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Amalarius of Metz

(Symphosius; perhaps ca. 775/780–ca. 850/852). Liturgical scholar; b. near Metz, Fr.; pupil of Alcuin*; prominent in Carolingian renaissance (see Charlemagne). Works include De ecclesiasticis officiis. See also Agobard of Lyons.

Amalric of Bène

(variants include Amalricus; Emelricus; Amauri; Amaury; d. ca. 1204/07). Scholastic philos.; b. Bène (or Bena, or Bennes), near Chartres, Fr.; taught at Paris; influenced by Aristotle* and J. S. Erigena*; held that God is the essence of all and that they who remain in the love of God cannot sin; retracted 1204; his teachings were officially condemned a few years after his death.

Amama, Sixtinus

(1593–1629). B. Franeker, Neth.; succeeded J. Drusius* as prof. Heb. at Franeker; textual critic; Bible tr. Works include Anti-barbarus biblicus.

Amana Society

(from Heb. for “to be faithful”; cf. SS. 4:8). Traces its origin to the formation 1714 in Hesse, Ger., of the Community of True Inspiration, which was an attempt to improve and formulate the doctrines of Pietists who, in the last quarter of the 17th c. were called Inspirationists. Separatists, stimulated by preaching of Camisards* and under leadership of E. L. Gruber* and J. F. Rock* organized “congregations of the inspired.” The movement flourished for a generation, then declined, but was revived, beginning 1817, in Hesse, the Palatinate, and Alsace, through influence of Michael Krausert (or Kraussert; journeyman tailor of Strasbourg), Barbara Heinemann (ca. 1793–1883; after marriage Barbara Landmann; illiterate peasant girl of Leilersweiler, Alsace; leader of the movement after the death of Metz), and C. Metz.* When adherents refused to send their children to the state schools, swear allegiance, and bear arms, the govt. used repressive measures; as a result they began to emigrate to Am. 1842. They first settled near Buffalo, New York, and organized as Ebenezer Soc. 1843. In 1855 they removed to Iowa Co., Iowa, where they bought 26,000 acres, laid out 7 villages, of which the main one is Amana, and inc. 1859 as Amana Soc. The community was primarily religious, and communism, at first incidental, was made to serve this primary purpose. They held all property in common and carried on agriculture, manufacture, and trade. The entire govt. was vested in 13 trustees. In 1932 communism was abolished; civil affairs were taken over by a corporation called the Amana Soc.; ecclesiastical matters were put into hands of the Amana Ch. Soc. This change has not affected the religious tenets of the soc. Religiously the soc. was divided into 3 classes, graded according to their piety. Their main religious tenets, as contained in Glaubensbekenntnis der wahren Inspirationsgemeinde and Katechetischer Unterricht von der Lehre des Heils, included, besides fundamental doctrine of present-day inspiration, belief in Trinity, resurrection of the dead, the Judgment, justification through forgiveness of sins and holy life, perfectionism, and millenarianism. Sacraments are not regarded as means of grace. Baptism is rejected, It is held that there is a possibility of salvation after death and that the wicked are not punished eternally. Oaths are forbidden. FFM

See Religious Bodies (US), Bibliography of.


(d. ca. 675). Merovingian Apostle of Flanders; b. near Nantes, Fr.; miss. in Flanders and Carinthia; said to have become bp. of Maastricht, Neth. (for 3 yrs.), in the late 640s; abbot at Elno(n), near Tournai. See also Germany, A 1.

Amandus, Johannes

(Amandi; Johan; d. 1530). B. Westphalia; RC priest; restless spirit; came to be favorably regarded by M. Luther,* who sent him as preacher to Königsberg 1523, where he became a fanatic agitator; driven from city to city 1524–26; reexamined by Luther at Wittenberg 1526; supt. Goslar 1528.


Sun goddess of primitive Shinto, supposedly born from an eye of Izanagli, the creator; from her is said to have descended Jimmu (or Jimmu Tenno), 1st human ruler of Jap. (711–585 BC; ruled 660–585). See also Confucianism, 5; Shinto, 1.


In psychol., concepts that imply love and hate, attraction and repulsion. In religion, concepts (e.g., numinous,* taboo*) that imply wrath as well as kindness.

Ambrogio Traversari

(1386–1439). B. Portico, Romagna, It.; Camaldolese* theol. and gen.; humanist; attended Council of Florence.*


(340–397). Noted leader and teacher of the W Ch.; b. Trier; educ. Rome for legal career; consular prefect for Upper It.; moved to Milan ca. 370. After the death of Auxentius* a dispute bet. orthodox and Arian parties caused a severe quarrel that threatened the peace of the city. Ambrose, as magistrate, was present to maintain order when the people, suddenly turning to him as a new candidate, transferred him from his official position to the episcopate. Since he was still a catechumen, he was baptized at once and 8 days later was consecrated bp. (374). Ambrose was distinguished for his defense of the catholic faith, opposing both paganism and heresy with equal zeal. When Theodosius* I tried to force Christians to pay for rebuilding a synagog they had destoryed, and again when he massacred thousands of people in Thessalonica for opposing imperial authority, Ambrose rebuked him and took the unprecedented step of excommunicating a Christian emp. He also set a pattern for the Middle Ages by furthering the idea that it is the state's duty to support and further the work of the ch. and the ch.'s duty to support and further the work of the state. Working together, both form the Corpus Christianum. Two of his major works are practical guides: De fide for the Christian prince; De officiis minstrorum for the clergy. All his writings show a pastoral approach. He strongly advocated ascetic Christianity: celibacy, voluntary poverty, martyrdom. He also helped develop liturgical music. Friend of Gaudentius* and Paulinus* of Nola. See also Ambrosian Music; Ambrosian Rite; Church and State; Doctor of the Church; Ecumenical Creeds, 2; Fathers of the Church; Filioque Controversy; Gervase and Protase; Hymnody, Christian, 3; Invention of the Cross, The; Marcellina; Patristics, 6; Pelagian Controversy, 2; Veni, Creator Spiritus. WWO

E. K. Rand, Founders of the Middle Ages (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1928); H. v. Campenhausen, Ambrosius von Mailand als Kirchenpolitiker (Leipzig, 1929); F. Dudden, The Life and Times of St. Ambrose (Oxford, 1935); J.-R. Palanque, Saint Ambroise et l'Empire romain (Paris, 1933); MPL, 14–17; NPNF, Ser. 2, X; A Paredi, Saint Ambrose (Notre Dame, Indiana, 1964); C. Morino, Church and State in the Teaching of St. Ambrose (Washington, D. C., 1969); H. M. Riley, Christian Initiation (Washington, D. C.;, 1974).

Ambrosian Music.

Ambrosian chant is a form of Lat. choral music older and in some ways more elaborate than Gregorian chant (see Gregorian Music). Ambrose* introd. hymns and antiphons into the worship of the W and wrote superb hymns still in use. Music of the Ambrosian mass includes ingressa (counter-part of the Introit*), psalmellus and versicle* (counterpart of the Gradual*), cantus (counterpart of the Tract*), alleluia, antiphon* after the Gospel, Offertory,* confractorium (at the place of the Agnus* Dei), transitorium (equivalent of Communion* chant). Characteristic of Ambrosian psalm* tones is lack of an intonation* and mediation. Ambrosian chant is largely limited in regular service use to Milan and a few areas of N It. See also Chant. ACP

Ambrosian Rite.

One of the few non-Roman Lat. rites surviving in the RC Ch. Used in the old archiepiscopal province of Milan. Differs markedly from the RC rite. Named after Ambrose,* though no definite evidence connects it with him.

The Ambrosian Liturgy, tr. E. G. C. F. Atchley (London, 1909); W. C. Bishop, The Mozarabic and Ambrosian Rites, ed. C. L. Feltoe (London, 1924), pp. 98–134.


(1) Religious orders and socs. founded in the 14th–16th cents. in Milan and elsewhere in N It.; named after Ambrose,* whom they chose as patron. The order of the Brethren of St. Ambrose of the Grove, founded before 1350 at Milan, was given the Augustinian* rule 1375 by Gregory XI (see Popes, 14); united 1445 with Ambrose brotherhoods at Genoa, Gubbio, and Recanati; dissolved ca. 1646 by Innocent X (see Popes, 23). (2) 16th-c. Anabap. sect that, on basis of Jn 1:9, denied need of priests and claimed direct communication with God through the Holy Spirit and revelation of higher authority than Scripture; leader named Ambrose. (3) See Annunciation, Orders of the, 3.


(Pseudo-Ambrose). Name first given by D. Erasmus* to the author of 4th-c. Lat. commentaries on the 13 epistles of Paul; the commentaries had been ascribed to Ambrose* in the Middle Ages.

MPL, 17, 41–536.


Term derived from Heb.; root meaning “certainty”; signifies assent, confidence: “Verily,” or, as Luther puts it: “Yes, yes; it shall be so.” (SC III 21). See also Response.

Amerbac, Veit

(Vitus Amerpach[ius]; family name: Trolmann; 1503–57). B. Wemding, Swabia, W Bav., Ger.; peasant's son; named after Amerbach, the family's place of origin, near Wemding; educ. Freiburg im Breisgau and Wittenberg; was favorably impressed by M. Luther* and P. Melanchthon* but remained RC; taught at Eisleben 1526, Wittenberg 1530–43, Ingolstadt 1543.

Amerbach, Bonifatius

(Bonifacius; 1495–1562). B. Basel, Switz.; educ. Freiburg im Breisgan, Ger., and Avignon, Fr.; prof. jurisprudence Basel 1524–48; humanist; friend of D. Erasmus.*

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.

Founded 1810 at Bradford, Massachusetts, by the Gen. Assoc. of Cong. Chs. of Massachusetts First missionaries included G. Hall,* A. Judson,* S. Newell,* S. Nott,* L. Rice.* The ABCFM served several other denominations, but after 1870 it represented practically only Cong. chs. In 1961 its work was taken over by the United* Ch. Bd. for World Ministries. See also Evangelicals, 5; Haystack Group.

American Catholic Church (Syro-Antiochian), The.

Organized 1915; derives orders from the Syrian Patriarch of Antioch; uses RC liturgy in administering 7 sacraments; self-governed.

American Evangelical Christian Churches.

Founded 1944; Calvinistic and Arminian; mem. chs. called Community Chs., Am. Bible Chs., and Ev. Christian Chs.

American Home Missionary Society.

Name adopted 1826 by the United Domestic Missionary Soc., undenominational, est. 1822. See also Central Missionary Society of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States.


Term used by Leo XIII (see Popes, 29) 1899 in Testem benevolentiae, a pronouncement addressed to Cardinal Gibbons (see Gibbons, James), condemning a tendency supposedly exalting natural virtues above passive obedience. The letter was indirectly aimed at the attempt to introd. into Eur. the Am. ideals regarding relationship of ch. and state.

American Lutheran Church.

Organized August 11, 1930. Merger of Buffalo, Iowa, and Ohio syns. Pres.: C. C. Hein* 1930–37, E. F. Poppen* 1937–50, H. F. Schuh* 1951–60. Merged with ELC and UELC 1960 to form The American* Luth. Ch.

I. Formation.

Intersyn. friendship bet. the Iowa and Ohio syns. was stimulated in the late 19th c. by identical positions on fellowship and secret socs., occasionally overlapping syn. boundaries, and mutual opposition to the Mo. Syn. on the doctrine of predestination. Doctrinal consultations at Richmond, Indiana, 1883, Michigan City, Indiana, 1893, Toledo, Ohio, 1907 and 1912 culminated 1918 in official fellowship, based on the 1907 Toledo* Theses. Agitation for merger had already begun. Merger mechanics were worked out 1924–30. In 1925 the Buffalo Syn. asked to be included. The only significant threat to merger arose 1926 over whether the const. should ascribe inerrancy to every word of Scripture.

II. Doctrine.

The 1930 const. affirmed:

1. Scripture. “The Synod accepts the Canonical Books of the Old and New Testaments as the inspired Word of God and the only infallible authority in all matters of faith and life.” An appendix explained: “The Synod believes that the Canonical Books of the Old and New Testaments in their original texts are, as a whole and in all their parts, the inspired and inerrant Word of God, and accepts these Books in the new generally redognized texts as substantially identical with the original texts and as the only inspired and inerrant authority, source, guide, and norm in all matters of faith and life.”

2. Confessions. All Confessions of the Book of Concord are accepted “as the true exposition and presentation of the faith once for all delivered unto the saints.”

3. Fellowship. Because unity in doctrine (in the sense of the Toledo Theses) and practice are the necessary prerequisite for ch. fellowship, the Galesburg* Rule is approved

4. Secret Societies. “The Synod is earnestly opposed to all organizations or societies, secret or open, which, without confessing faith in the Triune God and in Jesus Christ as the eternal Son of the eternal God, incarnate in order to be our only Saviour from sin, are avowedly religious or practice forms of religion, teaching salvation by works. It declares such organizations and societies to be antichristian and rejects any fellowship with them.”

III. Size and Structure.

In 1930 the ALC had 2,064 congs., 1,554 clergymen, 506,819 bap. mems., 340,500 communicants. At time of 1960 merger it had 2,081 congs., 2,168 clergymen (1958 statistics), 1,059,195 bap. mems., 696,695 communicants. Because of many consolidations of congs., the total number increased only slightly in 30 yrs., but size of average cong. increased from 165 to ca. 330 communicants.

The ALC had strongly centralized syn. structure. Congs. own property and were their own highest authority but voluntarily obligated themselves to support the work of the whole ch., which was administered largely by cen. syn. bds. rather than by 13 geog. districts. One layman and 1 pastor from each precinct of 18 congs. served as delegates to biennial conventions. Severe financial crises during its 1st decade caused the ALC to develop very cautious financial policies and to cen. in its Bd. of Trustees an unusually great amount of authority in policy matters.

IV. Work.

1. Education. The program of Christian education included Sunday schools, parochial schools, confirmation classes, adult membership classes, and higher education. In addition to its own sr. colleges (Capital, Columbus, Ohio; Texas Luth., Seguin, Texas; Wartburg, Waverly, Iowa) the ALC gave financial support to Pacific Luth. Coll. (U.) (see Universities in the United States, Lutheran, 3) and to California* Luth. Coll. Its sems. were Ev. Luth. (Columbus, Ohio) and Wartburg, Dubuque, Iowa). Its ministry to youth attending non- ch. colleges was carried out through the NLC's division of coll. and university work.

2. American Missions. By 1955, though 415 congs. still had at least 1 Ger. service a yr., much of the orientation toward Ger. had been overcome. Bet. 1930 and 1960, 527 new congs. were founded, over one fourth of the 1960 membership. In 1957 the Mex. Luth. Conf. of the Texas Dist. became an affiliate ch., La Iglesia Luterana Mexicana, with headquarters and theol. sem., Augsburg, in Mexico City.

3. World Missions. Part of the Hermannsburg* Mission's field in India was sold to the Ohio Syn. 1912, the rest was transferred 1916. By 1960 the field included 11 main stations, 4 high schools, a girls industrial school, a hosp., and a leprosarium.

The much larger New Guinea field owes its origin 1886 to the work of J. Flierl* and to the work of the Rhenish* Miss. Soc. 1887. The Iowa Syn. helped support the mission almost from the first. The Rhenish Miss. Soc. transferred its Madang field to the ALC 1932. Now the ALC and the Neuendettelsau fields are united in the Ev. Luth. Ch. of New Guinea (see New Guinea, 5). In 1958 there were 77 ordained missionaries, 88 lay workers, 82 national pastors, 1,232 national evangelists, 853 unregistered schools with 26,649 pupils and 887 national teachers, 11 secondary schools, 1 sem., 6 hospitals, and 4 nurses training schools.

In 1957 the ALC opened a new miss. field in Ethiopia with headquarters in Addis Ababa. Within 2 yrs. Ger., Norw., and Swed. missions joined with the ALC to form the Ethiopian Ev. Ch. (see also Ministry, Education of, XI A).

4. Social Service. Charitable institutions at Mars, Pennsylvania, Melville, Sask., Richmond, Indiana, and Springfield, Minnesota, were owned by the ALC; those at Toledo, Ohio, and Muscatine and Waverly, Iowa, were partially supported; and those at Sterling, Nebraska, Williston, Ohio, and Round Rock, Texas, were fully approved. The Bd. for Christian Soc. Action promoted soc. work and researched areas of vital soc. concern.

5. Other. Pub. house: Wartburg Press, Columbus, Ohio Official paper: Lutheran Standard. Ger. paper: Kirchenblatt. Organizations: Luther League, Women's Miss. Fed., Brotherhood.

V. Relationships with Other Churches.

1. Lutheran. No other Luth. syn. was as actively involved 1930–60 in promoting intra-Luth. unity on as many fronts. In 1930 the ALC entered into close fellowship of work and worship with 4 other “middle syns.” in The American* Luth. Conf. The 1960 merger of The American* Luth. Ch. grew out of cooperation and fellowship in the conf.

In 1934 the ALC resumed negotiations toward doctrinal unity which its constituent syns. had carried on with the Mo. Syn. before 1930. In 1938 the ALC approved the Mo. Syn. Brief* Statement plus its own appended Declaration as a basis for fellowship. But neither these statements nor the unified Doctrinal Affirmation (1944) brought official doctrinal agreement or fellowship. Despite a 1946 resolution despairing “of attaining Lutheran unity by way of additional doctrinal formulations and reformulations” the ALC was soon back at work with the Mo. Syn. on a new statement, the Common* Confession. By 1956 both syns. had approved it, but fellowship failed to materialize because the ALC was ready to merge with the ELC and the UELC and because of a continuing difference of approach of prerequisites for ch. fellowship.*

Negotiations with the ULC(A) produced the Pittsburgh* Agreement (1940) on Scripture, fellowship, and secret socs. Both syns. adopted the statement, but differences in interpretation of the document's function prevented est. of pulpit and altar fellowship. In 1946 the ALC authorized “selective* fellowship” with Luths. of other syns. who agreed in doctrine and practice with the ALC const. Much local cooperation bet. ALC and ULC(A) congs. ensued. The ALC's 1950 rejection of a proposed merger of all NLC bodies reflected continuing uneasiness over the ULC(A) position on secret socs. and fellowship with non-Luths.

On the wider Luth. scene the ALC prized highly the cooperative work of the NLC. The ALC was represented at the Luth. World. Conv. of 1935 and participated fully in work of the LWF.

2. Non-Lutheran. Strongly isolationist regarding non-Lutherans in 1930, the ALC gradually overcame some of its fear of ecumenical ventures. Its delegates committed it to WCC membership at Amsterdam in 1948, a decision that every subsequent ALC convs. reaffirmed. The ALC belonged to neither the FCCCA nor its more inclusive successor, the NCCCUSA. Yet some ALC bds. used services of NCC agencies. An ALC committee was authorized to study and analyze implications of council membership as prelude to possible decision of membership. Membership in local councils of ministers and chs. was left to cong. decision. Some took an active role in these ventures, but no accurate statistics on degree of participation are available. FWM

See also Intuitu fidei; Lutheran Church in America, II; Lutheran Council in Canada, 2; Minneapolis Theses (1925); National Lutheran Council, 9.

P. H. Buehring, The Spirit of the American Lutheran Church (Columbus, 1940); F. W. Meuser, The Formation of the American Lutheran Church (Columbus, 1958); A. R. Wentz, A Basic History of Lutheranism in America, rev. ed. (Philadelphia, 1964); E. C. Nelson, Lutheranism in North America, 1914–1970 Minneapolis, 1972); The Lutherans in North America, ed. E. C. Nelson et al. (Philadelphia, 1975); Minutes of the biennial conventions 1930–60. Official archives of the ALC are at Wartburg Theol. Sem., Dubuque, Iowa.

American Lutheran Church, The.

Constituting convention met April 22–24, 1960, Minneapolis, Minnesota The ALC, merger of the American* Luth. Ch., The Evangelical* Luth. Ch., and the United Ev. Luth. Ch. (see Danish Lutherans in America, 5–6), began functioning January 1, 1961. The Lutheran* Free Ch. became part of The ALC on February 1, 1963. HQ: 422 S. 5th St., Minneapolis, Minnesota 55415. Pres.; Fredrik Axel Schiotz 1960–70; K. S. Knutson* 1971–73; David W. Preus 1973–.

I. Background.

Though not the 1st merger of syns. with diverse nat. backgrounds, the ALC was the 1st such large-scale combination in Am. It brought together groups that for generations had had strong orientation to Dan., Ger., and Norw. backgrounds in language and to a degree in patterss of piety. As evidence of Americanization of these originally for.-language groups, the merger was a major event in Am. Luth. hist.

The ALC grew out of the close assoc. of these syns. in the American* Luth. Conf. Cooperative ventures 1930–50 paved the way for consideration of merger. Inasmuch as all the conf. syns. were also in the NLC, there were 2 possible avenues to further unity. In 1949 the Augustana Luth. Ch. (see Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church) proposed an all-NLC merger, and the UELC a merger of the conf. syns. In 1950 the ALC, ELC, and UELC approved the latter plan and rejected the more inclusive merger, partially at least because they wanted discussion of doctrinal and practical issues to precede any merger with syns. outside the conf. The Augustana Luth. Ch. (a conf. mem.) and the ULC(A) (nonconf.), convinced that there were no unsolved important issues, continued to advocate the larger merger. Yet the Augustana Luth. Ch. helped plan for the conf. merger till 1952, withdrawing then because the merger was not inclusive enough and because it feared that ecumenical relationships would not receive adequate attention.

As evidence of unified approach to doctrine and ch. life the conf. syns. adopted United* Testimony on Faith and Life in 1952. A Joint Union Committee (1951–60) worked out merger details and a structure for the new ch. Its reports to the 1954, 1956, 1958, and 1960 conventions were approved by overwhelming majorities except in the LFC, where referendums in 1955 and 1957 failed by narrow margins. In 1961 an LFC referendum approved merger. On February 1, 1963, the LFC became part of The ALC. A few LFC congs protested the merger and continued independently as The Association* of Free Luth. Congs.

II. Doctrinal Basis and Spirit.

1. Scripture. The ch. accepts the Scriptures “as a whole and in all their parts as the divinely inspired, revealed and inerrant Word of God, and submits to this as the only infallible authority in all matters of faith and life.” (Const.)

2. Confessions. “As brief and true statements of the doctrines of the Word of God, the Church accepts and confesses the following symbols, subscription to which shall be required of all its members, both congregations and individuals: (1) the ancient ecumenical creeds: the Apostolic, the Nicene, and the Athanasian; (2) the unaltered Augsburg Confession and Luther's Small Catechism. As further elaboration of and in accord with these Lutheran Symbols, the Church also receives the other documents in the Book of Concord.… The American Lutheran Church accepts without reservation the symbolical books of the evangelical Lutheran Church, not insofar as but because they are the presentation and explanation of the pure doctrine of the Word of God and a summary of the faith of the evangelical Lutheran Church.” (Const.)

3. Spirit. The United Testimony, like the const., accepts the Bible as inspired and infallible revelation and the “inerrant and completely adequate source and norm of Christian doctrine and life” but also rejects “all rationalizing processes which would explain away either the divine or the human factor in the Bible.” The United Testimony also: (1) decries separatistic spirit which ignores the existence of other Christian churches, (2) recognizes necessity of evangelism within the ch. as well as in the “world,” (3) notes hist. variety of worship forms within its constituency, reminds members that liturgy is a reflection of doctrine, and commends current concern for liturgical uniformity while warning against equating form with faith, (4) encourages lay activity, including lay preaching, when it has approval of the proper authority, (5) notes diversity of conviction in regard to some forms of amusement, dress, food, and beverages.

III. Size and Structure.

At the time of merger, The ALC had 4,941 congs., 4,884 clergymen, 2,306,780 bap. mems., 1,509,174 confirmed mems. Heaviest concentration of membe-rship is in Upper Midwest, esp. Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, Iowa. 1960 property valuation: $514,699,668.

Although the const. ascribes “basic authority” as part of the ministry of Word and sacrament to the cong., it refrains from calling congs. sovereign, indep. units. Membership implies voluntary cong. participation in full work of the ch. Highest legislative authority is vested in the biennial gen. conv. of ca. 1,000 delegates, of whom ca. half are laymen. The Ch. Council, with clergy and lay representation from all districts, has special responsibility for spiritual welfare of the ch., the Bd. of Trustees for its bus. affairs. Together these 2 groups constitute the Joint Council, with power to act (legislate) in emergency situations between conventions.

The original 19 districts (each divided into conferences) were reduced to 18 when the Can. District became constitutionally operative January 1, 1967, as The Ev. Luth. Ch. of Can. (see Canada, A 26).

IV. Work.

Fields of work outside the US have included Brazil, Cameroun, Colombia, Ethiopia, Hong Kong, India, Jap., Madagascar, New Guines, Nigeria, S Afr., and Taiwan. See also Tokai Evangelical Lutheran Church.

In higher educ. the ch. supports 11 colleges and universities: Augsburg, Augustana, California Luth., Capital, Conc., Dana, Luther, Pacific Luth., St. Olaf, Texas Luth., Wartburg; Waldorf (Jr.) Coll., Forest City, Iowa; Oak Grove Luth. High School, Fargo, N. Dakota. Sems.: The Ev. Luth. Theol. Sem., Columbus, Ohio; Luther Theol. Sem., St. Paul, Minnesota; Wartburg Theol. Sem., Dubuque, Iowa; Pacific Lutheran Theol. Sem., Berkeley, California.

Schools of nursing: Fairview Hosp., Minneapolis, Minnesota; Luth. Deaconess Hosp., Minneapolis, Minnesota; Luth. Gen. and Deaconess Hosp., Park Ridge, Illinois.

Official pub.: The Lutheran Standard, pub. by Augsburg Pub. House, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

V. Affiliations and Relationships.

1. With Other Lutherans. The merger conv. continued the affiliations that all the syns. had with the NLC and LWF. The same conv. declared “willingness to enter into discussions looking toward pulpit and altar fellowship with any and all Lutheran Churches which confess their adherence to the Holy Scriptures as the Word of God in all matters of faith and life and subscribe to the Confessions of the Lutheran Church,” and it encouraged congs. to cooperate in worship and work with congs. of other Luth. syns. wherever there is agreement in confession and practice. In 1962 The ALC and the LCMS invited the LCA to discuss achievement of full fellowship, but the LCA Joint Commission declined until the three agree on the exact nature of a new cooperative agency to replace the NLC. The ALC and the LCMS est. fellowship with each other 1969.

2. With non-Lutherans. Membership of the merged ch. in the WCC was a provision of the Articles of Union. To give opponents a fair hearing WCC membership was reevaluated in print and debate 1960–62. At the 1962 conv. WCC membership was reaffirmed.

Officially the ALC neither encourages nor restricts membership in local councils of chs. and ministerial assocs. United Testimony (1952) opened the door to such affiliation: “So long as witness can be borne to the truth as we see it in Christ, a measure of outward fellowship may be enjoyed even with such as differ with us in the apprehension of certain aspects of the truth.” United Testimony also affirms the Galesburg* Rule as correct guiding principle. FWM

See also Fellowship, B; Interim Eucharistic Sharing; Lutheran Council in the United States of America, I.

Handbook of the A. L. C. (1960); Report of the Joint Union Committee (1958, 1960); Reports and Actions of the A. L. C. (1962); R. C. Gremmels, Unity Begins with You (Columbus, 1958); Documents of Lutheran Unity in America, ed. R. C. Wolf. (Philadelphia, 1966).

VI. Districts.

Districts (see III) were organized bet. April 1960 and January 1961 as mergers and/or realignments of divisions of the former ALC, ELC, and UELC. The LFC was integrated after February 1963. WGT

VII. Merged 1987 with the Associations* of Evangelical Lutheran Churches and the Lutheran* Church in America to form the Evangelical* Lutheran Church in America. Dissenting mems. of The ALC and others moved immediately (April 30–May 1, 1987) at Bloomington, Minnesota, toward formation of an alternative body, The American Association of Lutheran Churches (TAALC); constituting conv. held November 5–7, 1987,

American Lutheran Conference, The.

1. Recognition of unity and a sense of fellowship transcending nationalistic lines were expressed in forming this 1930 fed. of the ALC, Augustana Syn., ELC, LFC, and UELC. Its strength lay in upper Miss. valley among 2d- and 3d-generation descendants of Norw., Ger., Swed., and Dan. immigrants. In 1960 The American* Luth. Ch. grew out of this fed.

2. Doctrinal basis of the Am. Luth. Conf.: the 1925 Minneapolis* Theses, drawn up by syn. representatives at a colloquium in Minneapolis submitted for adoption to the bodies designated above. Inc. are 8 points of doctrine quoted from the 1919 Chicago* Theses, adopted by some of the bodies 1920. On this basis these bodies voted to est. pulpit and altar fellowship with one another, individually adopted the proposed const. of the Am. Luth. Conf., and through their delegates organized as The Am. Luth. Conf. October 29–31, 1930, at Minneapolis, Minnesota Documents are in January 1941 issue of Journal of Theology of the Am. Luth. Conf.

3. The spirit and purpose of the organizers is expressed in this quotation from the preamble of the const.: “In the providence of God, the time appears to have come when Lutheran church bodies in America that are one in faith and that have declared pulpit and altar fellowship with one another should manifest their oneness by seeking to foster fraternal relations and by cooperating in the extension of the kingdom of Christ. These church bodies believe that it is conducive to the attainment of these objectives to enter into an organization.” Objectives stated in the const. are: “1. Mutual counsel concerning the faith, life, and work of the Church. 2. Cooperation in matters of common interest and responsibility.…” Power was limited, each constituent body retaining autonomy; only such functions as were specifically assigned to the conf. by its constituent bodies could be exercised by it. Convs. were held every 2 yrs., with representation based on communicant mems. and consisting of an equal no. of pastors and laymen. Most work bet. convs. was done by commissions under direction of the Ex Committee.

4. Perhaps the most tangible project sponsored by the conf. was Student Service. Careful coordination of efforts by constituent bodies led to growing unification of the work and consultation with the Bd. of Educ. of the ULC(A). In 1944 the conf. authorized unification of this enterprise and transfer of its direction to the NLC. See also Students, Spiritual Care of, B 4.

5. A Commission on Luth. Unity studied intersyn. relations and sought both to strengthen internal ties and to facilitate closer relationships with other Luth. bodies. An effort in this direction was the Overture* for Lutheran Unity, pub. in January 1944.

6. The conf. sponsored biennial, all-Luth, seminars which brought together pastors of Luth. bodies gen. in selected key cities.

7. Current soc. problems were studied and pertinent statements formulated by the Commission on Soc. Relations.

8. The Commission on Christian Higher Educ., Elementary or Parish Educ., and Youth Work enabled constituent bodies to share research and promotion and to coordinate activities.

9. The Commission on Common Liturgy made efforts to achieve uniformity of forms of pub. worship and a common hymnal.

10. The last official pub. of the conf. was The Lutheran Outlook.

11. Total bap. membership of the Am. Luth. Conf.: 2,465,839 (1954). Pres.: Otto Mees, 1930–34; T. F. Gullixson,* 1934–38; Ernest E. Ryden, 1938–42; Harold L. Yochum, 1942–46; Laurence M. Stavig, 1946–50; Oscar A. Benson, 1950–52; Sigfrid E. Engstrom, 1952–54. The conf. dissolved 1954. HLY

Journal of the American Lutheran Conference; Journal of Theology; The Lutheran Outlook; The Lutheran World Almanac and Encyclopedia 1934–1937, comp. G. L. Kieffer et al., ed. R. H. Long et al. (New York, 1937); A. R. Wentz, A Basic History of Lutheranism in America, rev. ed. (Philadelphia, 1964); F. W. Meuser, The Formation of the American Lutheran Church (Columbus, Ohio, 1958); E. C. Nelson, Lutheranism in North America 1914–1970 (Minneapolis, 1972); The Lutherans in North America, ed. E. C. Nelson et al. (Philadelphia, 1975). See also bibliographies under articles on chs. comprising the Am. Luth. Conf..

“American Lutheranism.”

Movement about the middle of the 19th c. aimed at accommodating Lutheranism to its Am. environment. A reaction to the surge of Luth. confessionalism in Ger. and Am., it was an attempt to provide for greater fusion of Am. Lutheranism with the Puritanic and Methodistic ethos of Am. It resulted in part from revivalistic and reform movements of first half of 19th c.

Beginnings can be traced to 1844, when the Maryland Syn. (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 11) resolved to prepare “Abstract of Doctrines and Practices of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Maryland.” B. Kurtz* was very influential in the preparation of the document; yet it was not accepted by the Maryland Syn. Then a resolution of the Gen. Syn. (see General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America, The) instructed a committee to formulate a “clear and concise view of the doctrines and practices of the American Lutheran Church.” S. S. Schmucker* was chm. of the com.; the report was rejected by the Gen. Syn. In 1853 the Pennsylvania Ministerium (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 22) was readmitted to the Gen. Syn., adding another confessional voice to this body. In 1855 the Definite* Synodical Platform appeared.

Besides Kurtz and Schmucker, S. Sprecher* was a chief advocate of this movement. Largely by his influence 3 small Luth. syns. adopted the Definite Synodical Platform. Kurtz was instrumental in organizing the Melanchthon Syn. (see United Lutheran Church in America, The, Synods of, 11). With few followers, the move toward compromise, unionism, and accommodation was defeated.

See also Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, The, V 13; United States, Lutheran Theology in the.

S. S. Schmucker, Elements of Popular Theology, 9th ed., enl. (Philadelphia, 1860); S. Sprecher, The Groundwork of a System of Evangelical Lutheran Theology (Philadelphia, 1879); V. T. A. Ferm, The Crisis in American Lutheran Theology (New York, 1927); C. Mauelshagen, American Lutheranism Surrenders to Forces of Conservatism (Athens, Georgia, 1936). CSM

American Lutheran Publicity Bureau.

Recognizing the need for presenting the Luth. Ch. in its true light to people outside the ch., a group of laymen and pastors of the Mo. Syn. organized the ALPB on January 21, 1914, in the S. S. auditorium of Immanuel Luth. Ch., 88th and Lexington Ave., New York, New York.

The bureau promoted publicity for Luth. churches when publicity was because some frowned on, with assoc. it with screaming sermon topics pub. by sectarian ministers in daily papers and with much that was vulgar and in bad taste in the religious field. At that time the bureau showed ch. people how to carry on publicity in an effective, dignified way. Some of the earliest mediums of communication suggested were posters, road markers, special services, lectures, placement of books in pub. libraries, distribution of Gospel tracts, and pub. of important ch. events in local papers.

The bureau's first Gospel tracts appeared in 1914; in 1915 a resolution was adopted to sponsor a Nat. Luth. Publicity Week; early in 1916 a clipsheet was issued and mailed to newspapers and press agencies; the 1st issue of the American Lutheran appeared in January 1918.

J. F. E. Nickelsburg, engaged part time soon after the organizational meeting in 1914, became fulltime worker in 1916. Some founders and earliest officers: H. P. Eckhardt,* pres.; F. C. Lang, treas.; Paul Lindemann, ex. secy. An office was opened October 1, 1917, on E 62d St., New York. Two Luth. radio broadcasts were presented in July 1922 on the Westinghouse station, Newark, New Jersey.

In offering chs. plans for house-to-house canvassing and for distributing tracts and other invitations, the bureau became important contributory factor in larger outreach of ch.'s miss. work. The bureau was among first to recognize value of radio as means of proclaiming the Gospel. When many pastors were apprehensive of the effect of this new invention on ch. attendance, the bureau urged pastors to ask for radio time for services and sermons, for devotions and other means of “teaching all nations.”

The ALPB developed a gen. program marked by the slogan A Changeless Christ for a Changing World. Specific programs have included a pre-Lent and Lenten “Sharing Christ” plan, Nat. S. S. Week, a Spiritual Life Crusade, Year-Round Ch. Attendance Plan, Easter to Pentecost Ch. Attendance, a Reformation Month program, and distribution of tracts. Lutheran Forum continues The American Lutheran. TW

See also Lamprecht, Theodore Henry; Lutheran Press.

American Rescue Workers.

This branch of the Salvation* Army originated 1882, when Thomas E. Moore, who had come to Am. to superintend the work here, withdrew because of differences with W. Booth in regard to financial administration and began indep. work. The movement was inc. 1884; an amended charter was granted 1885 under the name “Salvation Army of [in?] America.” In 1889 another split led to reunion of some with the parent body; the others continued to follow Moore, who formed an organization 1896 that came in 1913 to be called American Rescue Workers. In gen. doctrine and polity this body is very similar to the Salv. Army except that it is a ch. with the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper, rather than an evangelistic or philanthropic organization. But it does gen. philanthropic work.

American Sunday School Union.

“The First Day or Sunday School Society,” organized in Philadelphia, January 11, 1791, by mems. of various denominations, including the Soc. of Friends,* was 1st Am. gen. S. S. organization. Teachers were paid. New York S. S. Union was organized 1816, Philadelphia Sunday and Adult School Union 1817. The latter in 1824 merged in Am. S. S. Union, which pub. S. S. literature, founds Sunday schools, and distributes Bibles and tracts. See also Sunday School.

Ames, Edward Scribner

(1870–1958). B. Eau Claire, Wisconsin; educ. Drake U. (Des Moines, Iowa), Yale Divinity School (New Haven, Connecticut), U. of Chicago; prof. philos. and pedagogy Butler Coll., Indianapolis, Indiana, 1897–1900; taught philos, till retirement U. of Chicago 1900–35; pastor U. Ch. of Disciples of Christ, Chicago, 1900–40. Works include Psychology of Religious Experience; Divinity of Christ; The Higher Individualism; The New Orthodoxy; Religion; Letters to God and the Devil.

Ames, William

(Wilhelm Amesius; 1576–1633). Calvinist moral theologian and controversialist. B. Ipswich, Suffolk, Eng.; educ. Cambridge; where W. Perkins* was his tutor; strict Puritan; to Holland; prominent in Remonstrant controversies (see Remonstrants); took part in Syn. of Dordrecht 1618; prof. Franeker 1622. Works include Medulla theologica (or theologiae); Bellarminus enervatus; De conscientia, et eius iure, vel casibus.

Amiatinus, Codex.

Leading MS of the Vulgate (see Bible Versions, J 2), written in Eng. ca. 700; used in preparation of the Sistine ed. (1590).

Amling, Wolfgang

(Ambling; Evodius; 1542–1606). B. Münnerstadt, Lower Franconia, Bav.; educ. Jena, Tübingen, and Wittenberg; active as Prot. theol. in Zerbst; opposed Counter Reformation of Würzburg; opposed the FC; helped win much of Anhalt for the Ref. Ch. Wrote Confessio Anhaldina (which remained a private document). See also Reformed Confessions, D 3 d.

Amman, Jacob

(Jakob Ammann; Amen; perhaps ca. 1644 [? Still called young 1693]—before 1730). B. Erlenbach, Simmental, Bern canton, Switz.; Mennonite bp.; espoused strict practice of excommunication. Caused schism in the Mennonite Ch. in Switz. and Alsace (1693–97) by attempts to introd. the 1632 Dordrecht* Confession of Faith; followers called Amish or Amish Mennonites. See also Mennonite Churches, 3 a.

Ammerbach, Elias Nikolaus

(ca. 1530–97). B. Naumburg, Ger.; organist of St. Thomas Ch., Leipzig, 1561–95. Wrote Orgel- oder Instrument-Tabulatur and Ein neu künstlich Tabulaturbuch.

Ammon, Christoph Friedrich von

(1766–1850). B. Bayreuth, Ger.; studied in Erlangen; prof. Erlangen 1789, 1804; Göttingen 1794; chief court preacher Dresden 1813; vice-pres. of consistory there 1835; exponent of rationalismus* vulgaris, to which he returned after defending the theses of C. Harms.* Works include Die Fortbildung des Christentums zur Weltreligion; Summa theologiae christianae; Entwurf einer reinen biblischen Theologie.

Ammonius Saccas

(ca. 175/180–ca. 242). B. Bruchion, near Alexandria, Egypt; taught Plotinus; tried to synthesize Pythagoreanism* and Platonism*; reputed founder of Neoplatonism*; Eusebius* of Caesarea (HE, VI, 19, 5–10) and others describe him as Christian.


Title of a teacher of the Mishna(h), (see Talmud) 250–500.


Ethically neutral state or action.


(ca. 340/345–ca. 394/403). Apparently a cousin of Gregory* of Nazianzus; b. Caesarea Mazaca (modern Kayseri, or Kaisaria), Cappadocia (now in Turkey); studied rhetoric under Libanius* at Antioch; lawyer in Constantinople several yrs.; bp. Iconium, in Lycaonia, 373; in close relationship with the Cappadocian* Theologians; opposed Arianism,* Encratism,* Euchites.*

MPG 39, 9–130.


(Lat. diminutive perhaps from Gk. for “jar with 2 handles”). Vessel, usually vase- or bottle shaped, anciently used for oil and perfumes. Used by Christians in connection with burials and in martyria (see Martyrium).

Amsdorf, Nikolaus von

(Amsdorff; December 3, 1483–May 14, 1565). B. probably Torgau, Ger.; educ. Wittenberg; lectured there on theol. and philos.; canon and rector; friend of M. Luther,* under whose influence he turned from Aristotelianism* to Augustinianism.* With Luther to Leipzig 1519 (see Leipzig Debate), Worms 1521 (see Worms, Diet of). Called to Magdeburg 1524; reformed the city with C. Cruciger the Elder (see Cruciger, 1). Carried the Gospel to Goslar, Einbeck, Meissen, and many other cities. Extensive correspondence with Luther (first mention of “Ein* feste Burg” 1527). John* Frederick appointed him bp. of Naumburg-Zeitz 1542 because he was gifted, learned, of noble birth, and without a wife. Expelled from Naumburg as a result of the upshot of the battle of Mühlberg 1547, he went to Weimar; helped found university at Jena and took charge of the Jena ed. of Luther's works, which was to improve the Wittenberg ed.; fled to Magdeburg, where he joined other in opposing the Interim (see Interim, II); held an important position in Eisenach. See also Majoristic Controversy; Osiandrian Controversy; Synergistic Controversy. WGT

O. Lerche, Amsdorf und Melanchthon (Berlin, 1937); O. H. Nebe, Reine Lehre: Zur Theologie des Niklas von Amsdorff (Göttingen, 1935); W. G. Tillmanns, The World and Men Around Luther (Minneapolis, 1959), pp. 86–90; T. Pressel, Nicolaus von Amsdorf, in Leben und ausgewählte Schriften der Väter und Begründer der lutherischen Kirche, ed. J. Hartmann et al., VIII, part 5, in vol. 4, bound with his Justus Jonas (Elberfeld, 1862); E. J. Meier, “Nicolaus von Amsdorf's Leben,” Das Leben der Altväter der lutherischen Kirche, III, ed. M. Meurer et al. (Leipzig and Dresden, 1863), 105–270.

Amsterdam Assembly.

The meeting August 22–September 4, 1948, that constituted the World* Council of Chs.


Objects, or charms, believed to have magic* power to bring their wearers good fortune or protect him from harm. Their use has been almost universal among pagans at all times. Massive pagan influx brought them into the 4th-c. ch. Though they were denounced (e.g., by J. Chrysostom,* Homily IV on 1 Co, section 11, Homily III on 1 Thess, on chap. 3; Homily VIII on Cl, on 3:15; Canon 36 of the Syn. of Laodicea*), their use survived under Christian coloring. Relics* enclosed in cases, called phylacteries, were worn as potent protectors; holy* water, blessed salt,* consecrated wafers (see Altar Bread), etc. were carried on the person. Contact with the E during the Crusades* multiplied the talismans and charms. See also Africa, A 3; Talisman.

Amundsen, Ove Valdemar

(1875–1936). B. Nörre Felding, Jutland (Jylland), Den.; prof. ch. hist. Copenhagen 1901–23; bp. Haderslev 1923; active in practical ch. work; pres. World* Alliance for Promoting International Friendship Through the Churches 1935. Works include writings on the Luth. Reformation, S. Kierkegaard,* soc. Christianity, and (during WW I) war and the Christian.

Amyraut, Moïse

(Moses Amyraldus; 1596–1664). Liberal Calvinist; b. Bourgueil, Touraine, Fr.; studied theol. at Saumur* under John Cameron* (d. 1625); pastor at Saint-A(i)gnan and Saumur; prof. Saumur 1633. In the doctrine of predestination* he tried to harmonize universalism* and particularism.* Tried to reconcile Luths. and Calvinists. Had many followers in colonial New England. Works include paraphrases of various books of the NT and of Psalms. Views called Amyraldism. Followers called Amyraldists. See also Arminianism; Double Reference Theory of the Atonement.

Edited by: Erwin L. Lueker, Luther Poellot, Paul Jackson
©Concordia Publishing House, 2000, All rights Reserved. Reproduced with Permission

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