addressing emperors and kings as “brothers.” See also Western Christianity 500–1500, 7.

Cardinal Virtues.

Plato (Republic, iv, 427) regarded prudence, fortitude, temperance, and justice as the cardinal virtues. Ambrose, according to tradition, and other Christian writers adopted these. The “theological virtues” (faith, hope, charity) [love]; cf. 1 Co 13; Gl 5:5–6; Cl 1:4–5; 1 Th 1:3) were added, but in contrast to the 4 “natural” or “moral” virtues. Some combine them as 7 cardinal (from Lat. cardo, “hinge”) virtues.

R. Schwarz, Fides, spes und caritas beim jungen Luther (Berlin, 1962).

Carey, Lot(t)

(ca. 1780–1828). B. Virginia as slave; d. Liberia. First Am. Negro miss. to Africa. Converted 1807; bought freedom 1813; founded miss. soc. in Richmond, Virginia; with Colin Teague, another Negro preacher, to Liberia 1821; est. school at Monrovia; acting gov. of Liberia. See also Africa, C 7.

Carey, William

(1761–1834). Pathfinder in Eng. for modern missions. Shoemaker by trade; early interested in missions; studied theol.; pastor of Bap. chs.; gave impetus to founding Bap. Miss. Soc. October 2, 1792. To India 1793. Finding Eng. doors closed, he went to Serampore, Dan. India, and with Joshua Marshman* and W. Ward* founded a press. Translated Bible into Bengali; instrumental in tr. and pub. Bible in whole or in part in numerous other languages and dialects. See also Serampore Trio.

F. D. Walker, William Carey: Missionary Pioneer and Statesman (Chicago, 1951); J. C. Marshman, The Life and Times of Carey, Marshman, and Ward, 2 vols. (London, 1859).

Caribbean Islands.

A. Historic Formation. When Columbus discovered the new world, he touched shore on this chain of islands, the W Indian Archipelago, ca. 3,000 islands and islets extending over 1,600 mi. from the tip of Florida to the NE coast of S. Am., encircling what is now called the Caribbean Sea. The islands first came under Sp. rule, later fell prey to various seafaring adventurers from Eng., Fr., and Holland; these countries affected the present geog. divisions. The islands form the Greater and Lesser Antilles. The Greater Antilles include 4 islands, home of 4 indep. nations (Cuba, Jamaica, Dominican Rep., and Haiti; the latter 2 occupy the island of Hispaniola*) and Puerto Rico.

B. General Description. Area: 93,770 sq. mi. The original Indians, of S. Am. origin, were branches of the Arawaks and Caribs, the latter giving their name to the islands and the sea. But in the period of conquest and the later colonial era the Indians either died because of the clash of civilizations or were transplanted to the mainland of Cen. or S America. Negro slaves were brought from Afr. to work the mines and plantations. This created a heavy mixture of Negro and Creole blood, esp. in the Sp.-speaking colonies; other islands, chiefly under Fr. and Eng. control, became almost wholly Negro. On some islands are found large numbers of E Indians who immigrated from colonies of the Far East. The language spoken on each island reflects its historic political connections.

C. Social and Political Aspects. Independence came relatively late to the nations in this area. Haiti, occupying one-third of Hispaniola, was under French rule. The Haitians won indep. 1804, but the Dominican Republic did not enjoy full pol. freedom till 1844. Cuba and Puerto Rico were under Sp. rule till 1899. Cuba then formed its own govt., but Puerto Rico remained under stateside control, enjoying a voluntary commonwealth status within the US The Lesser Antilles enjoy various degrees of internal self-govt. either within the Brit. Commonwealth, or as overseas depts. of the Fr. Community, or as autonomous states within the kingdom of the Neth., or as territories within the US However, esp. since WW II, pol. experiments of various kinds are being tried in testing local responsibility for govt. and soc. improvement. They range from purely socialistic revolution in Cuba to a cooperative venture bet. govt. and private capital in Puerto Rico, and from the status of islands such as Jamaica, Trinidad, and Tobago to the paternalistic pattern often followed in Fr. possessions.

D. Religion. Development of the dominant religion in each area was influenced by the respective formative colonial period. Islands under Sp. and Fr. control have gen. retained outward religious allegiance to RCm, but with less religious fervor apparent than in other areas of Lat. America. Islands developed under Brit. rule are predominantly Prot., as also to a lesser degree the Neth. Antilles. The Virgin Islands, formerly under Dan. rule, have an est. Luth. tradition. Where the Negro pop. is strong, active resurgence of Afr. animism is apparent in voodoo rites.

E. Individual countries.

1. Rep. of Cuba. Area: 44,218 sq. mi. Language: Spanish. Religion: RC 42%; Prots. include Bap., Pen Prot. Episc., Meth., Seventh-day Adv., Luth., and some faith missions. Lutheran work began 1910, when a Luth. pastor emigrated from the US to the Isle of Pines for health reasons and began miss. work among N. Am. and Ger. settlers. An Eng. miss. field developed as a result under the auspices of the Missouri Synod. In 1946 the outreach was extended to Havana, with services also in Spanish. North Am. personnel remained until 1961. Since then the work is under the leadership of resident workers.

2. Dominican Republic. Area: ca. 18,704 sq. mi. Language: Spanish. Religion: ca. 95% RC (state religion). Prot. community includes Pent., Seventh-day Adv., Dominican Ev. Ch., Assemblies of God, Free Meth. Ch. of N. Am., Christian Missions to Many Lands, and the Prot. Episc. Church. See also Hispaniola.

3. Rep. of Haiti. Area: 10,714 sq. mi. Language: Fr. and Creole, a local patois. Religion: mostly RC (state religion). Prot. community includes Bap., Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), The Church of God of Prophecy, Seventh-day Adv., W Indies Miss., Unevangelized Fields Missions, Pent., and Methodists. See also Hispaniola.

4. Puerto Rico. Area: 3,435 sq. mi. Free commonwealth assoc. with US Language: Sp. and Eng. jointly. RCm predominates. Prot. community includes Assemblies of God, Meth. Ch. of the US, Am. Baps., United Christian Miss. Soc., Disciples of Christ, United Ev. Ch. of Puerto Rico, Cong. Chs., Ch. of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), and ELCA The first Prot. service in Puerto Rico was conducted by a Luth. seminarian from Illinois near the end of 1898. This field was later adopted by the Gen. Council of the Luth. Ch. in the US and eventually incorporated in the ULC With sister chs. in the Virgin Islands (see E 8), this miss. in 1952 became the Caribbean Syn., of the LCA, now the ELCA

5. British West Indies. Islands in West Indies which comprise or comprised Brit. colonies or dependencies. Following are or were included: Brit. Virgin Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands, Cayman Islands, Bahamas,* Brit. West Indies Fed. (the latter, formed 1958, dissolved 1962, included Antigua, St. Christopher [Kitts]-Nevis-Anguilla, Montserrat, Dominica, St. Lucia, Grenada, St. Vincent, Barbados, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago). The West Indies Associated States (not a pol. entity), self-governing territories in free assoc. with the United Kingdom, were est. 1967 and consisted of Antigua, Dominica, Grenada, St. Christopher, (Kitts)-Nevis-Anguilla, St. Lucia, St. Vincent (statehood for the latter delayed until 1969 because of local pol. uncertainties). Language: English. Protestantism predominates. Chs. include RC, Angl., Moravian, Ch. of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), Ch. of God of Prophecy, Disciples of Christ, Internat. Ch. of the Foursqaure Gospel, Meth., Pent. Assemblies of Can., United Christian Missionary Soc., United Ch. of Can., Wesleyan Meth.

Grenada became indep. 1974. Anguilla became autonomous 1976, separated from St. Kitts-Nevis 1980. Dominica became indep. 1978, St. Vincent and the N part of the Grenadines 1979, St. Christopher and Nevis 1983.

See also Dominica, Commonwealth of; Grenada, State of; St. Christopher and Nevis; St. Vincent and the Grenadines.

6. French West Indies. Comprise Guadeloupe, (in the Leeward Islands; includes N two thirds of St. Martin; area: ca. 687 sq. mi.; Martinique (in the Windward Islands: area: ca. 425 sq. mi.; and surrounding islands. Area: 1,118 sq. mi. Language: French. RCm predominates. Prot. work listed only for Seventh-day Adv. and the W Indies Mission. Restrictions on the entry of non-RC missions have been relaxed in recent years.

7. Netherlands Antilles. Three Windward Islands (Curaçao area: ca. 171 sq. mi.; Aruba, area: ca. 7 sq. mi.; and Bonaire, area: ca. 111 sq. mi.) and 3 Leeward Islands (Saba, area: ca. 5 sq. mi.; St. Eustatius, area: ca. 11 sq. mi.; and S one third of St. Martin [St. Maarten], area: ca. 13 sq. mi.). Area: ca. 386 sq. mi. Aruba was given separate status within the kingdom of the neth. as of January 1, 1986 Language: dialect of mixed origins, called Papiamento. RCm predominates. Prots. include Prot. Union Ch., Dutch Ref., Meth., Angl., Seventh-day Adv., and Salv. Army Lutheran services are conducted on Aruba and Curaçao, where the Norw. Seamen's Miss. maintains centers with resident pastors.

8. Virgin Islands of the United States. About 50 Leeward* Islands east of Puerto Rico; 3 largest: St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix (Santa Cruz). Area: 133 sq. mi. Major ethnic groups: West Indian, Chachas. Language: English. Prot. Chs. include Prot. Episc. Ch., Meth. Miss., Moravian Ch., and ELCA Under Dan. rule till 1917, the islands were purchased by the US The Luth. Ch., formerly under Dan. supervision, was then transferred to a Luth. Ch. in the US became part of the Caribbean Syn. of the LCA, now part of the ELCA

See also E 4; Danish Lutherans in America, 1; United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of,

See Missions Bibliography. RFG

Carlile, Wilson

(1847–1942). Founded Church. Army in Westminster, Eng., 1882; it works in slums, prisons, and workhouses.

Carlowitz, Christoph

(1507–78). Saxon chancellor; follower of Erasmus.*

Carlsen, Niels Christian

(June 1, 1884–February 6, 1950). Luth. clergyman. B. Den.; to US 1894; grad. Trin. Sem., Blair, Nebraska, 1910; ordained 1910; 1910–30 pastor in Duluth, Minnesota, in Superior, Milltown, and Bone Lake, Wisconsin, and in Royal, Iowa; vice-pres. UELC 1921–25; pres. 1925–50 (full-time 1930–50). Active in NLC, Am. Luth. Conf., and LWC Fostered negotiations that led to organization of Am. Luth. Ch. 1960.

Carlsson, Erland

(August 24, 1822–October 19, 1893). B. Suletorp, Smaaland, Swed.; grad. U. of Lund 1848; pastor Vexio and Lessebo, Swed., 1849–53; in Chicago 1853–75; at Andover, Illinois, 1875–87; pres. August Syn. 1881–88; bus. mgr. August Coll. and Sem., Rock Island, Illinois, and one of its directors from its founding; for many yrs. ed. Missionaeren.

Carlyle, Alexander

(“Jupiter”; 1722–1805). Scot. theol. Educ. Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Leiden. Pastor Inveresk 1748–1805. Leader, with William Robertson and John Home, of the predominant moderates in the Scot. ch. in 2d half of 18th c.

Carlyle, Thomas

(1795–1881). B. Ecclefechan, Dumfriesshire, Scot.; educ. Annan Academy and Edinburgh U. Taught math. Looked forward to the career of a minister; then abandoned both the idea of the ministry and Christian faith. Studied German and worked his way through an extensive reading course in hist., poetry, romance, and other fields. Works may be divided into 3 main groups: I. Literary Criticism. A. German works include The Life of Friedrich Schiller; Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship and Travels; German Romance. B. English. Essay on Burns; Boswell's Life of Johnson; Sir Walter Scott. II. Philosophical and Social Writings. Sartor Resartus: The Life and Opinions of Herr Teufelsdröckh (“Sartor Resartus” is Latin and means “The Tailor Retailored”; depicts Carlyle's spiritual struggle and is most representative of his genius; contains chapters on “The Everlasting No,” “Center of Indifference,” and “The Everlasting Yea”); Chartism; On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History (includes an essay on Luther; sets forth Carlyle's view that human affairs are shaped by great leaders); Past and Present (like Chartism, attacks the principle of laissez faire; advocates governmental directive for both capital and labor, profit sharing, and educational legislation). III. Historical Writings. The French Revolution: A History; Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches; The Life of John Sterling; History of Frederick II of Prussia. ECW


(Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel). Founded as a hermit colony on Mount Carmel ca. 1154. The Primitive rule laid down by Albert* the Blessed ca. 1207/09 prescribed absolute poverty, solitude, and total abstinence from meat. After the Crusades,* many mems. of the order went to Eur. and reorganized as a mendicant order. An Order of Carmelite Sisters was founded in the Low Countries 1452. The order stresses devotion to Mary and the child Jesus; early defended Immaculate Conception. Habit: dark brown; brown scapular; white mantle (hence “White Friars”). See also Barefooted Monks; Mendicant Friars.

R. McCaffrey, The White Friars (Dublin, 1926).


(ca. 215–ca. 129 BC). Gk. skeptic philos.; opposed stoics; founded New (3d) Academy; advanced doctrine of logical probabilism.


(probably from Lat. carnem levare, “put away meat”; some derive it from carne vale, “O flesh, farewell!”). Period before Lent (either 3 days before Lent or February 3 to Ash Wednesday); eating meat in this period is prohibited in RC Ch.

Caro, Joseph ben Ephraim

(1488–1575). B. Sp. or Port. Jewish jurist; works include Shulhan Aruk (Table Prepared), authoritative work on Jewish laws and ceremonies.


Popular spiritual song for festive occasions, esp. a spiritual folk song for the Christmas season; best ones came into vogue in Ger., Eng., and Fr. in the Middle Ages and after the Reformation.

Caroli, Peter

(ca. 1480–after 1545). Ft. follower of J. Lefèvre d'Étaples;* fled to Geneva 1535; Calvinist pastor Neuenburg and Lausanne 1536; opposed Calvin; deposed 1537; returned to Fr. and RC Ch.

Caroline Books

(Libri Carolini). Treatise compiled ca. 790–792; ascribed to Charlemagne.* Attacked Iconoclastic* Council (754) and Nicaea* II (787).

MPL, 98, 942–1550.

Caroline Islands.

Large archipelago in W Pacific Ocean; includes 550 to 680 islands (depending on what is called an island). Area: ca. 550 sq. mi. Inhabitants Polynesian. Formerly belonged to Ger.; under Jap. control 1914–44; part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands; assigned to US 1947. Missions by ABCFM; Liebenzeller Miss. (before WW I). The RC Ch. is also active. See also Micronesia.

Carpenter, William

(1762–1833). Luth. pastor; b. near Madison, Virginia; soldier in Revolutionary War; pastor Madison Co., Virginia, and Boone Co., Kentucky. See also Streit, Christian.

Carpov, Jakob

(1699–1786). Lecturer at Jena and Weimar on Wolffian philosophy; sought to demonstrate dogmatics by math. method; wrote Theologia revelata dogmatica methodo scientifica adornata.


Family of Ger. lawyers and theologians including 1. Benedikt (1595–1666). Prof. and judge Leipzig; in Jurisprudentia ecclesiastica seu consistorialis he est. scientifically the “episcopal system” of ch. polity. 2. Johann Benedikt the Elder (1607 to 1657). Brother of 1; prof. Leipzig. Works include Isagoge in libros ecclesiarum luth. symbolicos; Systematis theologici in usum collegiorum et exercitiorum partes duae. 3. Johann Benedikt the Younger (1639–99). Son of preceding; prof. Leipzig; opponent of Pietism, esp. of Spener* and A. H. Francke.* 4. Samuel Benedikt (1647–1707). Brother of preceding; Spener's successor as court preacher at Dresden. 5. Johann Gottlob (1679–1767). Son of preceding; supt. Lübeck; very learned; wrote Introductio in libros canonicos bibliorum Veteris Testamenti and treatises against Pietists and Moravians. 6. Johann Benedikt (1720 to 1803). Grandson of Johann Benedikt the Younger; prof. Leipzig and Helmstedt; opponent of rationalism.

Carranza, Bartolome de

(1503–76). B. Miranda; d. Rome. Sp. Dominican theol. influenced by Juan de Valdés*; participated in Council of Trent; imprisoned 17 yrs. for Luth. tendencies in his doctrines.

Carroll, John

(1735–1815). Jesuit. B. Upper Marlboro, Maryland; educ. Fr.; returned to US 1774; miss. in Maryland; named prefect apostolic by Plus VI; named bp. of Baltimore 1789, consecrated 1790; abp. 1808; founded Georgetown Academy. See also Roman Catholic Church, The, E 3.

P. K. Guilday, The Life and Times of John Carroll (Westminster, Maryland, 1954).

Carter, Marmaduke Nathaniel

(March 7, 1881–October 14, 1961). B. Hanover Co., Virginia; entered Mo. Syn. ministry by colloquy 1917; pastor Chicago, Illinois, 1928–57; Works include Lutheran Customs.

Carthage, Synods and Councils of.

Center of N Afr. Christianity for several centuries, Carthage was the scene of many important meetings already in the days of Cyprian* (d. 258). Beginning ca. 350, a number of councils and synods were held there in connection with the Donatist* schism. A gen. Afr. council held 393 at Hippo Regius, near Carthage, is notable for its complete list of NT books, confirmed 397 at Carthage. An important synod was held 418 at Carthage because of the hesitation of Zosimus of Rome to condemn Celestius* and Pelagius.* It adopted theses against Pelagianism on original sin, the absolute necessity of divine grace for salvation, and the reality of sin in Christian life. See also Pelagian Controversy, 5.

Carthage College,

Kenosha, Wisconsin Beginnings date to a school opened 1847 at Hillsboro, Illinois, by the Ev. Luth. Syn. of N Illinois*; moved to Springfield, Illinois, as Illinois* State U. 1852; closed as a result of Civil War; reest. as Carthage Coll. 1869/70 at Carthage, Illinois, by the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Cen. Illinois,* the Ev. Luth. Syn. of N Illinois,* and the Ev. Luth. Syn. of Iowa (see United Lutheran Church in America The, Synods of, 9); 2d campus est. at Kenosha, Wisconsin 1961/62; Carthage, Illinois, campus closed 1964. See also General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America, The, 8; Lutheran Church in America, V; Ministry, Education of, VIII B. 6.


Monastic order, noted for uncommon severity in its practices. Disheartened with degeneracy in the ch., Bruno* of Cologne formed a colony of hermits 1084 and founded La Grand Chartreuse (whence the name Carthusians), until 1903 chief house of the order, in a lofty valley near Saint-Pierre-de-Chartreuse, ca 12 1/2 mi. N of Grenoble, Fr. Though he did not intend to found an order and wrote no rule, the order grew from his example and was officially recognized 1170. It boasts that it is the only monastic order that never required reforms. Its rule prescribes practical isolation not only from the world but also from brother monks. Each has his own cell. Manual labor, study, prayer, and contemplation follow in prescribed order. The smallest details of life are regulated. Not even the sick receive meat. Never very large, the order has ca. 20 monasteries.

Cartwright, Peter

(1785–1872). Am. Meth. preacher: b. Amherst Co., Virginia; little formal educ.; licensed exhorter 1802; deacon 1806; presiding elder 1812; moved from Kentucky to Illinois 1824; known for vigorous sermons and “muscular” Christianity.

Cartwright, Thomas

(1535–1603). Eng. Puritan*; b. Hertfordshire; d. Warwick; prof. Cambridge; attacked prelacy, presently to be defended by R. Hooker*; championed Presb. polity; with Walter Travers drew up Holy Discipline for Presb. congs.

Carus, Paul

(1852–1919). Ed., author, and philos. B. Ilsenburg, Ger.; educ. Strasbourg and Tübingen; to US ca. 1884; ed. The Open Court and The Monist; in religious (esp. Oriental) and philos. writings held that religion must be purified by scientific criticism.

Cary, Phoebe

(1824–71). Sister of Alice Cary, with whom she moved from Ohio to New York City; their mutual affection attracted much interest; poetical gift of both about equal; both wrote hymns; most popular hymn of Phoebe: “One Sweetly Solemn Thought.”

Casaubon, Isaac

(1559–1614). B. Geneva of Fr. parents. Classicist; ranks immediately after J. J. Scaliger*; Ref. theol.; prof. Gk. Geneva 1582, Montpellier 1596; sublibrarian of royal library, Paris, 1604; prebendary Canterbury and Westminster 1610.

Case, Shirley Jackson

(1872–1947). Bap. clergyman, educator, liberal theol.; b. Hatfield Point, N. B., Can.; d. Lakeland, Florida; educ. Acadia U., Wolfville, N. S., Can.; Yale U.; Marburg U.; taught math St. Martins (N. B.) Sem. and Horton Collegiate Academy, Wolfville, N. S., Can.; Gk. at New Hampton (New Hampshire) Lit. Instn.; hist. and philos. of religion at Bates Coll., Lewiston, Maine; ch. hist. and NT interpretation at Chicago U.; religion at School of Religion, Lakeland, Florida Dean Chicago Divinity School 1933–38, (Florida) School of Religion 1939–47. Ed. A Bibliographical Guide to the History of Christianity. Other works include Makers of Christianity from Jesus to Charlemagne; The Evolution of Early Christianity; Jesus: A New Biography; The Social Origins of Christianity. See also Chicago School of Theology.

L. B. Jennings, The Bibliography and Biography of Shirley Jackson Case (Chicago, 1949).

Casel, Odo

(1886–1948). RC theol.; entered Benedictine abbey Maria Laach. Wrote in area of liturgics; emphasized mysterious element in worship.

Caselius, Johannes

(1533–1613). Ger. humanist; pupil of Melanchthon and Camerarius; prof. rhetoric Rostock 1563 and Helmstedt 1589.

Caspari, Carl Paul

(1814–92). Luth. theol. B. Dessau, of Jewish parents; educ. Leipzig 1834–38; converted 1838; lector 1847, prof. 1857 Christiania (Oslo). Followed exegetical methods of Hengstenberg.* Grundtvig's* views led him to investigate the development of early creedal statements and to write Ungedruckte, unbeachtete und wenig beachtete Quellen zur Geschichte des Taufsymbols und der Glaubensregel (3 vols.) and Alte und neue Quellen zur Geschichte des Taufsymbols und der Glaubensregel. Other works include an Arabic grammar, several commentaries, studies in OT and patristic hist.; tr. Book of Concord into Norw.; active in OT tr.

Caspari, Karl Heinrich

(1815–61). Luth. pastor Munich. Wrote in area of practical theol. (catechetics, homiletics); also Der Schulmeister tend sein Sohn.

Caspari, Walter

(1847–1923). Ger. Luth. theol.; educ. Munich, Erlangen, and Leipzig; pastor Memmingen and Ansbach. Tried to combine adherence to Luth. confessions with scientific theology. Works include Die evangelische Konfirmation, vornämlich in der lutherischen Kirche; Die geschichtliche Grundlage des gegenwärtigen Evangelischen Gemeindelebens, aus den Quellen im Abriss dargestellt.

Caspari, Wilhelm

(1876–1947). Prof. OT Breslau 1915, Kiel 1922. Works include Die israelitischen Propheten.

Cassander, Georg

(ca. 1513–1566). Taught theol. Brugge* and Gent; advisor of Ferdinand I and Maximilian II; RC exponent of meditating theol.; lived in retirement at Cologne.

Cassel, Colloquy of.

Religious conf. held July 1–9, 1661, at Cassel, Hesse; arranged by landgrave William VI of Hesse bet. Ref. and Luth. theologians, the former from the U. of Marburg, the latter from the U. of Rinteln. Sebastian Curtius and Johannes Hein were the spokesmen for the Ref., Johannes Henichius and Peter Musäus* for the Luths. Topics discussed: Baptism, the Lord's Supper, the person of Christ, predestination. Some measure of agreement was reached; polemics, it was agreed, should be minimized. However, the good intentions of the collocutors were not tr. into gen. action among the clergy in the Ger. states. In the final analysis the dialog belongs to those which were without far-reaching effect. See also Syncretism. CSM.

Cassianus, Johannes

(John Cassian; Massiliensis; Eremita; ca. 360–ca. 345). Monk and theol.; lived among monks of Egypt for a time; ordained deacon by Chrysostom; founded monastery and convent at Marseilles. Opposed Augustine's view of predestination on the one hand and Pelagianism on the other. Works include De institutis coenobiorum (introduced E monastic ideals in W); Collationes patrum; De incarnatione Domini. MPL, 49 and 50. See also Patristics, 6; Semi-Pelagianism.

Cassiodorus, Flavius Magnus Aurelius

(Senator; ca. 485–ca. 583). Statesman, author, and educator. Held various high offices in Ostrogothic Italy. Retired to the Monasterium Vivariense or Castellense which he founded ca. 540 on the Gulf of Squillace. Works include a treatise on the soul, an exposition of the Psalter, an encyclopedia of religious and profane knowledge, commentaries on NT books, a grammar, and a ch. history. Furthered theol. educ.; set up a curriculum which is largely the basis for the quadrivium and trivium of medieval schools, antecedent of modern liberal arts education. Works include De artibus, which contains a chap. on music. See also Tripartite History.

The Letters of Cassiodorus, ed. T. Hodgkin (London, 1886); A. Momigliano, “Cassiodorus and Italian Culture of His Time,” Proceedings of the British Academy, XLI (London, 1955), 207–245; MPL, 69, 421–1334; 70.

Cassirer, Ernst

(1874–1945). Ger. philos.; taught at Berlin, Hamburg, Oxford, Göteborg, Yale, and Columbia. Developed neo-Kantian philos. of Marburg School into philos. of culture. Held that physical sciences have developed a symbolism which must be placed alongside of other symbols (art, religion); man is animal symbolicum rather than animal rationale. Works include Philosophie der symbolischen Formen; Das Erkenntnisproblem in der Philosophie und Wissenschaft der neueren Zeit; Substanzbegriff und Funktionsbegriff; Sprache und Mythos; An Essay on Man..


Hereditary class in the soc. of India.* See also Brahmanism, 3; Hinduism, 3.

Castellio, Sebastianus

(Sébastien Chatillon or Chateillon; 1515–63). B. Saint-Martin-du-Fresne; d. Basel. French Ref. theol.; won for Protestantism by Calvin*; rector Geneva school; religious differences separated him from Calvin; to Basel, where he became prof. Gk.; opposed burning of Servetus*; works include De haereticis and tr. of Bible into Lat. and Fr.


(Kastenbauer). See Agricola, Stephan.

Castigationes Paternae.

Chastisements of God, which flow not from wrath but from love (Ps 94:12; Heb 12:6; Rv 3:19).

Castro, Alphons de

(Alphonsus; Alfonsus; a Castro; d. 1558). Sp. Franciscan. Works include Adversus omnes haereses.

Castro, Balthasar Isaak Orobio de

(ca. 1620–87). Neth. Jewish philos.-physician; converted; reverted to Judaism and became bitter opponent of Christianity.


Doctrine that all things exist, or are ruled, by chance.


Branch of theol. knowledge related to pastoral theol., though usually regarded as a branch of ethics, dealing with the solution of doubtful cases of conscience or questions of right and wrong according to Scripture.

The Talmud* shows the minute differentiations to which casuistry may attain. The RC system of penance and absolution led to the writing of books on casuistry which listed sins and weighed circumstances with dialectical skill. One of the earliest of such works is Raymond of Peñafort's Summa de casibus poenitentiae. Others followed: Astesana, Angelica, Pisana (or Pisanella, also called Bartholina or Magistruccia), Pacifica, Rosella, Sylvestrina. Jesuits introduced the term “moral theology” for casuistry (e.g., Liguori,* Theologia moralis). Luther's Von der Freiheit eines Christenmenschen struck at the very roots of RC casuistry by emphasizing that the individual must stand or fall by himself. Melanchthon's Consilia is an example of Luth. casuistry. Other Luths. who wrote on casuistry: Balduin,* J. F. König,* J. K. Dannhauer.* Early Ref. work: W. Perkins,* The Whole Treatise of Cases of Conscience, Distinguished into Three Books. Modern Luth. treatments of casuistry are to be sought in books on pastoral* theology, ethics,* and works treating phases of Christian life.

Caswall, Edward

(1814–78). Eng. hymnist. Educ. Oxford; curate near Salisbury; joined RC ch. 1847; from 1850 lived in Oratory, Edgbaston; among his translations of Lat. hymns: “O Jesus, King Most Wonderful.”


Caverns, grottoes, and subterranean passages, partly natural, partly enlarged by excavating the tufa and sandstone beneath and near certain cities, chiefly in the countries bordering on the Medit. Sea, many of them having their origin in quarries. The most noted catacombs are those of Rome. They consist of galleries extending beneath the city and the neighboring country for hundreds of miles in a number of stories of passageways. Along the corridors are horizontal excavations in the walls, which are often widened out into cells or small rooms. Here an estimated 6 million dead were deposited, usually in sarcophagi. After 410, when the invasion of Alaric took place, the catacombs were no longer used as burial places, and a few centuries later even the crypts of the martyrs were abandoned, their bones having meanwhile, in most cases, been removed to the altar crypts of various chs. which bore their names. During the siege of Rome by the Lombards the catacombs were in part destroyed and soon after became entirely inaccessible and were practically forgotten. The first excavations in recent times were made in the 16th c. The catacombs are of particular significance today because of the information they provide about early Christian worship, art, and veneration of martyrs. See also Bosio, Antonio.

E. Bock and R. Goebel, The Catacombs, 2d ed. (London, 1962); M. Gough, The Early Christians (New York, 1961); W. Lowrie, Monuments of the Early Church (New York, 1923).

Catalog of Testimonies

(Catalogus Testimoniorum; Vorzeichnüs der Zeugnissen). Scripture passages and quotations from ch. fathers on the person of Christ, esp. the genus maiestaticum, added as an appendix, but not as material subscribed, to the Book* of Concord. Written by Jakob Andreä* and M. Chemnitz* and added at suggestion made by Chemnitz January 1580 to forestall charges that the FC in the article on the person of Christ introduced “strange, self-invented phrases and dangerous modi loquendi.”


1. Branch of religious educ. dealing with the theory and method of teaching Christian doctrine, particularly to children and to such adults as are candidates for ch. membership. The term is derived from the Gk. word �athcvw, meaning “to instruct by word of mouth”; it first referred esp. to oral instruction, usually of an informal type. By the 13th c. catechetics had acquired the connotation of instruction in the form of questions and answers. In Luther's time the word catechismus came to be applied to a book; A. Althamer's* 1528 catechism was the first book with the word in its title. Luther used the term because he felt such a book would meet the needs of oral instruction. In the course of time, catechetics has become assoc. with systematic questioning on the basis of a catechism.

2. Since Christ commanded His followers to build the ch. by teaching and baptizing, it was self-evident from the outset that instruction in doctrine be a most important consideration of the church. In the apostolic ch. there were 2 patterns of educ., one for, the Jewish converts and one for Gentiles. The former was quite simple; it had 2 phases: (1) to recognize Jesus as the promised Messiah and (2) to understand the place of the Law in the NT church. Traces of a pattern for Gentile converts can be seen in Paul's references to instruction in Christian faith (Ro 16:17; 1 Co 15:3–4) and morals (Ro 6:17; Eph 4:20–32).

3. Up to the time of the persecutions (ca. AD 200) the type of instruction seems to have been of a more informal nature, though the earlier writings show that the ch. fathers tried to systematize doctrines. Under persecution the ch. became more cautious in receiving new members. The time of probation and preparation was extended. One result was the “catechumenate,” beginnings of which are reflected in the writings of Origen.* Inquiry into the character and life of a catechumen and a course of instruction preceded entry into the catechumenate, both classes of which attended the missa catechumenorum*: (1) audientes (Lat. “hearers”) or beginners, who had not yet obtained the mark of complete purification, and (2) competentes (Lat. “those qualified”), who had given sufficient evidence of sincerity. The latter were given instruction for baptism, received by that sacrament into full membership, and admitted to the missa fidelium* and the Lord's Supper. After the persecutions the catechumenate declined for many reasons, chief of which was this, that the large number of persons following the popular trend to become Christians made thorough instruction impossible.

4. From the 7th to the 12th c. religious educ. waned. Mass baptisms and group decisions made it practically impossible to carry on a systematic form of catechetics. A few protested. Men like Pirmin,* Alcuin,* Charlemagne,* and Rabanus* Maurus drew up instructions for training ch. mems., but their influence was limited.

5. Catechetical works in the stricter sense date back to the Weissenburg catechism (ca. the end of the 8th c.), which contained the Lord's Prayer, a section on capital sins, the Creed, and liturgical matter. The catechism of Notker* Labeo was used till the 12th c. The first catechism in the form of questions and answers was written by Bruno, bp. of Würzburg (d. 1045).

6. Among pre-Reformation sects the Waldenses* and the followers of J. Hus* prepared catechisms in the form of questions and answers. These catechisms consisted chiefly of 3 parts explaining the Ten Commandments, the Creed, and the Lord's Prayer; the RC catechism in the Middle Ages as a rule had 2 divisions: the Lord's Prayer and the Creed.

7. With the Reformation many catechisms came on the scene. J. Bugenhagen,* P. Melanchthon,* and J. Brenz* are a few of many who pub. various types of catechisms, some for the people, others for the clergy. Luther's Der kleine Katechismus, which first appeared 1529, is the oldest catechism of the ch. still in use. It was the culmination of several series of sermons beginning 1516. It soon outstripped others in influence and importance and was tr. into practically all Eur. languages, its deeply evangelical note, which was not satisfied with simple historic faith but emphasized functional living Christianity, is doubtless the reason for its popularity. Luther's Der grosse Katechismus also appeared 1529. See Catechisms, Luther's.

8. Pursuant to action of the Council of Trent 4 theologians were appointed to draw up a catechism to serve chiefly as a manual for catechists and preachers. Result of their effort was the Catechismus Romanus (see Roman Catholic Confessions, A 3).

9. After the Reformation throughout Luth. countries the catechism of Luther or those of other reformers came to play an important part in family worship and in the curriculum of ch. and school. But despite earnest efforts, catechetical instruction began in many sections to degenerate into rote learning of the chief parts of the catechism. When Pietism* entered the Ger. ch., notably through P. J. Spener,* special measures were taken to avoid this intellectualism. But the rationalism* which followed this period blighted the ch. in Europe. The theory of rationalists was that instruction in religion should not concern itself so much with imparting truths, but should follow the Socratic method of drawing the needed truths out of the child. They failed to see that a Christian teacher deals not only with reason and experience but also with revelation, the truths of which must be imparted. They also overlooked the fact that they were not dealing with mature minds but with children. By mid-19th c. Luther's catechism was welcomed back into most schools of Germany. In the Scand. chs. Luther's catechisms never lost their hold and are still in use in upper grades of pub. elementary and secondary schools.

10. The RC Ch. also felt the impact of rationalism. Its catechisms were criticized as too dry, too impractical, too scholastic, and not Christian enough. Dissatisfaction culminated in attempts to produce more satisfactory texts, most of which bore the mark of rationalism. In reaction to this, a spirit of romanticism came into the RC Ch., showing respect to antiquity and esp. to the Middle Ages.

11. When Luths. came to Am. they at first used catechisms of their native land. Among these catechisms was the so-called Kreuz-Katechismus of Dresden. But Am. translations and explanations of Luther's Small Catechism began to appear in the 17th c. J. Campanius* tr. it into an Am. Indian language. German and Eng. eds. probably came from Benjamin Franklin's press 1749. Since then many hundreds of eds. have been pub. in Am. in nearly all languages spoken in the country. Among those of important influence were reprints and revisions of the Dresden catechism and Ger. and Eng. eds. of J. K. Dietrich's* catechism which included material from the Dresden catechism. Other explanations of Luther's catechism used in Am. include those by J. K. W. Löhe,* J. Stump,* J. M. Reu,* H. J. Schuh,*, C. F. W. Gausewitz,* Jacob A. Dell, Henry P. Grimsby, Otto Frederick Nolde, and J. Tanner*; among Norwegians, E. Pontoppidan's* catechism and Harald Ulrik Sverdrup's catechism, abridged ed., tr. by Emil Gunerius Lurid (1852–1938) have been preferred; the H. C. Schwan* ed. was popular in the Mo. Syn. till a new synodical catechism appeared 1943.

12. The catechism enjoyed a prominent position also in the Ref. branches of the Prot. church. In Scotland, Calvin's 1545 catechism held a dominant place, but was supplanted 1648 by act of Parliament by the Westminster Shorter Catechism, used by Presbyterians, Baptists, and Congregationalists in Gt. Brit. In Holland and in the Palatinate, where Dutch Ref. and Ger. Ref. were prominent, the Heidelberg Catechism was used (see Reformed Confessions, D 2).

13. When mems. of various denominations came to Am., they brought their catechisms with them. In the course of time these catechisms were supplemented by the writings of J. Cotton,* B. Harris,* and I. Watts*. Much of Cotton's catechism was incorporated in The New-England Primer. Other early catechisms were by J. Davenport,* J. Eliot,* T. Shepard,* R. Mather,* J. Norton,* and S. Stone.*

14. For many yrs. the outstanding catechism of the RC Ch. in Am. was the 1885 Baltimore Catechism, later revised by a committee of bps. and printed in graded eds. Since 1959 A Catholic Catechism, Eng. version of the Katholischer Katechismus, official for all dioceses of Ger., has found widespread use in the US

15. While catechetics has disappeared in many sections of the Christian ch., it still holds an important place among Luths. and RCs Among the latter there is a definite trend away from formalism and toward leading the catechumen to personal, living, active faith. Catechetical renewal has been linked with the liturgical renewal in that church. Impetus was given to this movement by the Congress for Mission Catechetics, Eichstätt, Ger., July 21–28, 1960. Among the leaders in this trend are Johannes Hofinger, Josef Andreas Jungmann, Gerard S. Sloyan, and Josef Goldbrunner.

16. Some of the more important trends in the Luth. Ch. are evident in the Ger. writings of Kurt Frör, Karl Witt, Karl Hauschildt, and Alfred Niebergall. In the US, the LCA's parish educ. curriculum (ed. W. Kent Gilbert) and the LCMS's catechism series (ed. Walter M. Wangerin) give evidence of a departure from formal questioning and a return to the concept of catechetics which combines discussion and the expository method in such a way that doctrine becomes personal and functional. ACR

See also Theology.

I. Historical Studies. J. M. Reu, Catechetics, or Theory and Practice of Religious Instruction, 3d ed. (Chicago, 1931), Quellen zur Geschichte des kirchlichen Unterrichts in der evangelischen Kirche Deutschlands zwischen 1530 und 1600, a multivolume work (Gütersloh, 1904–35), and Dr. Martin Luther's Small Catechism: A History of Its Origin, Its Distribution, and Its Use (Chicago, 1929); L. J. Sherrill, The Rise of Christian Education (New York, 1944).

II. Recent Roman Catholic Studies. J. Goldbrunner, Teaching the Cath. Catechism, tr. B. Adkins, 3 vols. (New York, 1959–60); J. A. Jungmann, Handing on the Faith (New York, 1959); Shaping the Christian Message, ed. G. Sloyan (New York, 1958); Teaching All Nations, ed. J. Hofinger, rev. and partly tr. by C. Howell, 3d print. (New York, 1962).

III. Recent Lutheran Studies. K. Frör, Erziehung und Kerygma (Munich, 1952); O. Hammelsbeck, Der kirchliche Unterricht (Munich, 1947); K. Witt, Konfirmandenunterricht, 3d ed. (Göttingen, 1964); A. C. Repp, Confirmation in the Lutheran Church (St. Louis, 1964).

Catechisms, Luther's.

Two books of religious instruction written by Luther for old and young. In 1516 he preached a series of sermons on the Ten Commandments; 1517 he preached and wrote on the Lord's Prayer, 1518 on the Ten Commandments, and in the next 10 yrs. issued many studies on the Catechism and related subjects. Visiting Saxon chs. 1528, Luther found the people sunk in superstition and the pastors in ignorance and immorality. He preached a series of sermons on the 5 chief parts of Christian doctrine (May, September, November, December 1528; March 1529). These sermons provided background for the Deutsch Katechismus (later called Der grosse Katechismus), which he began to write in the fall of 1528. He began on the Enchiridion: Der kleine Katechismus in December 1528; it appeared on large charts January 1529 and in booklet form ca. the middle of May 1529. The Deutsch Katechismus appeared in book form April 1529. The Enchiridion in the form we have it dates from 1531 to 1542. The parts on the Office of the Keys and Confession were added later. The “Christian Questions” were added after Luther's death; though often ascribed to him, there is no evidence of his authorship of them.

The Christian faith is not only to be learned, but also to be lived; how it is to be lived in various walks and stations of life is plainly shown in the “Table of Duties,” probably suggested by J. de Gerson's* Tractatus de modo vivendi omnium fidelium, reprinted 1513 at Wittenberg. Probably Luther did not write “What the Hearers Owe to Their Pastors” and “What Subjects Owe to the Magistrates.”

The transcendent merits of both catechisms gave them instant entrance into home, school, and ch.; they were soon confessed “as the Bible of the laity, wherein everything is comprised which is treated at greater length in Holy Scripture, and is necessary for a Christian man to know for his salvation” (FC Ep Summary 5). The Small Catechism has been called the greatest book of instruction ever written and the explanation of the Second Article the greatest sentence from a pen not inspired. It is a confession of faith and can be prayed. It was soon tr. into other languages and for over 400 yrs. has been in constant use to train the young. Some claim that it has wider circulation than any other book except the Bible.

The Large Catechism was written to aid pastors and fathers in teaching. It is practical, popular, and, at the same time, theologically developed. In the Decalog we come to the knowledge of our sins, in the Creed to justification by faith in Christ, and in the Lord's Prayer is manifested the new life in the Spirit.

K. Bornhäuser, Der Ursinn des Kleinen Katechismus D. Martin Luthers (Gütersloh, 1933); J. Meyer, Historischer Kommentar zu Luthers Kleinem Katechismus (Gütersloh, 1929); see also references under Catechetics.

Categorical Imperative.

Universal and unconditional moral command or obligation; distinguished from hypothetical imperative, which is conditional and depends, e.g., on expediency, practical necessity, or desire. See also Ethics, 6; Kant, Immanuel, 7.


(chain). Commentary composed of extracts from different authors elucidating a text, esp. the Bible. This type of commentary dates from the 5th c. to the close of the Middle Ages. Many extracts of otherwise unknown works have thus been preserved. See also Florilegium; Patristics, 2, 7; Procopius of Gaza.


Manichaean sect practically identical with the Albigenses*; found in W Eur., N It., Fr., Ger., and Flanders. Not sound in the doctrine of the Trin.; believed in a baptism of the Spirit in a very peculiar sense connected with ordination; claimed to have a perfect degree of purity in doctrine and life; flourished chiefly in the 11th and 12th centuries. Innocent Ill proclaimed a crusade against them, but they flourished under persecution. See also Bogomiles; Manichaeism, 3; Saints, Veneration of, 7.

Catharinus, Ambrosius

(Lancelot Politi; ca. 1484–1553). B. Siena, It.; studied philos. and law; taught law Siena; entered papal service Rome 1513; influenced by writings of G. Savonarola*; Dominican 1517; opposed M. Luther* from 1520; prominent at Council of Trent* 1545–47; bp. Minori, It., 1546; abp. Conza (Consa; Compsa), It., 1552. Defended immaculate* conception and other views opposed to Dominican tradition; supported absolute papal authority.


Church containing official seat (Gk. kathedra) or throne of bp.; hence mother ch. (ecclesia matrix) of diocese. Formerly also called dome (Lat. domus episcopi, “house of bp.”); hence Ger. Dom and It. duomo. Originally a cathedral was served by a bp.; gradually services were delegated to a separate body of clergy (see Chapter); other chs. in diocese called parish churches. In the Luth. Ch. the word cathedral is used in a wider sense and includes various significant churches. See also Church Architecture; Western Christianity 500–1500, 8.

Catherine de Médicis

(1519–89). Fr. queen; 3 of her 4 sons were rulers of Fr.; through them her influence was felt. Her unscrupulousness is shown by the way she played one side against the other in the religious wars and her responsibility for the Bartholomew's* Day Massacre. See also France, 9; Medici.

Catherine of Alexandria, St.

(d. ca. 307). According to legend, a virgin of noble blood; protested against persecution of Christians by Maxentius (thus in early MSS; probably Maximinus); condemned to torture on a spiked wheel (hence the name Catherine wheel); beheaded. According to legend her body was discovered on Mount Sinai ca. 800. Removed from RC calendar 1969. See also Church Year, 17.

MPG, 116. 275–302.

Catherine of Genoa

(1447–1510). B. Genoa, It.; RC mystic; mem. of Annunciades of Lombardy (See Annunciation, Orders of the, 3.

Catherine of Siena

(1347–80). B. Siena, It.; RC mystic noted for visions and revelations. See also Jörgensen, 2.

Catherine of Sweden

(ca. 1331–81). Daughter of Bridget*; head of Brigittines* (1374–81).


(Gk. “universal”). 1. Universal as distinct from local. First applied to Christian ch. as a whole in a letter of Ignatius (ca. 110): “Where Christ is, there is the catholic Church” (Ad Smyrnaeos, viii, 2). 2. Orthodox as distinguished from heretical or schismatic. 3. Universal as applied to the ch. before the schism* bet. E and W 4. Used in distinctive names of various ch. bodies: RC Ch., Anglo-Catholic Ch., Old Cath. Ch., Cath. Apostolic Ch. 5. In Luth. theol. (as in early Christendom) the word is often used of the one holy cath. (Christian) and apostolic ch. that transcends temporal, geog., and all other barriers. See also Vincent of Lérins.

Catholic Action.

Cooperation of the RC laity and bps. in furthering the cause of the church. See also Bible Societies, 6; Pallottine Fathers; Popes, 32; Young People's Organizations, Christian, V 2.

Catholic Apostolic Church.

1. Also known as Irvingites. Originated under the preaching of the Scot.Presb. pulpit orator E. Irving.* The soc., pol., and religious upheavals of 1790–1820 in Eur., esp. the Fr. Revolution and the Napoleonic wars, led many to look for the immediate return of Christ. But they felt that the ch. was not ready for the Lord's coming, because it did not have the NT charismatic gifts. Irving believed that the return of Christ was dependent on the presence of a living and active apostolate. He held that the premillennial coming of Christ was impossible as long as the ch. continued in the crime of neglecting to reestablish the 5-fold office of apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors, and teachers according to Eph 4:11. He interpreted Acts 1:11 to mean that there must be 12 apostles at Christ's return as there were 12 at His ascension. In 1830 a number of individuals claimed to have 0received apostolic charismatic gifts, e.g., speaking in tongues, the gift of prophecy, and divine healing; this raised the hope that soon also 12 apostles would be appointed by the Holy Spirit. On July 14, 1835, twelve men who claimed to have been appointed as apostles were commissioned to inaugurate the real apostolic mission to the Gentiles, of which Paul, as one born out of due time, 1 Cor 15:8, had only barely made the beginning. The first apostles were J. B. Cardale,* Henry Drummond* (1786–1860), Spencer Perceval (son of prime minister Spencer Perceval), Henry Dalton (d. 1871), Thomas Carlyle (1803–55), Francis V. Woodhouse, Nicholas Armstrong, William Dow, Henry King (d. 1865), Duncan Mackenzie (d. 1855), Frank Sitwell, John Tudor. In London 7 congs. were organized according to the pattern of the 7 Asiatic congs.; a manifesto was issued by the hierarchy to the heads of the Eur. states to prepare for the Lord's imminent coming and the establishment of the millennium by accepting the decrees of this newly formed hierarchy and submitting to the “holy sealing” by the apostles as a condition of salvation. Romanizing trends were introduced in the cultus (elaborate vestments), in doctrine (the Lord's Supper a sacrifice, transubstantiation), and in ch. govt. (a hierarchy with presumptuous claims). The movement spread to the Continent, particularly Germany. But when one after another of the “twelve apostles” died before the Lord's return, a sharp division of opinion arose as to the number of apostles, some contending that there were only 12 in the NT ch., so there can be no more or fewer than 12 in the end period. This party believed that as the first apostolate was unable to prepare the world for the millennium, so also the apostolate of the 19th c. was unable to cope with the wickedness of the world. This party, now known as the Cath. Apostolic Ch., has no “living apostles,” the last having died 1901 and no ordinations to the priesthood or the episcopate being possible today. The local chs. are governed by “angels” and “priests,” and the mems. await patiently and inactively the Lord's further directions.

2. In Ger., F. W. Schwartz (d. 1895) and his successors, Fritz Krebs (1832–1905) and Hermann Niehaus (1848–1932), headed a group which contended that as apostles were added to the original 12, e.g., Paul, Barnabas, and Silas, so the Holy Spirit may at any time inspire new selections “through the spirit of prophecy.” Later Schwartz, Krebs, Niehaus, and others in Saxony, and John Erb (d. 1942) of Chicago were selected as apostles. This group was later called New Apostolic Ch. and has the New Apostolic Ch. of N. Am. as a branch. Their theol. centers in the belief that an apostolate is essential to the church. The apostles are viewed as spiritual canals that supplement the Bible with their teaching, complete the work of the atonement, govern the ch., give efficacy to the sacraments, impose the tithe as due Christ the High Priest and Chief Apostle, and through the laying on of hands, the “holy sealing,” prepare men for Christ's final coming.

See also Scotland, Reformation in, 5.

P. E. Shaw, The Catholic Apostolic Church (Morningside Heights, New York, 1946). FEM.

Catholic Directory, Official.

Pub. annually by P. J. Kenedy and Son, New York; contains information on the hierarchy and various activities and institutions of the RC Ch.


Term for nave, or center of ch., in E Orthodox Ch.


Title of Nestorian and Armenian patriarchs. Formerly applied to head of a group of monasteries in one city. Used in some E chs. originally as honorary title given certain exarchs ranking below patriarchs but above metropolitans.


1. In gen., cause is that which in any way exerts a positive influence in the production of a thing; it is the ground, occasion, or agency for an event, that without which effects (consequents) cannot be.

2. Newton formulated the 2d law of motion with a mechanical notion of force: force is proportional to the rate of change of momentum with respect to time, where momentum depends on mass and velocity jointly. Causation is an interaction which conforms to the laws of motion, and to the same natural effects we must, as far as possible, assign the same causes. J. S. Mill insisted, however, that there may be a plurality of causes producing an effect.

3. Modern science gen. has tended to conceive cause as a productive force, with cause and effect as regularly connected processes or changes, but since Hume the notion of “productive force” often has been replaced by causation conceived simply as an invariant relation, or universal conjunction, of events in space and time.

4. Contemporary analysis operationally interprets causality as correlation of phenomena, or invariant relation, or functional dependency. Thus it is viewed variously as a relation, in a time series, bet. events, processes, or beings such that (a) when one occurs, the other necessarily follows (sufficient condition) and when the latter occurs, the former must have preceded (necessary condition), and when one occurs under certain conditions, it is the contributory cause; (b) when one occurs, the other invariably follows (invariable antecedence, invariant relation); (c) one has the efficacy to bring about or change the other; (d) one part is functionally dependent on the whole or on another part, and when motion is described in quantitative terms the dependence of motion on conditions is expressed by functional relations which constitute the mathematical form of the laws of mechanics.

5. According to Ernst Mach, causality signifies functional relation between variables which characterize physical phenomena; e.g., causality as regularity of sequence is expressed in terms of functional relation between variables which describe the state of a system.

6. According to the statistical view of natural law, the same causes are followed by distributed effects (frequency distributions). Some modern physicists regard cause-effect as a useful tautology (analytic judgment) and hold that laws of quantum mechanics do not necessarily involve reference to, or even differentiation of, a law of connection of cause and effect, and that such laws can be restricted to first-and second-order differential equations.

See also Cause.

D. Bohm, Causality and Chance in Modern Physics (New York, 1961); R. B. Braithwaite, Scientific Explanation (London, 1953); M. Bunge, Causality (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1959); Readings in the Philosophy of Science, eds. H. Feigl and M. Brodbeck (New York, 1953); V. F. Lenzen, Causality in Natural Science (Springfield, Illinois, 1953); Readings in Philosophy of Science, ed. P. P. Wiener (New York, 1953).


Causa secunda

(Lat. “second cause”). Cause caused by something else. Used of second causes by which God (often referred to as First Cause) preserves and directs His creation (Ps. 127:1). Luth. dogmaticians have pointed out that in the divine act of concurrence both God works and the means work. Furthermore, the divine concurrence is not previous (actio praevia) but, the operation of God and that of the means is numerically one (una numero actio).

Causative Authority.

Term used in describing the power of the Bible of attesting itself as the divine truth, independently of any external proof (1 Co 2:4, 5; 1 Th 2:13, 14; 1 Co 1:5, 6; Jn 7:17).


1. “Cause” and “effect” are correlative terms denoting any two distinguishable but related (antecedent, consequent) phases of experienced reality in a time series, such that whenever the temporally prior (“cause”) ceases to be, the temporally posterior (“effect”) appears.

2. Pre-Socratic used arche to denote a thing existent prior to and along with others, and without which others would not be. Plato used arche to denote a reason why a thing has its essential qualities so that we call it by a certain name.

3. Aristotle used aitia to denote reasons or principles of explanations: (1) efficient cause: the productive agent or force bringing forth an effect; (2) final cause: the purpose or end of a thing, that for the sake of which it possesses certain qualities or was produced by some intelligence; (3) formal cause: the essence accounting for the thing's nature, the qualitative characteristics making it what it is, distinguishing it from other things and making it like similar things; (4) material cause: that from which something arises, is fashioned, or produced. Medieval scholastics employed and modified these principles.

4. With the Renaissance growth of natural science, “substance” replaced material cause, and formal cause was set aside; “cause” was interpreted mainly as efficient cause.

5. Hume, who assumed that every idea is copied from some preceding impression or sentiment, traced belief in the “necessary connection” of cause-effect to the recurrence of certain experiences of uniform sequence (constant conjunction) which create in the perceiver a habitual expectation, a custom of anticipation whereby the mind habitually passes from perception of antecedent to expectation of consequent.

6. To rescue science from Humean psychologism, Kant posited the principle of causality as an a priori, necessary category (form) of the understanding which is not dependent on, but is constitutive of, experience. It is through this form of understanding that empirical knowledge of nature becomes possible. (See Kant, Immanuel).

7. J. S. Mill identified regularity of sequence as the essence of causality, “cause” being defined as the antecedent, or concurrence of antecedents, on which an event is invariably and unconditionally consequent.

8. J. H. Poincareé and P. Frank adopt a conventionalist view of causality as a definition (or regulative canon of procedure) of a state of a system.

See also Apologetics, II A; Causa secunda; Causality.

Plato, Phaedo and Timaeus; Aristotle, Metaphysics; D. Hume, Treatise of Human Nature, III, and An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding; I. Kant, Critique of Pure Reason; J. S. Mill, System of Logic; P. Frank, Philosophy of Science: The Link Between Science and Philosophy (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1957); J. H. Poincaré, Science and Hypothesis, tr. W. J. G. (New York, 1952) and Science and Method, tr. F. Maitland (New York, 1952). RVS

Cavalier, Jean

(Chevalier; ca. 1681–1740). Leader of Camisards*; fought in Fr., It., Neth., and Sp.; lt. gov. of the island of Jersey; gov. of the Isle of Wight.

Cavallino, Bernardo

(1616–56). B. Naples, It.; painter; influenced by P. P. Rubens.* Works include Lot and His Daughters; The Drunkenness of Noah; Judith with the Head of Holofernes; Tobias Taking Leave of His Father.

Newsweek 1-7–85:67.

Cave, William

(1637–1713). Angl. patristic scholar. B. Pickwell; d. Windsor. Rector London; canon Windsor; vicar Isleworth. Works include: Apostolici; Ecclesiastici; Scriptorum ecclesiasticoram historia literaria.

Cawood, John

(1775–1852). Educ. Oxford; held various positions as clergyman, the last as incumbent at Bewdley, Worcestershire; among his hymns: “Hark! What Mean Those Holy Voices”; “Almighty God, Thy Word Is Cast.”

Caxton, William

(ca. 1422–91). 1st Eng. printer; also translator. His 1st known piece of printing in England is an indulgence issued 1476.

Cazalla, Augustino

(1510–59). B. and d. Valladolid. Sp. martyr. Accompanied Charles V to Ger. at beginning of Schmalkaldic war 1546; lost faith in RCm; arraigned by Inquisition; executed as a Luth. heretic in 1st auto-da-fé

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